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Foodborne Illness
faradeeba
FPHP
UiTM Terengganu
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Foodborne Illness

Each year millions of people get sick from
foodborne illnesses.
An estimated 2-3% of these lead to more
serious long-term illnesses.
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Costs of Foodborne Illness
Loss of Customers and Sales
Loss of Prestige and Reputation
Lawsuits Resulting in Lawyer and Court Fees
Increased Insurance Premiums
Lowered Employee Morale
Employee Absenteeism
Need for Retraining Employees
Embarrassment
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High-Risk Populations
Infants and young children
Pregnant women
Elderly people
People taking certain medications
People with weakened immune systems
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Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
Clean
free of visible soil
Sanitize
reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level
using heat or chemicals
Sterilize
to make free of microorganisms
In food service we do not sterilize food contact
surfaces.
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Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
Spoilage.
Damage to the edible quality of a food. Meat that is
unsafe to eat will not always smell or taste spoiled.
Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHFs).
Foods that allow the rapid growth of bacteria. There
are several physical and environmental
characteristics that will make a food potentially
hazardous. We will discuss these characteristics later
in this lesson.
Contamination
the presence of harmful substance in food

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Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
The Temperature Danger Zone.
Temperature range where bacteria can grow and reproduce rapidly
(between 41 and 135 degrees F, or between 4 and 57 degrees C.)
Potentially hazardous foods should be kept at temperatures below 41
o
F or above 135
o
F.
Food borne Illness.
Illness transmitted to humans due to the ingestion of food that
contains harmful pathogens or their byproducts (toxins).
Food borne Illness Outbreaks (FBIOs).
Generally, we think of a food borne illness outbreak as involving 20,
50, or even hundreds of individuals. In reality, an outbreak is defined
as the laboratory confirmed incidence of clinical illness involving two
or more people that ate a common food

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Food Sanitation and Safety Terms
Cross-contamination
The transfer of a harmful substance from one food to another
by direct or indirect contact
Direct cross-contamination involves the transfer of a harmful
agent from raw foods to cooked or ready-to-eat foods
example of direct contact: blood from thawing ground beef dripping
onto fresh produce stored on a shelf below
Indirect cross-contamination involves the transfer of a harmful
agent to foods by hands, utensils, or equipment.
example of indirect contact: raw chicken prepared with a knife and
cutting board and knife and cutting board are not cleaned and sanitized
after use
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Potentially Hazardous Foods
Milk and Milk Products
Sliced Melons
Shellfish and Crustaceans
Garlic-and-Oil Mixture
Poultry
Sprouts and Raw Seeds
Foods That Favor Rapid Microorganism
Growth
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Potentially Hazardous Foods (cont.)
Tofu
Fish
Meat: Beef, Pork, Lamb
Shell Eggs
Baked or Broiled Potatoes
Soy-Protein Foods
Cooked Rice, Beans or Other Heat-
Treated Plant Foods

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Sources of Hazard
There are three categories of hazards that are
responsible for causing food borne illnesses
and/or injuries:
Biological
Chemical
Physical
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Sources of Hazard
Biological Hazards.
Of the three categories, biological hazards
present the most significant threat, accounting
for at least two thirds of food borne illnesses.
Biological hazards include certain bacteria,
viruses, parasites, and fungi. Certain plants,
mushrooms, and fish carry harmful toxins.
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Biological Hazards
Foodborne Infection
An illness that results from eating food that contains harmful
microorganism (pathogens).
Foodborne Intoxication
An illness that results when poisons or toxins present in ingested
food
Foodborne Toxin-Mediated Infection
An illness that result from eating a food that contains harmful
microorganisms that produce a toxin once inside the human body
Onset time:
Number of hours between the time a person eats contaminated food and when they
first show symptoms of the disease.
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Foodborne Infections
Salmonellosis
Shigellosis
Listeriosis
Foodborne Intoxications
Staphylococcal Food Intoxication
Bacillus Cereus
Botulism
Foodborne Toxin-Mediated Infection
Clostridium Perfringens
Hepatitis A: a Viral Disease
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Parasitic Diseases
Trichinosis - pork or wild game meats (bear,
walrus)
Fish Toxins- designated poisonous for
two reasons- production or food supply
Ciguatera - not destroyed by cooking
Scombroid intoxication-histamine poisoning
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Sources of Hazard
Chemical Hazards.
Intoxication due to chemical contamination of food
Residues on food or food contact surfaces
pesticides and metal residues
cleaning compounds
Metal residues (remainder)
can produce toxic effect in minute quantities
galvanized containers w/ acidic foods causes zinc to leach out
Lead-based flatware and crystal can present similar problems
Residues from detergents, cleaning solutions, or
concentrated sanitizers
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Sources of Hazard
Physical Hazards
A physical hazard is the danger posed by the presence
of particles or items that are not supposed to be a part
of a food product.
Involve injuries caused by chewing or ingesting
foreign objects in food
Not as significant as biological hazards because threat
impacts fewer people
Examples: metal shavings packing staples, tacks, and
pins, glass, hair, fingernails, wood, stones, toothpicks
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Cross-Contamination
Prepare raw meat separately from
cooked/ready-to-eat foods
Assign specific equipment for each
food
Use specific containers for each food
Clean and sanitize food-contact
surfaces after each task
Methods for Preventing Cross-
Contamination During Preparation
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Cross-Contamination (cont.)
Use disposable or color-coded cleaning
cloths
Consider using gloves for food preparation
and service
Practice good personal hygiene
Methods for Preventing Cross-
Contamination During Preparation
Thats all for todays lesson
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The History of HACCP
HACCP initiated in early 1960s as
cooperative effort
Pillsbury
NASA
Natik labs of U.S. Army
U.S. Air Force Space Laboratory
Purpose was to produce zero defect food
for astronauts
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The History of HACCP
NASA asked Pillsbury to design products for use in
outer space
Pillsbury presented HACCP plan at 1971 Conference
on Food Protection
FSIS asked NAS to evaluate inspection process and
recommend modernization
HACCP recommended by NAS to FSIS in 1985
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HACCP
Sec. 342 of FDCA is basis for HACCP
(Adulteration provisions)
By adopting HACCP, companies share in
responsibility for safety
GMPs and HACCP are increasingly important
as more and more food is produced,
processed, and handled by others
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HACCP Basics:
Defects always possible with less than
100% testing
Detection of hazards by end product testing
is only as good as statistics behind
sampling and testing protocols
HACCP prevents rather than detects
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HACCP Basics
Seven elements
Science based system of food safety
Made mandatory in EU
Mandatory for seafood first (1995)
Meats (beef, pork, poultry) in 1996
Voluntary for other products

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Seven Steps of HACCP:
Assess Potential Hazards
Determine Critical Control Points
Establish requirements for each CCP
Establish procedure to monitor each CCP
Establish corrective action if deviation
Establish record keeping procedures
Establish procedure to monitor effectiveness
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1:Determine Potential Hazards
First step in developing program
what hazards might exist
What is a hazard
poisonous or deleterious substance (P/D)
microbiological
chemical
physical
Hazard more specific than adulterant b/c
product may be adulterated without being
hazardous
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1:Determine Potential Hazards (cont.)
Assess the Hazards
Review menu and recipes
Review type and size of your operation
Reduce the risk by reducing the number of
preparation steps
Severity is the seriousness of the
consequences of the results of the hazard
Rank the hazards according to severity and
probability of occurence
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2: Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs)
CCP is a point at which a hazard might
develop
if hazard results from loss of control, point is
critical
QCP is point where quality might be affected
if reduction in quality occurs, point is a quality
control point
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Importance of good personal hygiene
Avoidance of cross-contamination
Cooking and cooling are critical control
points
Create a flowchart of preparation steps
Identify at each step the procedures to
prevent, reduce, and eliminate
recontamination hazards

2: Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs)
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3: Set up Procedures for CCP
Establish observable and measurable
requirements to be met at each critical
control point
Use factors such as times, temperatures, and
sensory measures
Appropriate facilities and equipment must
be available and employees must be
trained
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4: Establish System to Monitor CCPs
Use flowchart to follow potentially hazardous
foods through the entire process to compare
your operations performance against your
requirements.
Verify temperatures during recieving, storing,
preparation, and cooling.
Verify storage procedures
Are thermometers correctly calibrated?
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5: Corrective action
May be as simple as rejecting a shipment or
ingredient
May require adjusting calibration of measuring
device
May necessitate shutting down an operation
May need to be more explicit in your instructions-
for example, prepare in small batches
Make corrections to your flowchart

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6:Record Keeping
Must have effective record keeping system to:
demonstrate establishment of system
document its utilization
verify efficacy
Needs to work well for your operation
Flowcharts, Written logs
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7:Verification of Program - HACCP Plan
Written plan to describe system
May be shown to FDA as evidence that plan has been
developed
Monitoring data and records of actions may be reviewed
by:
company management
regulatory officials
Detect and Prevent dry lab
Better methods may exist for meeting controls or some
controls may not be possible
HACCP system provides for continual change and
improvement
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Flow Charts
Step by step path traveled by food during
processing
Shows CCPs
Shows where to take corrective action
Can use to monitor CCPs
Helps verify effectiveness
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End