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Properties of Acids

and Bases
Sec 14.1
Acids (characteristics)
 Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour
taste.
 Acids change the color of acid-base
indicators
 Some react with active metals to release
hydrogen gas
 React with bases to form salts and water
 Acids conduct electricity
Acid Nomenclature
 Binary acid: is an acid that contains only
two different elements; hydrogen and one
of the more electronegative elements
 How to name Binary Acids
 Name begins with the prefix hydro-
 The root of the name of the second element
follows this prefix
 The name then ends with the suffix –ic
Ex) HF hydrofluoric acid
(see table 1 pg 468)
Acid Nomenclature
 Oxyacid: an acid that is a compound of
hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element
usually a nonmetal.
 The elements are in an oxyacid formula,
are written as one or more hydrogen
atoms, followed by a polyatomic anion
 The name is based on this anion

ex) HClO4 perchloric acid


Common Industrial Acids
 Sulfuric Acid
 Most commonly produced industrial chemical
 Used largely in petroleum refinement,
metallurgy, and manufacture of fertilizers
 Nitric Acid
 Very volatile, unstable liquid
 Used in make explosives (TNT Trinitrotoluene)
Bases (characteristics)
 Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter
 May change the color of acid-base
indicators
 Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel
slippery
 Bases react with acids to produce salts
and water
 Bases conduct electric current
Arrhenius Acids & Bases
 Arrhenius Acid: is a chemical compound
that increases the concentration of
hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution

 Arrhenius Base: is a substance that


increases the concentration of hydroxide
ions,(OH-) in solution
Aqueous Solutions of Acids
 Acid molecules are polar enough, that 1 or
more hydrogen atoms are attracted by
water molecules

 Ex) HNO3 + H2O  H3O+ + NO3-


Strength of Acids
 A strong acid is one that ionizes
completely in aqueous solution
 It’s a strong electrolyte
 Ex) HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-
 Weak acids are weak electrolytes
 The aqueous solution contains hydronium ions,
anions, and dissolved acid molecules
 Ex) HCN + H2O ↔ H3O+ + CN-
 (see Table 3 pg 474 for list of strong and weak acids)
Strength of Acids
 Organic acids containing the carboxyl
group (COOH) are generally weak acids
 Ex) acetic acid CH3COOH
(show structure)
Aqueous Solutions of Bases
 Most bases are ionic compounds
containing metal cations, and the
hydroxide ion (OH-)

 When a base dissociates in water to yield


(OH-) ions, the solution is referred to as
alkaline
 Ex) NaOH  Na+ + OH-
Strength of Bases
 Strength of a base also depends on the
extent to which the base dissociates, or
adds OH- ions to the solution

 Strong bases are strong electrolytes


 Weak bases are weak electrolytes

(see table 4 pg 475 list of strong and weak


bases)