You are on page 1of 15

Dr Vishwanath Prabhu

Anatomical position and its importance.


Its a universal position.
Body is erect with feet together and upper
limbs hanging at the sides ,palms of the
hands facing forward, thumbs facing away
from the body and fingers extended.
Planes of Motion and Axes Of Rotation.
Three cardinal planes
a) Sagital Plane-divides the body or structure
into right and left.
b) Frontal plane-divides the body into front
and back or anterior posterior portions.
C) Transverse plane-divides the body or
structure into superior inferior or upper
segment and lower segment.
Centre Of Gravity , Line of Gravity and
Postural Alignment.
Its a theoretical point where weight force of
the object can be considered to act.
It depends on body position and changes
with body movement.
Its approximately at the 2
nd
sacral vertebrae.
E.g. from seated to standing.
Line of gravity.
Its an imaginary line passing through the
centre of gravity.

Anterior
Posterior
Superficial
Deep
Proximal
Distal
Superior
Inferior
Medial
Lateral
Ipsilateral
Contralateral
Unilateral
Bilateral
Prone
Supine
Vagus (L)
Varus (M)

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Horizontal Adduction
Internal rotation
External rotation
Lateral flexion
Rotation
Elevation
Depression
Retraction
Protraction
Upward rotation of scapula
Downward rotation of scapula
Circumduction
Radial Deviation
Ulnar Deviation
Opposition
Eversion
Inversion
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
Pronation
Supination

Consists of cartilage , periosteum and bone.
Importance- support soft tissue , protect
internal organs , act as lever , source of
nutrients and blood constituents.
Out of 206 bones 177 are engaged in
voluntary movement.
Axial Skeleton and appendicular skeleton.
Identification of Major bones

It has different parts and can be
differentiated
The long or main part is called as the
Diaphysis.
The ends are called as epiphyses.
Epiphyses are covered with articular
cartilage, reduces friction absorb
shock in Synovial joints.
In an adult bone the area between
diaphysis and epiphyses is called as
Metaphysis.
Medullary cavity also called as Marrow
cavity is found in Diaphysis.
Marrow has a lining called
endosteum,necessary for bone
development.
Periosteum-is a membrane around
the bone.

There are two types of bones-
Compact and spongy
Compact ones provide support for
weight bearing, while spongy provide
strength.

Long- femur , tibia , humerus , radius , ulna
Short carpals , tarsals
Irregular Vertebrae , sacrum , coccyx
Flat - sternum , scapulae , ribs pelvis
Sesamoid - patella
Joints are the articulations between bones and
along with bones and ligaments, they constitute
the articular system.
Ligaments are tough, fibrous connective tissue
anchoring bone to bone.
Joints are classified as synarthrodial,
amphiarthrodial , diarthrodial (synovial)
Synarthrodial joints, example sutures of the
skull, do not move.
Amphiarthrodial joints move slightly: example
inferior tibio-fibular joint.
Synovial joints are the most common type of
joints in the human body.
They contain a fibrous articular capsule and an
inner synovial membrane than enclose the joint
cavity.

Fibrous joints are held together by fibrous connective
tissue. No joint cavity is present. Fibrous joints may be
immovable or slightly movable.
a) Suture Tight Union to the skull
b) Syndemossis the shafts of the radius and ulna, tibia and
fibula.
c) Gomphosis unique at the tooth socket.

Cartilaginous joints are held together by cartilage (hyaline
or fibro cartilage). No joint cavity is present. Cartilaginous
joints may be immovable or slightly movable.
a) Primary ( Synchondroses ; Hyaline cartilaginous) Gliding and
sliding movements At the sternum and Rib usually
temporary to promote bone growth and typically fuse.
b) Secondary ( Symphyses ; fibrocatilginous) Strong , slightly
moveable Intervertabral disks , pubic symphysis.

Synovial joints are characterized by a synovial
cavity (joint cavity) containing synovial fluid.
Synovial joints are freely movable and
characterize most joints of the body.
a) Plane (Arthrodial) Gliding and sliding movements
e.g. Acromioclavicular joint
b) Hinge (Ginglymus) Uniaxial Movements e.g. elbow
and knee - extension and flexion.
c) Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Biaxial joint e.g. Radio carpal
extension , flexion at the wrist.
d) Saddle (sellar) Unique joint that permits movements
in all planes , including opposition e.g. thumb
e) Ball and socket joint ( Enarthrodial) Multi axial joints
that permit movements in all directions e.g. hip and
shoulder joints.
f) Pivot ( Trochoidal) Unixial joints that permit rotation
e.g.- humeroradial joint.

There are five distinct features of synovial
joint:
It is enclosed by a fibrous joint capsule.
The joint capsule encloses joint cavity.
The joint capsule is lined with synovial
membrane.
Synovial fluid lines the inner surface of the
capsule.
The articulating surfaces of the bones are
covered with hyaline cartilage which absorbs
shock and reduces friction.

Anterior
Synarthrodial
Epiphyseal plate
Hinge joint
Anatomical Position
Transverse Plane
Location of COG
Supine
Unilateral
Periosteum
Flat bones?
Ligaments
Diarthrodial
Second name for ellipsoidal
Horizontal Adduction