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Section 13.1 Uniquely Water
Section 13.2 Solutions and Their Properties

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Section 13.1
Uniquely Water
Describe the uniqueness of water as a
chemical substance.
Model the three-dimensional geometry of a
water molecule.
Relate the physical properties of water to its
molecular structure.
Section 13.1
Uniquely Water
interparticle forces: the forces between the
particles that make up a substance
Section 13.1
Uniquely Water
hydrogen bonding
surface tension
capillarity
specific heat
The molecular shape of water gives it
its unusual properties.
Section 13.1
Physical Properties of Water
Water behaves differently from other
substances.
Section 13.1
Physical Properties of Water (cont.)
Water is the only substance on Earth that
exists in large quantities in all three
common states of matter.
Unlike most substances, water is less dense
as a solid.
Section 13.1
Physical Properties of Water (cont.)
There is a large electronegativity difference
between the covalently bonded hydrogen
and oxygen.
Section 13.1
Interparticle Forces in Water
Attractive forces between objects do not create
interactions between just two objects.
Water molecules have such
strong electrical forces that
they will orient themselves
like magnets, with the
opposite poles of different
magnets pulled toward one
another.
Section 13.1
Interparticle Forces in Water (cont.)
The hydrogen bonds between water molecules
are stronger than typical dipole-dipole
attractions because the bond between
hydrogen and oxygen is highly polar.
Section 13.1
Interparticle Forces in Water (cont.)
The formation of a connection between the
hydrogen atoms on one molecule and a
highly electronegative atom on another is
called hydrogen bonding.
Section 13.1
Interparticle Forces in Water (cont.)
Any molecule that has
OH bonds has the
potential to form
hydrogen bonds.
Section 13.1
Many of the unique properties of water are
due to the hydrogen bonding that occurs
between water molecules.
States of Water
Section 13.1
States of Water (cont.)
Section 13.1
The interparticle hydrogen bonds hold the
water molecules together so strongly that it
is difficult for them to escape into a
gaseous state, which is why water has
such a high boiling point.
States of Water (cont.)
Section 13.1
The density of water changes as its
temperature changes.
As water cools from 60C, its volume
decreases and its density increases.
States of Water (cont.)
Section 13.1
Water reaches its minimum volume and its
maximum density at about 4C.
States of Water (cont.)
Section 13.1
A water molecule forms a drop because of
surface tension, which is the force
needed to overcome
interparticle attractions
and break through the
surface of a liquid or
spread the liquid out.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces
Section 13.1
The higher the surface tension, the more
resistant the liquid is to having its surface
broken.
liquid mercury becoming round beads when
placed on a smooth surface
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
Capillarity results from interparticle
attractive forces between the molecules of
liquid and the attractive forces between the
liquid and the tube that contains it.
the rising of liquids in
narrow tubes
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
If the water in the cylinder has too much
mass, the liquid surface forms a concave
meniscus shape.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
Specific heat measures the amount of
heat, in joules, needed to raise the
temperature of 1 g of substance by 1C.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
Water has the highest specific heat
because it must absorb or release more
heat for its temperature to change by one
Celsius degree.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
Water serves as a great heat reservoir that
moderates the temperature at Earths
surface.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
extreme temperatures in the desert
Section 13.1
Vaporization of a liquid is an endothermic
(energy-absorbing) process.
Condensation is an exothermic
(energy-releasing) process.
Water has a high heat of vaporization and
loses a great deal of heat when it condenses.
More Evidence for Waters
Interparticle Forces (cont.)
Section 13.1
Most of the water on Earth is not pure but
present in solutions.
Water is known as the universal solvent.
The attraction of water molecules for other
molecules, as well as for one another,
accounts for waters solvent properties.
Water: the universal solvent
Section 13.1
Section Assessment
___ is the only substance on Earth that
exists in large quantities in all three
common states of matter.
A. Hydrogen
B. Oxygen
C. Iron
D. Water
Section 13.1
Section Assessment
What other biological molecules have the
ability to form hydrogen bonds?
A. proteins
B. nucleic acids
C. carbohydrates
D. all of the above
End of Section 13.1
Section 13.2
Solutions and Their Properties
Compare and contrast the ability of water to
dissolve ionic and covalent compounds.
Determine the concentrations of solutions.
Compare and contrast colligative properties
of solutions.
Section 13.2
Solutions and Their Properties
capillarity: the rising of a liquid in a narrow
tube, sometimes called capillary action
Section 13.2
Solutions and Their Properties
dissociation
unsaturated solution
saturated solution
supersaturated
solution
heat of solution
osmosis
colloid
Tyndall effect
Water dissolves a large number of ionic
and covalent compounds.
Section 13.2
The Dissolving Process
The submicroscopic interactions of water
with solute particles determine the extent to
which water is able to dissolve the solute.
The process by which the charged particles in
an ionic solid separate from one another is
called dissociation.
Ionic substances conduct electricity because
there are free electrons in the solution.
Free electrons allow conduction of electricity.
Section 13.2
The Dissolving Process (cont.)
Section 13.2
The Dissolving Process (cont.)
When a covalent compound is dissolved in
water, the covalent molecules are simply
separated from one another and remain
neutral.
Section 13.2
The Dissolving Process (cont.)
Sugar dissolved in
water is a
nonconductor.
No ions are present,
so there are no free
electrons to conduct
an electric charge.
Sugar stays in the
molecular form.
Section 13.2
The Dissolving Process (cont.)
Dissolving occurs when similarities exist
between the solvent and the solute.
Like dissolves like
Ionic salts dissolve in water because both
salts and water are polar.

Oil and water are not similar and do not mix
because oil is nonpolar and water is polar.
Section 13.2
The concentration of a solution is the
relative amount of solute and solvent.
Solution Concentrate
A concentrated solution has more solute
than solvent.
Frozen concentrated orange juice has more
orange because the water has been
removed.
A diluted solution has more solvent that
solute.
Water is added to concentrated orange
juice to make it dilute.

Section 13.2
If the amount of solute dissolved is less
than the maximum that could be dissolved,
the solution is an unsaturated solution.
Solubility changes with temperature.
At higher temperatures, usually, more
solute will dissolve in solvent.
If a crystal of solute is dropped into an
unsaturated solution, the crystal will
dissolve.
Solution Concentrate (cont.)
Section 13.2
A solution that holds the maximum amount of
solute per amount of the solution is called a
saturated solution.
Solubility changes with temperature.
At higher temperatures, usually, more solute
will dissolve in solvent.
If a crystal of solute is dropped into a
saturated solution, the crystal will fall to the
bottom of the container and will not dissolve.


Solution Concentrate (cont.)
Section 13.2
A supersaturated solution is an unstable
solution containing more solute than the
usual maximum.
Supersaturated solutions are prepared by
heating a substance until the solute is
dissolved, then cooling slowly without
disturbing the solution.
If a crystal of solute is dropped into a
supersaturated solution, the crystal will
disturb the stability of the solution, and all the
extra solute will fall out of solution at one
time.


Solution Concentrate (cont.)
Section 13.2
Temperature has a
significant effect on
solubility for most
solvents.
As you can see,
most solutions
increase solubility
as temperature is
increased.
Which salt in the
graph did not follow
this pattern?
Solution Concentrate (cont.)
Section 13.2
A solution always has a lower freezing
point than the corresponding pure solvent.
An ionic solute produces
a lower freezing point
than a covalent one
because it dissociates
into ions.
This is called freezing
point depression.
Example: salt on icy
roads.
Solution Properties and Applications
Section 13.2
The boiling point of a solution is higher
than the boiling point of the pure solvent.
An ionic solute produces a higher boiling
point than a covalent one because it
dissociates into ions.
This is called boiling point elevation.
Example: adding salt to water to cook foods
more quickly.

Solution Properties and Applications (cont.)
Section 13.2
Solution Properties and Applications (cont.)
The flow of solvent molecules through a
selectively permeable membrane, driven by
concentration difference, is called osmosis.
Section 13.2
The solubility of gas in a liquid depends on
the pressure of the gas pushing down on
the liquid and the temperature.
Solutions of Gases in Water
Section 13.2
The higher the pressure, the more soluble
is the gas.
As temperature increases, the solubility
decreases.
This is why soda kept cold keeps its fizz
longer, and why warm soda becomes flat
more quickly.
Solutions of Gases in Water (cont.)
Section 13.2
Colloids are mixtures that contain particles
that are evenly distributed through a
dispersing medium and do not settle out
over time.
The main difference between a colloid and
a solution is the size of the solute particles.
Solutions of Gases in Water (cont.)
The Tyndall effect is the scattering effect
caused when light passes through a colloid.
Air is a colloid, so light will scatter in it.
Think of a projector light in a theater, or
headlights through fog.

Section 13.2
1. How might rubbing and scrubbing with soap
help to remove a greasy stain from clothing?
Rubbing and scrubbing break down the
grease into smaller droplets. The surfactant
(soap or detergent) is then able to surround
each grease particle with a thin layer,
separating it from the clothing and making it
easier to wash away.
Everyday Chemistry (page 455)
Section 13.2
2. Some ancient people, such as the Egyptians
and Romans, washed by rubbing themselves
with oil, which was then scraped off. Compare
the effectiveness of this method with the use of
soap and water today.
Washing with oil is almost as effective as
washing with soap.
Oil and dirt on the body would dissolve in the
washing oil.
The main difficulty would be in removing the
wash oil completely from the skin.

Everyday Chemistry (page 455)
Section 13.2
Section Assessment
A ___ solution has more solvent that
solute.
A. diluted
B. concentrated
C. versatile
D. diffused
Section 13.2
Section Assessment
Which solution is the most unstable?
A. unsaturated
B. saturated
C. supersaturated
Study Guide 1
Key Concepts
The polarity of the water molecule is the source of
many of waters unusual physical properties.
Hydrogen bonds form between the hydrogen atoms
of one molecule and a highly electronegative atom of
another.
Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise
the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1C.
Study Guide 2
Key Concepts
Like dissolves like.
Interparticle forces between solvent and solute
strongly influence solution formation.
Ionic compounds dissociate when they dissolve
in water.
Solutions can be unsaturated, saturated, or
supersaturated.
Study Guide 2
Key Concepts
Temperature affects solubility.
Molarity is the number of moles of solute
dissolved per liter of solution.
Colligative properties of solutions, such as
freezing-point depression and boiling-point
elevation, are dependent only
upon concentration of solute particles.
Chapter Assessment 1
Many of the unique properties of water
are due to:
A. the attractive forces between the nucleus
and electrons
B. the oxygen bonding between water
molecules
C. its density
D. hydrogen bonding between water
molecules
Chapter Assessment 2
What causes liquid mercury to form
rounded beads on a smooth surface?
A. low electronegativity
B. the temperature of the surface
C. capillary action
D. surface tension
Chapter Assessment 3
The oceans of Earth are examples of what
kind of solutions?
A. unsaturated
B. saturated
C. supersaturated
Chapter Assessment 4
For most solutes, the process of
dissolving in a solvent is a(n) ___
process.
A. saturation
B. electronegative
C. endothermic
D. exothermic
Chapter Assessment 5
___ is the number of moles of solute per
liter of solution.
A. Molarity
B. Heat of solution
C. Dissociation
D. Capillarity
STP 1
Water forms a concave meniscus and
mercury produces a convex meniscus.
A. true
B. false
STP 2
Which substance has the highest specific
heat?
A. ethanol
B. water
C. wood
D. gold
STP 3
Adding salt to water does what to the
boiling point?
A. It raises the boiling point.
B. It lowers the boiling point.
C. It does not affect the boiling point.
STP 4
The main difference between a colloid
and a solution is:
A. the size of the solute particles
B. the molarity of the solute
C. the saturation of the solute
D. the temperature of the solvent
STP 5
The freezing point of a solution is always
___ than the corresponding pure solvent.
A. lower
B. higher
C. the same as
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Table 13.1 The Uniqueness of Water
Figure 13.15 Dissolution of compounds
Figure 13.28 Osmosis
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