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Examples of embedded system

Keyboard
Printer
Mp3 Music player
Video game player
Domestic appliances
A.C.
calculator
Mobile phone units


Embedded system
embedded system Microcontroller


8051 microcontroller PIC AVR ARM

PIC-Peripheral Interface controller
AVR-advance virtual RISC
ARM-Advance Risk Machine
Microcontroller
A smaller computer
On-chip RAM,ROM,I/O ports
Example: -Motorolas 6811,Intel 8051,PIC

Microprocessors Microcontrollers
1 It is only a general purpose
computer CPU
It is a micro computer itself
2 Memory, I/O ports, timers,
interrupts are not available
inside the chip
All are integrated inside the
microcontroller chip
3 Systems become bulkier and
expensive.
Make the system simple,
economic and compact
4 Not capable for handling
Boolean functions
Handling Boolean functions
5 Higher accessing time
required
Low accessing time
6 Very few pins are
programmable
Most of the pins are
programmable
7 Widely Used in modern
PC and laptops
widely in small control systems
E.g. INTEL 8086,INTEL Pentium
series
INTEL8051,89960,PIC16F877
light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device (LED chip) that
emits visible light when an electric current passes through it - essentially it
converts eletricity into light. When one or more LED's are combined with an
electrical driver and placed in a housing unit, you have a complete LED
system.
LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including:
lower energy consumption,
longer lifetime,
improved physical robustness,
smaller size, and faster switching.
Light-emitting diodes are now used in applications as :
general lighting
traffic signals, and camera flashes.

Identification of led
Interfacing with microcontroller 8051
Seven-Segment Display
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment
indicator, is a form of electronic display device for
displaying decimal numbers(0-9),alphabets .
Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks,
electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying
numerical information
.
Seven-Segment Display
In a simple LED package, typically all of the cathodes
(negative terminals) or all of the anodes (positive terminals)
of the segment LEDs are connected and brought out to a
common pin; this is referred to as a "common cathode" or
"common anode" device.

Seven-Segment Display
There are two type of 7-segment lcd digital display:
Common cathode display(ccd):
All cathodes are common and ground is
being provided.
Common anode display(ccd):
All anodes are common and Vcc is being provided.

CAD

CCD
ON=0 ON=1
OFF=1 OFF=0

Seven-Segment Display
Seven-segment interfacing
Liquid crystal display(lcd)
Lcd contents :
HD44780LCD
Cheap and easy way to display text no. ,letters and fixed
symbols.
Various configuration:
1line,2line and 4line.
Data lines(DB7-BD0) used to transfer data and commands.
Types:
Normal lcd
example: watches
Liquid crystal display(lcd)
Graphical lcd
Example: laptop, PC lcd.
Types of Memories:
DDRAM: Data Display RAM store data
represented in 8-bit character code.
CGRAM(character generator RAM):In CGRAM ,the user can
rewrite character pattern by program.
In lcd instruction register is used to send command to lcd.
example: lcd clear command
Data register is used for storing data which is to be
displayed on lcd.
Liquid crystal display(lcd)
Pin Description of LCD
Pin no. Symbol details
1
GND Ground
2
Vcc Supply voltage +5v
3
VEE Contrast adjust
4
Rs
0 = control i/p
5
R/W
1-= data o/p
Read /write
6
E enable
7-14
D0 D7 data
15
VB1
Backlight +5V
16
vb2
Backlight Ground
Lcd interfacing with 8051
IR remote control system
IC used:555 IC
Also called timer IC
TSOP(thin small outline package):work with IR in Rx circuit
Pin diagram:
IR remote control system
Ckt. Diagram:
DTMF based home controller
DTMF: Dual Tone Multiple Frequency
Used for mobile phone
Developed in Bell lab in 1963
IC used :MT 8870 IC

RF Module
RF module ,as the name suggest ,operate on radio frequency.
Frequency Range:-30KHz- 300KHz
In RF system, the digital data is represented as variation in
the amplitude of carrier wave .This kind of modulation is
ASK.
RF Tx is better than IR Tx.
RF module is the combination of an RF transmitter and
RF receiver. RF Tx/Rx pair operate at 434 MHz
frequency.
Data Tx rate:-1Kbps -10Kbps
RF module provide wireless communication

RF Module
RF Tx RF Rx
Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use
an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism
mechanically.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to
directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a
contactor.

Relay
Operating voltage:- +5v to +12v
Application: Telephone Exchanges, Digital computer,
Automation system
Buffer IC: ULN 2803 or Relay Driver IC


Types of Relay
Single pole single through(SPST)
Single pole double through(SPDT)
Double pole single through (DPST)
Single pole double through(DPDT)