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CAMBRIDGE SECONDARY

ONE SCIENCE
CHAPTER 3: VARIATION AND INHERITANCE
3.1 KEYS
A key is a method of identifying an
unknown organism.
A key is a set of questions or statements
about the organism you want to identify,
which you work through in sequence to
find the name of the organism.

3.1 KEYS
3.1 KEYS
Does it have
legs?
Yes
Does it have more
than six legs?
Yes
Crab
No
Does it have four
wings?
Yes
Dragonfly
No
Housefly
No
Is its body made
up of rings?
Yes
Earthworm
No
Slug
3.1 KEYS
Some keys are arranged differently and
are given two statements at each step for
you to choose. The choice you made
leads to another pair of choices.


Step Descriptions Next step/ Identity
1 Has legs 2
Does not have legs 3
2 Has six legs 4
Has more than six legs Crab
3 Body is made up of rings Earthworm
Body is not made up of rings Slug
4 Has four wings Dragonfly
Has two wings Housefly
3.2 VARIATION
A species is a group of organisms that
share common characteristics and can
interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
No two individuals of the same species
are exactly alike. The differences between
individuals within a species are called
variation.
3.2 VARIATION
All of these snails are of the same species but they show variation
3.2 VARIATION
Causes of
variation

Genes

Environment
3.3 INHERITANCE
Inheritance is the passing of characteristics
from parents to their offspring.
Genes are passed down from parents to
offspring. Genes provide a set of
instructions that determine some of the
characteristics of an organism.
Half of your genes come from your father
and half from your mother. Therefore,
children have characteristics from both
parents.

3.3 INHERITANCE
Examples of characteristics determined by
genes:
(i) Sex
(ii) Hair colour
(iii) Blood group
3.3 INHERITANCE
Characteristics affected by genes: Sex, hair colour and blood group
3.3 INHERITANCE
In each generation, children inherit genes from both of their parents
3.3 INHERITANCE
The environment also determines the
characteristics of an organism.
Characteristics determined by genes
are affected by genes too.
Examples of characteristics determined
by the environment:
(i) Body weight
(ii) Height
(iii) Intelligence
3.3 INHERITANCE
Characteristics affected by environment: Body weight, height and intelligence
3.4MORE ABOUT INHERITANCE
Genes are found on chromosomes in the
nucleus of a cell.
Genes and chromosomes