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Ant Colony Optimization

Quadratic Assignment Problem

Hernan AGUIRRE, Adel BEN HAJ YEDDER,


Andre DIAS and Pascalis RAPTIS

Problem Leader: Marco


DorigoLeader:
Team Marc
Schoenauer
Quadratic Assignment Problem

• Assign n facilities to n locations


– Distances between locations
– Flows between facilities known

• Goal Minimize sum flow x distance

• TSP is a particular case of QAP


– Models many real world problems

• “NP-hard” problem
QAP Example
Facilities
Location
s biggest flow: A -
B

How to assign facilities to


locations ?

Higher Lower cost


cost
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)
• Ant Algorithms
– Inspired by observation of real ants

• Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)


– Inspiration from ant colonies’ foraging
behavior (actions of the colony finding
food)
– Colony of cooperating individuals
– Pheromone trail for stigmergic
communication
– Sequence of moves to find shortest paths
– Stochastic decision using local information
Ant Colony Optimization for
QAP
• Pheromone laying facilities-
location
assignment
• Basic ACO
algorithm
1st improvemen
• Local Search
best t
Ant Colony Optimization for
QAP
• Basic ACO
algorithm
Actions
Strategies

Choosing a Facility heuristic
P(pheromone

Choosing a Location
, heuristic)

Pheromone Update (solution
quality)
Ant Colony Optimization for
QAP

• How important search guidance is?


Test problems

tai12a tai50a kra30a


Type of random random Real-life
problem
Size 12 50 30

• 12 facilities/positions should be easy to solve!


• What behavior with real life problems?
• QAP solved to optimality up to 30
Parameters for ACO: 500 ants, evaporation
=0.9
Results: tai12a

• Without local search convergence to


local minimum

NOT ALWAYS the optimum


Heuristic   gets better minimun

• With local search: always converges to


optimum

Very quickly
Results: Real Life - Kra30a

No LS With LS
No Heuristic Converges local Optimum
minimum Avg.12 iterations

72 % optimum

With Converges local Optimum


heuristic minimum Avg.10 iterations

70% optimum
Future Work
Choosing a Facility
• Different strategies
Choosing a Location
Pheromone Update

• Remain fixed, all ants use the


same!
• Performance of strategies
variesProblem
Stage of the search

Co-
Let the ants
evolution
Conclusions

Great Summer
School!

The ants did find their way to the


Beach
Pool
Beer
Ants Path
Facilities
Location
s biggest flow: A -
B

Pat Pat
h h
(1,A) (1,C)
| |
(2,B) (2,B)
| |
(3,C) Higher Lower cost (3,A)
cost