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SHAMNAH C USMAN,BDS

BATCH
1
ST
ROTARY CUTTING
INSTRUMENTS
Introduction
A group of instruments that turns on an axis
to perform cutting, abrading, burnishing,
finishing or polishing tooth tissues or
restoration
Speed ranges
Low/ conventional speed Below 6000 rpm
High/intermediate speed 6000 100,000 rpm
Ultra/ super speed Above 100,000 rpm
Low speed excavating caries with round
burs, refining cavity preparations, polishing
procedures
High speed cavity preparation, finishing
procedure such as placement of retentive
groves and bevels ; preferred when vision
is poor, more positive sense of touch
required or both
Water coolant system
Fiber optic lighting
Friction grip locking system


Ultra speed bulk reduction, obtaining
outline form, remove metal restoration
Common design
charecteristics
1.Shank
2.Neck
3.Head

Head working part of instrument, cutting edge
perform desired shaping of tooth structure.
Instruments are bladed or abrasive
Neck connects shank to head, transmit
rotational and translational forces to head
Tapers from shank diameter , dimension a
compromise between need for large CS
(provide strength) & small CS (improve
access and visibility)
1.

Shank part that fits into the handpiece,
accepts rotary movement ,controls
alignment and concentricity of
instrument
1.Straight handpiece shanks
2.Latch type handpiece shank
3.Friction grip handpiece shank
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Contra-angle handpiece (AHP): Burs used in thi s hand piece wi
l l have a notched end with a groove for the latch
attachment.






Straight hand piece (SHP): Burs used in this hand pi ece wi
l l have a very long, smooth shank.


'

High speed handp iece (HSH P):
Burs used in this handpiece wi
l l have a smooth shank like that of the straight hand piece,
but
the shank wil l be smaller and much shorter . These are
known as "friction grip" burs.

The Mi dwest Quiet-Ai r handpiece uses the same friction grip"
burs, but it is d esigned with a chuck that must be tightened
on the bur.
CT
Dental burs
Burs all rotary instruments that have
bladed cutting heads
Can be steel bur or tungsten carbide burs
Steel burs cut human dentin at low speeds,
but dulls rapidly at higher speeds or when
cutting enamel
Carbide burs (1947) performs better. Have
heads of cemented carbide in which
microscopic WC particles are held in a
matrix of cobalt or nickel
Modern burs combination of the two ;
freedom in design and economical, but
steel necks bends easily causing vibration
Classification
Mode of attachment latch type, friction
grip type
Composition stainless steel, carbide burr or
combination
Length of head long, short, regular
Use cutting , finishing , polishing
Shape round, inverted cone ,pear shaped
,tapering fissure, straight fissure, end
cutting

Round bur: caries removal, initial tooth
preparation, extension, placing retentive
grooves
Inverted cone: wall angulation, creating
undercuts, smoothening floors
Pear shaped bur: class I cavity for gold foil
Straight fissure: amalgam preparation
Tapering fissure: inlay and crown
End cutting bur: preparation apically without
axial reduction
Modifications In bur design
Reduced use of crosscuts
Extended heads on fissure burs
Rounding of sharp tip angles Markley &
Sockwell

Design of a dental bur
Blade - projection on bur head
Flute/chip space depressed areas in
between the blades
Rake angle angle between rake face and
radial line
e
Land plane surfac
cutting edge

immediately following
Factors affecting cutting
efficiency of bur
Rake angle
Spiral angle and cross cuts
Concentricity and runout
Neck diameter
No of teeth/blades
Abrasive instruments
Head consists of small angular particles of
hard substance embedded in a soft
binder(ceramic, metal, shellac, rubber)
1. Diamond abrasive
2. Other abrasives boron
carbide, pumice,Al2O3,
garnet
Diamond abrasives
Deposited by Electroplating, sintering or
microbrazing
Classification
1.Coarse grit(125 150u)
2.Medium grit(88- 125)
3.Fine grit(60 74u)
4.Very fine grit(38 44u)
Copyright 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
21
Burs, Discs, Mandrel, Stones, and
Wheels
Other abrasive instruments
Moulded abrasive instrument heads that
manufactured by pressing a uniform
mixture of abrasive and matrix around
roughened end of shank; points and
stones; finishing &polishing
Coated abrasive instrument disks that
have a thin layer of abrasive cemented to
a flexible backing ;surface contour,
finishing

Different methods of cutting
Cutting effectiveness rate of removal of
tooth structure in mm/min or mg/sec
Cutting efficiency percentage of enegy
producing cutting
Hazards
Pulpal precautions
Soft tissue precautions
Eye
Ear
Inhalation precaution














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