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LEADERSHIP AND

MANAGEMENT
NCM 105
2ND SEMESTER SY 2009-2010
LEADERSHIP
DEFINITION
• Management skill: Focus on the
development and deployment of:
VISION, MISSION, STRATEGY &
CREATION OF MOTIVATED WORK
PLACE
• The process of empowering people
thru persuasion.
• Use of one’s skill to influence others
to perform to the best of their
ability towards goal achievement

LEADERSHIP
• A process of influence
• Not limited to people in traditional
position of authority
• Can occur in numbers of dynamics
and settings
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
• FORMAL LEADER
– Person in a position of influence or
authority
– Has sanctioned role within an
organization
• INFORMAL LEADER
– Person who demonstrates leadership
and has influence even though he or
she is not in a formal leadership role in
an organization
– 2 KEY TRAITS:
• Ability to influence others
• Other people in the group or organization
LEADERSHIP ROLES
• Decision maker
• Communicator
• Evaluator
• Facilitator
• Risk taker
• Mentor
• Energizer
• Coach
• Counselor
• Teacher
• Critical thinker
• Buffer
• Advocate
LEADER
• PERSON who:
• Influences and guides direction,
opinion and course of action
• Enables to work together to achieve
objectives set for certain purpose
• Influences others to move in the
direction of achieving goals


A LEADER
• Often don’t have delegated authority
• Have variety of roles than managers
• May or may not be part of formal
organization
• Focus on group process, information
gathering, feedback and empowering
others
• Emphasize interpersonal relationships
• Directs willing follower
• May have goals that may or may not
reflect those of the organization
• Interested in risk-taking and exploring
CORE TRAITS OF LEADERS
• Guiding VISION
– Able to see picture of the desired
future
– The picture allows leader to set goals
towards the desired future
• PASSION = drive and ambition
– Enthusiastic about the future
possibilities
– Has the ability to inspire people and
align them in a common effort to
make the future possibilities a
CORE TRAITS OF LEADERS
• INTEGRITY and HONESTY
– Possess a significant knowledge of self
or self-awareness
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Ability to receive feedback
• Learn from mistakes
– Requires honesty and maturity
– Supported by the inner strength of
conviction and ability to deal with
conflict or obstacle that arise
– Developed though personal and
professional experience and growth
– Can be trusted

CORE TRAITS OF LEADERS
• CURIOSITY
– Enable them to take risks
– Facilitates change
– Shorten the learning curve
• Leaders zero in on what works rather
than wasting time on what doesn’t
work

COMMON TRAITS OF A
LEADER
• FLEXIBILITY
– Adapts rapidly to changes in all aspects of
the environment
– Allows leaders to deal effectively and
creatively with uncertainty and hostility
• INTELLIGENCE
– Subject-based intelligence
• knowledge and skills associated with the
person’s job functions
• Ability to use knowledge and skill to solve
problem and improve work process
– People-based intelligence
• Emotional intelligence – ability to use not only
rational but also emotional perception in
learning, prob. Solving and working with
people effectively to achieved desired
outcomes
COMMON TRAITS OF A
LEADER
• Ability to SUPPORT others
– Responsiveness to wide range of
situations and people  face situations
head-on rather than withdrawing
– Practices open and effective
communication
– Possesses key social skills  ability to
work effectively with respect and
diverse constituent to defuse conflict
and to generate trust and enthusiasm
in others
• SELF-CONFIDENCE
– Able to trust his abilities and decisions
– Able to receive feedback and input from
COMMON TRAITS OF A
LEADER
• DESIRE to lead
– Interested in and have desire to
influence change in people or
organizations
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
TRAIT APPROACH
Personal – Psychologic –
Physical
CHARACTERISTICS
TRAIT APPROACH

1.GREAT MAN THEORY: Aristotle


 Some people are born to lead; others are
born to be lead
 - few people are born with necessary
characteristics to be great

 2. TRAIT THEORY:
 Some people have certain characteristics
that makes them better leaders than
others
 - selection is based on physical, mental and
psychological characteristics
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
LEADERSHIP STYLE
Kurt Lewin (1951) and White and
Lippitt (1960)
 a. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
 Based on centralized decision making
 Leader makes decision and expect s
subordinates to obey
 Uses power to command and control
others
 May develop hostility between leaders and
followers
AUTOCRATIC
• CLOSED SYSTEM


• NURSE MANAGER


FOLLOWERS
LEADERSHIP STYLE

 b. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
• Allow others to participate in decision
making and to share authority
• Power is based from expertise
• Group performs well whether or not the
leader is present
• Leaders and followers tend to maintain
positive relationship

1.
DEMOCRACTIC

• OPEN SYSTEM

N U R SE M A N AG ER

FO LLO W E R S
LEADERSHIP STYLE

 c. LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP


• Leaders defer decision making to
followers
• Permissive and tends to be distant or
uninvolved
• Workers may feel frustrated and
efficiency may suffer

 d. MULTICRATIC
. LAISSEZ FAIRE
LEADERSHIP
• PERMISSIVE

NURSE MANAGER




FOLLOWERS
LEADERSHIP STYLE
• EMPLOYEE –CENTERED LEADERSHIP
– Focus is on the human needs of
employees
– Considered more effective than job-
focused leadership  more
concerned with schedules, task or
output


BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
 Supports human relation theory
 - Benefits of positive attitude
towards others
 - Development of the workers
 - Satisfaction of the needs of the
worker
 - Commitment thru participation


SHIFT OF LEADERSHIP ROLE
CONTINGENCY THEORIES

Contingency approach to leadership


 State that a variety of environmental


factors affect the leadership style or
characteristics
 The outcome of leadership are
determined by factors other than the
leader’s behavior.
1. CONTINGENCY THEORY
Fred Fiedler

 Leadership style will be effective or


ineffective depending on the situation
 Leadership effectiveness depends on
matching organizational structure with
the best leadership style for the
organization and situation
 3 characteristics for effective leadership
 Leader member relation
 Followers feeling about the leader 
level of trust, acceptance of the
leader, perception of the members of
the leader

CONTINGENCY THEORY
– Task structure
» Extent to which work task are
defined by specific procedure,
direction and goal
» HIGH STRUCTURE: routine,
clearly defined
» LOW STRUCTURE: not
predictable, creative, working
“on the fly”
– Position power
» The amount of influence or
degree of formal authority the
leader has
» High position power 
considered favorable
FIEDLER CONTINGENCY
MODEL
STEP 1 -------- STEP 2 STEP 3
BASIC ---------
PREMISE Identify the MATCH THE MEASURE
leaders trait or LEADERS EFFECTIVENE
THE LEADERS characteristics TRAIT OR SS BY TASK
CHARACTERI CHARACTERI OR GOAL
STICS OR STICS TO THE ACCOMPLISH
TRAIT ARE JOB ED
FIXED AND SITUATION
RIGID
STUDY
LEADER/MEM
BER
RELATIONSHI
P AND
LEADER
2. PATH-GOAL THEORY
• Robert House
• Derived from Expectancy theory –
believed that people act as they do,
because they expect their behavior to
produce satisfactory result
– People are motivated by being able to
carry out their work, which they believe
will contribute to the desired outcome
and provide them with rewards for work
• Leaders clarify and set the goals of the
subordinates and help them find the
best path to achieve their goals.
• The effective leader makes the
appropriate path easier for the worker to
follow
• Effective leader matches style to the
PATH GOAL THEORY
• LEADER FUNCTION
• Directive
• Supportive
• Participative
• Achievement oriented
• SPECIFIC LEADER BEHAVIOR
• Motivate Employees – help them achieved valued
goals
• Consider contingencies
– Employees’ personal characteristics, needs and abilities
– Environmental characteristics
– Authority system
– Work group
• EXPECTED OUTCOME
• HIGH JOB SATISFACTION
• HIGH PERFORMANCE
• FEWER GRIVANCES

3. SITUATIONAL THEORY
• Hersey and Blanchard
• Effectiveness of a person’s leadership
style depends not so much of the
leader but on the followers
• Maturity of the follower s should be
assess
• Effective leader :
– changes or adapt leadership style to
match the followers ‘ need
– Attempt to increase followers’ level of
maturity

SITUATIONAL THEORY
• 4 CATEGORIES OF LEADERSHIP STYLE:
based on task and relationship levels
a.High task/low relationship behavior 
“telling” leadership style
b.High task/high relationship behavior 
“selling” leadership style  getting
people top “buy in” to an approach,
policy or new staffing or management
structure
c.Low task/high relationship behavior
”participating” leadership style
d.Low task/low relationship behavior 
“delegating” leadership style
4. “SUBSTITUTES FOR
LEADERSHIP”
• Kerr and Jermier
• Certain variables or factors may
influence followers’ behaviors as
much or more than the leader’s
behavior
• IDENTIFIED SUBSTITUTE S FOR
LEADER BEHAVIOR
a.Amount of feedback provided by task
b.Significant work group cohesion
c.Rigid adherence of group to rules
d.Intrinsic satisfaction provided by the
work or task
CURRENT COMTEMPORARY
THEORIES
1. CHARISMATIC THEORY
 Robert House
 Charismatic leaders have 4
characteristics:
 - Dominance
 - Self confidence
 - Need for influence and power
 - Conviction of moral righteousness
 CHARISMA – Inspirational quality
possessed by some people that makes others
feel better in their presence
 LEADERS inspires other by:
 - obtaining emotional commitment from
followers
 - arousing strong feeling of loyalty and
2. TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP THEORY
• Both leaders and followers act on one
another to raise their motivation and
performance to higher levels
• Focus : allowing innovation and change
• Depends on the concept of EMPOWERMENT
• All parties are allowed to work together to the best
of their ability, to achieve a collective goal
• Two types of leader
a.Transactional leader: person responsible for
day to day operations
b.Transformational leader: person responsible
for maintaining the overall vision and
motivating people to incorporate the
vision in their work
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
1. REINFORCEMENT THEORY
• B.F. Skinner (1953)
• Views motivation as learning
• Person becomes conditioned to
associate a behavior with a
consequence (+ or -)
• Leaders are more effective when they
can control or manipulate the
consequences of the follower’s
behavior
• Works well when enough positive
reinforcement exist and when leaders
have certain control over followers’
access to the rwards
2. EXPECTANCY THEORY
• Emphasizes that people don’t just
respond passively to reinforcement or
lack thereof; rather they are actively
and consciously interacting with their
environment
• 3 motivational components:
 a. EXPECTANCY: the perceived
probability that certain effort will lead
to desired action or behavior
 b. INSTRUMENTALITY: the belief that
a given performance level will lead to
an outcome
 c. VALENCE: perceived value of the
3. EQUITY THEORY



• The degree of perceived fairness in
the work situation is the key to job
satisfaction and effort of workers
4. GOAL SETTING THEORY
• Suggest that people don’t expend effort
for rewards or task outcome but to
accomplish the goal themselves
• 3 assumptions according to Locke
(1968)
 a. Specific goals are more effective
than general goals for motivating
higher performance
 b. More difficult or challenging goals
lead to higher performance
 c. Incentives or rewards are
effective only in that they encourage
people to change their goals
INTERACTIONAL THEORIES
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
• 1970 – to the present
• Leadership behavior generally
determined by relationship between
the leader’s personality and the
specific situation
• 1. SYSTEM THEORY: Schein (1970)
• People are very complex and highly
variable – have multiple motives for
doing things
• Motives do not stay constant – changes
overtime
• Goals differ in various situation
• Performance and productivity are affected
by the nature of the task, his ability,
experience and motivation
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
• 2. Hollander (1978) – leadership
exchange involves:
• The LEADER – his personality,
perception and abilities
• The FOLLOWER – with their
personalities, perceptions and
abilities
• The SITUATION – formal and informal
group norms, size and density



INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
• 3. Kanter ( 1977)
• Structural aspect s of the job shapes
effectiveness of a leader
• 3 major work empowerment structures
– OPPORTUNITY
– POWER
– PROPORTION

• 4. Nelson and Burns (1984)


• Organization and their leader has 4
developmental level that influence
productivity and worker satisfaction
INTERACTIONAL LEADERSHIP
THEORIES

• 4 Developmental Level
» REACTIVE – leader focuses on
the past, is crisis driven,
frequently abusive to
subordinates
» RESPONSIVE – leader is able to
mold subordinates to work
together as a team
» PROACTIVE – leader and
follower more future oriented
and hold common driving
values
» HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAM –
maximum productivity and
worker satisfaction
“NEW LEADERSHIP”
CONCEPT
• Margaret Wheatley (1992)
• LEADER’S FUNCTION IN AN
ORGANIZATION
A.Use vision to guide followers
B.Help followers make choices based
on values shared by leaders and
followers
C.Provide meaning and coherence in
the organizational culture