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AMR Optimization Guidelines

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Executive Summary
AMR is an important feature that can allow a real jump in the capacity of the network.
The US operator had been forerunners in its deployment because of:

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Limited frequency band and increased number of GSM customers
o
Advanced deployment of the feature in the ANSI versione
ofm
the Nokia BSS software
r
Advanced deployment of the AMR capable MS in theeUS market
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The following guidelines:
d of the authors in the daily optimization
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l
Had been written based on the experience
s
s
of the AMR in the AT&T Wireless network
in the Los Angeles market
i
h
Are mainly aimed to cover theT
BSS optimization aspects
Contain also basic information about the NSS activation aspects

Conclusions of the document are that AMR optimization:


Is a basic step of the AMR deployment
Need a fair amount of field work (i.e.drive test) in order to have the feeling of the
Air i/f behaviour
Depends from the penetration of AMR capable MS

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

References
In order to write these guidelines the following documents had been used:

NED
Nokia internal and customer documentation
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Daily optimization documents from the Los Angeles AT&T Wireless
market
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NMS Stats
m
e
r
Trial / Test on customer network
be
Drive test

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Warning
The authors of the guidelines have based their experience on the work in ANSI
markets (US operators), so some of the assumptions can be reviewed if the reader
is optimizing the AMR in ETSI markets.

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Because of this part of the information contained in the following
m guidelines are
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based on the daily work in the operator office (AT&T Wireless) the following
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document contains information that are NOKIA and customer
confidential.
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d
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s S10.5 capabilities. Nevertheless the
The following guidelines are based on the
s
i
authors have included also few slide
Th about the S11.0 features that will affect AMR
optimization

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Version Review
Version

Date

Changes from previous Version

Authors

01

September 5th 2004

Andrea Bonanomi, Umesh Dhawan

01.01

January 19th 2006

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Risto Jurva

Topics

AMR Overview
AMR SW and HW Requirements
EFR and AMR Capable Phones
AMR Activation
AMR Parameter Setting for Channel & Codec Adaptation
TRX Prioritization in TCH Allocation
HO and PC in AMR
AMR Parameter Overview
Radio Link Timeout in AMR
MaxCap Feature
AMR Optimization Remarks
FRTx / HRTx Optimization Trial
HOC, POC, BTS Optimization Trial
Drive Test in AMR
Capacity and Coverage
AMR KPIs and Network Doctor Reports
AMR MML Commands
AMR and Soft Channel Capacity Feature (S11.0)
Attachments

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Overview

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Before & After AMR


Before AMR the GSM operator had available on the air interface:
2 different Channel Type (Full Rate & Half Rate)
2 different channel Coding (1 @ Full Rate & 1 @ Half Rate)
With the introduction of AMR the GSM operator has available on the air interface:
2 Different Channel Type (Full Rate / Half Rate)
14 Different Channel Coding (8 @ Full Rate & 6 @ Half Rate)
The reason of the introduction of 2 different Channel Types is
Exploit where possible the capacity of the TRX
Cope w/with temporary increase of traffic
The reason of the 14 different Channel Coding is to use in every moment of the
conversation the best trade off between Channel Coding and Speech Coding.
Increased Speech Coding ~ Increased Voice Reconstruction Accuracy
Increased Channel Coding Increased Robustness Good FER in poor C/I
environment
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Idea
The AMR idea is based on the fact that in soft limited RF environments (poor C/I):
Speech coding can be decreased in order to improve channel coding
Overall result is an improved voice quality (in terms of FER)
For AMR, the speech and channel coding data rates are dynamically adapted to
best fit the current RF channel conditions.
AMR consists on a family of codec with different Channel Coding operating in GSM
Full Rate (FR) and Half Rate (HR). The aim is to improve channel (FR/HR) quality by
adapting the most appropriate channel codec based on the current radio
conditions.
With AMR, the speech capacity is increased by using the half rate (HR) mode and
still maintaining the quality level of current FR calls.
The idea behind the AMR codec concept is that it is capable of adapting its
operation optimally according to the prevailing channel conditions.

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Codec
GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbps in GSM FR/EFR:
13 kbps /speech coding
9.8 kbps /channel coding
Note that HR channel gross bit rate 11.4 kbps

Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

For AMR case, different codec use different bit rate to encode speech (source
coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for channel protection
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Channel coding
Speech coding

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Robustness

15
10
5
0
FR
12.2

Speech
Qual

FR
10.2

FR
7.95

FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9

FR
5.15

FR
4.75

HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9


7.95

AMR codec mode


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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HR
5.15

HR
4.75

Algorithms Related to AMR


Codec Mode Adaptation Algorithm = Link Adaptation Algorithm
->

It selects the best codec

Channel Mode Adaptation Algorithm


->

It changes the channel rate between FR and HR codec

Set of Codecs Codec Mode Adapt.


Channel Mode Adaptation AMR

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Codecs
Voice quality

Full Rate

Half rate

12.2
10.2
7.95

7.95

7.4

7.4

6.7

6.7

5.9

5.9

5.15

5.15

4.75

4.75

AMR
codecs:
8 for FR
and 6 for
HR

AMR Full Rate performance compared to


Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0
4.0
3.0

6 dB gain in
performance

2.0
1.0
No Errors

Robustness
New AMR family of codec tolerate 6 dB
higher interference than current GSM EFR
codec
Can be directly utilized for higher capacity
with Frequency Hopping
Higher interference tolerance
Reduced time slot occupancy

EFR
AMR FR
16 dB C/I

13 dB C/I

10 dB C/I

7 dB C/I

4 dB C/I

AMR Half Rate performance compared to


Full Rate in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)Quality loss
5.0
of ~ 0.2
between
AMR HR
4.0
and FR
3.0
2.0

AMR HR
AMR FR

1.0
No Errors 19 dB C/I16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Channel and Speech Codec


Channel
mode

TCH/FR

TCH/HR

Channel
codec
mode

Source coding
bit rate, speech

Net bitrate,
in- band
channel

Channel
coding
bit- rate,
speech

Channel
coding
bit- rate,
in - band

CH0-FS

12.20kbit/s (GSM/EFR)

0.10 kbit/s

10.20 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH1-FS

10.20 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

12.20 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH2-FS

7.95 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

14.45 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH3-FS

7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)


-

0.10 kbit/s

15.00 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH4-FS

6.70 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

15.70 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH5-FS

5.90 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

16.50 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH6-FS

5.15 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

17.25 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH7-FS

4.75 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

17.65 kbit/s

0.30 kbit/s

CH8-HS

7.95 kbit/s (*)

0.10 kbit/s

3.25 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

3.80 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH9-HS

7.40 kbit/s(IS-641)
-

CH10-HS

6.70 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

4.50 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH11-HS

5.90 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

5.30 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH12-HS

5.15 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

6.05 kbit/s

0.10 kbit/s

CH13-HS
4.75 kbit/s
0.10 kbit/s
6.45 kbit/s
0.10 kbit/s
(*) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode and will not be supported by Nokia
BSS10
.

In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain
error robust coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower
amount of bits is needed for sufficient error protection and more bits can
therefore be allocated for source coding
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Codec Mode (Link) Adaptation

Advanced

Codec Mode Adaptation or Link Adaptation (LA) is the algorithm that selects which codec has
to be used each moment by the MS (in UL) or by the network (in DL direction)
The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3 signaling
Both the MS and the network implement their own independent LA algorithms
There are two link adaptation (LA) modes:
ETSI specified fast LA Inband codec mode changes on every other TCH frame = 40
msec
Nokia proprietary slow LA Changes only every SACCH frame interval = 480 msec
The suggested LA rate is the fast one.
LA algorithms are vendor dependant / proprietary

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Procedure for Codec Mode (Link)Advanced


Adaptation
4.-DL codec
used

3.- Network decides


which codec to use for
DL

DL
LA
1.-Which DL Radio
Conditions?
2.-Request a
codec for DL

UL LA

2.-Command a
codec for UL

1.-Which UL radio
conditions?
3.-MS uses the codec
commanded by the
network for UL

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Advanced

In-band Signaling
CMI,
C MC
C MR
,
C MI

SF 2

UL

SF 1

SF 4CMR SF 6CMR

CMR

SF 3

8
TDMA

CMI SF 5CMI SF 7 CMI

CMR

CMI

frames
SF 2 CMI SF 4 CMI SF 6 CMISF 8 CMI

DL

SF 1

SF 3

SF 9

CMCSF 5 CMCSF 7 CMC

CMI

CMI

CMC

CMR
CMI

CMI
CMC

CMC

CMR

CMR

CMI

CMI

CMI

CMI

CMC

SF= Speech Frame CMC = Codec Mode Command


CMI = Codec Mode Indicator
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL
th

CMR

CMR= Codec ModeRequest

CMC

CMI

CMI
CMC

time

Channel Mode Adaptation

Advanced

Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at select the correct


channel rate (FR or HR).

The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main factors: load and quality

Codec
Good
Load
Quality

FR
FR

packing
unpacking
Bad
Qualit
y

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HR
HR

AMR SW and HW Requirements in


NOKIA

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Software & Hardware Requirements

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Network Element

Required Software

NMS

NetAct OSS3.1

MSC

GSM 15 or GSM 13 + MSC paTCH + pool switching capability

TCSM

S10.5 TCSM Software to support Pool 23.

BSC

S10.5 (S10.ED CD10.1 or above)

2nd Generation BTS

Does not support AMR

Talk Family

DF6

Prime Site

DF6

UltraSite

CX3.0-2A

MetroSite

CXM3.0-2

InSite

Does not support AMR

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Software & Hardware Requirements

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Network Element

Required Hardware

TCSM

All existing transcoder hardware supports AMR. Existing TR12 cards support
the new Pool 23 with no upgrade required.

BSC

Both BSC2i and BSC3i support AMR.

2nd Generation BTS

Does not support AMR

Talk Family

AMR is supported, TRX need to be upgraded.

Prime Site

AMR is supported, TRX need to be upgraded.

UltraSite

AMR is supported, TRX need to be upgraded.

MetroSite

AMR is supported, TRX need to be upgraded.

InSite

Does not support AMR

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Codecs Supported in the NOKIA BTS


Note that the codecs supported from the Nokia BTSs depends from the type of BTS
These are the codecs supported from the different NOKIA BTSs

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BTS

AMR FR

AMR HR

Talk Family

4.75, 5.90, 7.40, 12.2


kbps

4.75, 5.90, 7.40 kbps

Prime Site

4.75, 5.90, 7.40, 12.2


kbps

4.75, 5.90, 7.40 kbps

Ultrasite

All

All except 7.90 kbps

Metrosite

All

All except 7.90 kbps

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Capable MS

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Implementation Status in Nokia


Phones
AMR Phones in Deliveries
(until 1H/2005, update with the period 2H/2005-1H/2006)

1100

6260

2300

6810

2600

6820

2650

7200

3200

3220

5140

6170

7270

7280

7260

7610

6220

9300

6230

9500

AMR will be implemented in all new Nokia high volume phones


The AMR capable MS can be identified through the MS Capability NMS
measurements (P_NBSC_MS_CAPABILITY table) and mapping the classmark
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Activation

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

4 steps for AMR Activation


Step 1 = Check SW & HW
MSC, BSC, BTS, TRXs need to be compliant w/ SW & HW requirements (cfr.
Previous section)
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Step 2 = Pool 5 conversion on MSC
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Convert all existing MSC circuits (except 1 DS0)
from
pool 1 to pool 5. This shall
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be done 1 T-1 at a time to avoid traffic interruption.
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Step 3 = Pool 23 conversion/creationis
Th
On the BSC either convert or create the new Pool 23 circuit. Note this will
require a new Circuit Group Number . If converting an existing circuit, the
circuit must be deleted and recreated for this conversion.
On the MSC either convert or create the new Pool 23 circuit.
Make sure the CIC codes maTCH on both sides of the A-interface

Step 4 = Feature activation on BSC


On BSC activate AMR ( ZWOC:2,619:A;)

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Activation Process

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It is advised to carry out deployment per BSC at a time

SW

It is always good practice to update all BTSs with latest

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Implement PRFILE
Implement PRfile on BSCs

AMR-HR Capabilities

W7I:FEA,FULL:FEA=1,;
FEATURE INFORMATION:
---------------------------------------------FEATURE CODE:..............1
FEATURE NAME:..............amr_hr-c
FEATURE STATE:.............ON
FEATURE CAPACITY:..........1000
COMMAND EXECUTED

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Activate AMR on BSC


1. Set the AMR-specific control parameter AMR_CODEC_USED on (WOA).
ZWOA:2,619,A;
2. Activate the AMR HR (EQY, W7M).
a. Activate the AMR HR licence:
ZW7M:FEA=1:ON:;
For instructions on managing licences, see Licence-based Feature Management.
b. Modify the AMR HR codec mode set:
ZEQY:BTS=<BTS identification>:HRC=<AMR HR codec mode set>;
Value 0 means that the whole codec mode set is disabled.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Modifying Speech Circuits


The following procedure is executed once per TCSM2. There are two alternative
ways to do the modification:
speech circuits are removed and added during modification
speech circuits are transferred automatically during modification
The second way is simpler in the sense that it contains fewer MML commands than the first
one.
The modification is possible only between the types that use the same number of bits in
the Ater interface, in other words the sub-multiplexing scheme is the same for the
current and the new pool.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Modifying Circuits with Circuit


Removal and Addition
1. Remove speech circuits of the first TC-PCM from the circuit group
that contains circuits of pool 1 (CEC, RCR).
a. ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA;
or:
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BL;
b. ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:NU;
c. ZRCR:NCGR=<circuit group name for pool 1>:
ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31;
2. Modify the TC-PCM type (WGM).
ZWGM:<et_pcm number>,1:POOL=23;
3. Restart the TCSM unit (USU).
ZUSU:TCSM,<et_pcm number>;
The TCSM must be restarted because the TC-PCM type in the TCSM2 is changed and the TCSM unit
is in WO-EX state. The Transcoder Configuration MML notifies about this during the execution of
WGM command.
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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Modifying Circuits with Circuit


Removal and Addition (2)
4. Add speech circuits to the circuit group that contains circuits of pool 23 (RCA, CEC).
a. ZRCA:NCGR=<circuit group name for pool 23>:
ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:CCSPCM=3;
b. ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA;
c. ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:WO;

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Modifying Circuits with Automatic


Circuit Transfer
1. Block speech circuits of the TC-PCM (CEC).
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BA;
or:
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:BL;
2. Modify the TC-PCM type (WGM).
Note that the target circuit group has to exist. If the circuit group does not exist, create it with command RCC .
ZWGM:<et_pcm number>,1:POOL=23:NCGR=<circuit group name for pool 23>;
3. Restart the TCSM unit (USU).
ZUSU:TCSM,<et_pcm number>;
The TCSM must be restarted because the TC-PCM type in the TCSM2 is changed and the TCSM unit is in WO-EX
state. The Transcoder Configuration MML notifies about this during the WGM command.
4. Unblock speech circuit of the TC_PCM (CEC).
ZCEC:ETPCM=<circuit>,CRCT=1-1&&-31:WO;

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Create Speech Circuits on MSC


This is will need to be created on the Nortel MSC.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Download Parameters on BSC


When AMR is activated the default settings are active.
It is advised to download after using MML/Plan Editor customised parameter
settings for:
Codecs used
C/I thresholds
Power and Handover thresholds

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Common Questions Implementation


Q: Do the TRX/BTS/BCFs need to be locked/unlocked to set AMR parameters
A: No
Q: Does GPRS have to be disabled/enabled?
A: No
Q: Quick non service affecting method to rollback?
A: Rollback will be possible with just shutting down the MSC Circuit pool 23. BSC does
not need to be restarted or AMR deactivated. Pool 23 is AMR only Transcoder pool.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Unlock Speech Circuits on MSC

AMR must be activated before MSC Speech circuits are unlocked as drops may
occur. The MSC/NSS has no knowledge if the BSC has AMR activated or not.

The BSS engineers who activated the feature can monitor the usage of Transcoder
usage codec during this testing, observing for holding time and traffic levels. MML
command - ZRM:pcm number

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AMR Parameter Overview

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR BSC Parameters


Parameter
TCH in handover

Level

Name

Suggested
Value

BSC

HRI

In networks with mixed


configuration of EFR and AMR, HRI
= 4 is recommended:

Comments
With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation during BSS
internal or external handovers. The parameter controls the target cell
selection and the TCH channel rate and speech codec determination in traffic
channel allocation. The parameter can have the following values:
1= The call serving type of TCH has to be primarily allocated. The call serving
type of speech codec inside the call serving type of TCH can change.

-> HRI Study

2 = The call serving type of TCH and the call serving type of speech codec
are preferred to be primarily allocated during the speech connection. The
channel rate change is possible during data connection, if necessary, and if
the radio interface data rate allows it.
3 = The channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied.
4 = The preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec have to be
primarily allocated.
5 = TCH has to be primarily allocated from the best BTS of the handover
candidate list.

-> limit for FR TCH resources


lower

BSC

HRL

20

BSC

HRU

40

BSC

ACH

1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred.


2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred.

initial AMR channel rate

BSC

IAC

1 = any rate, there are no extra requirements by the parameter and the
chosen channel rate is defined by taking into account the currently used
information for channel allocation.
2 = AMR FR is preferred over AMR HR and allocated despite of the values of
the currently used information for channel allocation. IAC=2 overrides
TCHRateInt (HRI)

slow AMR LA enabled

BSC

SAL

No

Enable slow link adaptation. This is a proprietary algorithm where codec


mode changes happen every SACCH period (480ms) instead of as fast as
40ms.

AMR set grades enabled

BSC

ASG

No

Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied


N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied.
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same then ACH
and ASG has no impact

Threshold selectio
n
->
upper
limit for FR TCH resources
Threshold selectio
AMR
n configuration in handovers

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU) are considered in


call set-up and handovers only when IAC=1. HR is to be assigned if free
resources go below HRL. FR is to be assigned if free resources go above HRU.

AMR BTS Parameters (FR)


Level

Name

Suggested
Value

AMR FR codec mode set

BTS

FRC

149

With this parameter you define the codec mode set for a full rate channel. If
the parameter is defined as disabled, then the whole codec mode set is
disabled. Codec set used is 12.2(128), 7.40(16), 5.9(4), 4.75(1) kbit/s *)

AMR FR hysteresis 1

BTS

FRH1

1(dB)

With this parameter, together with AMR FR threshold 1, you define the
threshold for switching from codec mode 1 (lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 2
(second lowest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR FR hysteresis 2

BTS

FRH2

1(dB)

With this parameter, together with AMR FR threshold 2, you define the
threshold for switching from codec mode 2 (second lowest bit-rate) to codec
mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR FR hysteresis 3

BTS

FRH3

1(dB)

With this parameter, together with AMR FR threshold 3, you define the
threshold for switching from codec mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate) to codec
mode 4 (highest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR FR initial codec mode indicator


(ICMI)

BTS

FRI

With this parameter you define whether the initial codec mode used by the
mobile station is defined explicitly in the AMR codec mode set or is it
implicitly derived by the mobile station from the amount of codec modes in
the AMR codec mode set.

AMR FR start mode

BTS

FRS

With this parameter you define explicitly the initial codec mode used by the
mobile station.

AMR FR threshold 1

BTS

FRT1

9(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode
2 (second lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 1 (lowest bit-rate). Unused
threshold is set as 0.

AMR FR threshold 2

BTS

FRT2

12(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode
3 (third lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 2 (second lowest bit-rate). Unused
threshold is set as 0.

AMR FR threshold 3

BTS

FRT3

16(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode
4 (highest bit-rate) to codec mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate). Unused threshold
is set as 0.

Parameter

39

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Comments

AMR BTS Parameters (FR), contd


Level

Name

Suggested
Value

Super reuse bad C/I threshold AMR FR

BTS

BCIF

10

With this parameter you define the downlink C/I ratio on a super-reuse TRX
for triggering the HO from the super-reuse TRX. Defined for AMR FR calls.

Super reuse good C/I threshold AMR FR

BTS

GCIF

17

With this parameter you define the downlink C/I ratio on a super-reuse TRX
for triggering the HO to the super-reuse TRX. Defined for AMR FR calls.

lower limit for FR TCH Resources

BTS

FRL

20

With this parameter you define the percentage of full rate TCH resources that
must be available for traffic channel allocation. Full rate TCHs are allocated
until the number of free full rate resources is reduced below the threshold
given in the parameter. The half rate resources are then allocated.

BTS

FRU

40

With this parameter you define the percentage of full rate TCH resources that
must be available for traffic channel allocation. Full rate TCHs are again
allocated when the number of the free full rate resources increases above the
threshold given by the parameter.

Parameter

->
Threshold selectio
n
upper limit for FR TCH Resources

->
Threshold selectio
n

40

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Comments

AMR BTS Parameters (HR)


Level

Name

Suggested
Value

AMR HR codec mode set

BTS

HRC

21

With this parameter you define the codec mode set for a half rate channel. If
the parameter is defined as disabled, then the whole codec mode set is
disabled.Codec set used is 7.40(16), 5.9(4), 4.75(1) kbit/s.

AMR HR hysteresis 1

BTS

HRH1

1(dB)

With this parameter you define together with the AMR HR threshold 1 the
threshold for switching from codec mode 1 (lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 2
(second lowest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR HR hysteresis 2

BTS

HRH2

1(dB)

With this parameter you define together with the AMR HR threshold 2 the
threshold for switching from codec mode 2 (second lowest bit-rate) to codec
mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR HR hysteresis 3

BTS

HRH3

0(dB)

With this parameter you define together with the AMR HR threshold 3 the
threshold for switching from codec mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate) to codec
mode 4 (highest bit-rate). Unused hysteresis is set as 0.

AMR HR initial codec mode indicator


(ICMI)

BTS

HRI

With this parameter you define whether the initial codec mode used by the
mobile station is defined explicitly in the AMR codec mode set or is it
implicitly derived by the mobile station from the amount of codec modes in
the AMR codec mode set..

AMR HR start mode

BTS

HRS

With this parameter you explicitly define the initial codec mode used by the
mobile station.

AMR HR threshold 1

BTS

HRT1

14(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode 2
(second lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 1 (lowest bit-rate). Unused threshold
is set as 0.

AMR HR threshold 2

BTS

HRT2

17(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode 3
(third lowest bit-rate) to codec mode 2 (second lowest bit-rate). Unused
threshold is set as 0.

AMR HR threshold 3

BTS

HRT3

0(dB)

With this parameter you define the threshold for switching from codec mode 4
(highest bit-rate) to codec mode 3 (third lowest bit-rate). Unused threshold is
set as 0.

Super reuse bad C/I threshold AMR HR

BTS

BCIH

10

With this parameter you define the downlink C/I ratio on a super-reuse TRX for
triggering the HO from the super-reuse TRX. Defined for AMR HR calls.

Super reuse good C/I threshold AMR


HR

BTS

GCIH

17

With this parameter you define the downlink C/I ratio on a super-reuse TRX for
triggering the HO to the super-reuse TRX. Defined for AMR HR calls

Parameter

41

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Comments

AMR HO & PC Parameters


Level

Name

Suggested
Value

Intra HO threshold Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

IHRF

->
Threshold selectio
n
Intra
-> HO threshold Rx qual AMR HR
Threshold selectio
n

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality
downlink and uplink measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover
process for an AMR FR call in order to switch it to an AMR HR call (based on
load).

BTS

IHRH

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality
downlink and uplink measurements for triggering the intra-cell handover
process for an AMR HR call in order to switch it to an AMR FR call.

Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR

BTS

QDRH

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality
downlink measurements for triggering the handover. Defined for the default
AMR HR set.

Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR

BTS

QURH

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality uplink
measurements for triggering the handover. Defined for the default AMR HR
set.

Threshold dl Rx qual for AMR FR

BTS

QDRF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality
downlink measurements for triggering the handover. Defined for the default
AMR FR set.

Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

QURF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the signal quality uplink
measurements for triggering the handover. Defined for the default AMR FR
set.

PC lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

LDRF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the downlink signal
quality measurements for the BTS power increase. Defined for the default FR
AMR set.

PC upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

UDRF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the downlink signal
quality measurements for the BTS power decrease. Defined for the default
FR AMR set.

PC lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

LURF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the uplink signal quality
measurements for the MS power increase. Defined for the default FR AMR
set.

PC upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR

BTS

UURF

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the uplink signal quality
measurements for the MS power decrease. Defined for the default FR AMR
set.

PC
-> lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR

BTS

LDRH

With this parameter you define the threshold level of the downlink signal
quality measurements for the BTS power increase. Defined for the default HR
AMR set.

Parameter

42AMR
NOKIA
AMR optimization
/ Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL
Specific
HO andGuidelines
PC Parameters

Comments

AMR BTS Parameters (FR in RNW)

43

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR BTS Parameters (HR in RNW)

44

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR HO & PC Parameters (RNW)

45

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Parameter Setting for Channel


& Codec Adaptation

46

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Channel Adaptation - RTSL


Parameters
Following the BSC level AMR feature activation and the addition of circuit pool 23,
AMR FR will be functioning on all sites with default parameters settings.
To configure the RTSL for half rate support, the existing FR only configuration
(TCHF) must be changed to Dual Rate (TCHD) depending upon the traffic need and
blocking on the site.
ZERM:BTS=x,TRX=x, CHx=TCHD;
Configure AMR HR Packing triggers. The value depends upon how aggressive we
want to deploy HR. The setting shall be in accordance with traffic/blocking and
average C/I in the area.
ZEEM:HRU=x,HRL=x;
ZEQY:BTS=x,IHRF=x,IHRH=X;

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Channel Adaptation - Packing &


Unpacking Mechanism
To trigger the packing of active Full Rate AMR calls to AMR Half Rate, traffic and quality threshold
must be set.
Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR calls is triggered:
Free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL)
At least 2 calls in which quality is above the amrHandoverFr(IHRF) and which uses the least
robust codec mode
Packing continues until the number of free full rate resources increases above the value of the
parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU).
Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR calls is triggered when the quality of a AMR HR
call degrades below the amrHandoverHr(IHRH). Cell load does not have an effect.
HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on individual BTS.
btsspLoadDepTCHRate (FRL) and (FRU) are BTS specific parameters. They have priority over
btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and (HRU)
The feature is disable when set HRL > HRU or FRL > FRU
Real network behavior shows that if FRL > FRU, but HRL < HRU, the AMR feature is enable
48

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Channel Adaptation - Packing &


Unpacking Mechanism
Example:

HRL = 40%
HRU = 60%
IHRF = 2
IHRH = 4
Packing starts when free FR resources below 40% and calls with RxQual below
2, and stops when free FR resources above 60%
Unpacking when HR calls RxQual below 4

49

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Codec Adaptation - Parameters


The parameters "amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet" & "amrConfigurationHr:
codecModeSet" (FRC) determine the set of codecs in used.

Dynamic code adaptation is based on C/I estimation. Threshold and hysteresis:

50

FRTx: AMR FR threshold x amrConfigurationFr: thresholdx, with x=1,2,3


FRHx: AMR FR hysteresis x amrConfigurationFr: hysteresisx, with x=1,2,3
HRTx: AMR HR threshold x amrConfigurationHr: thresholdx, with x=1,2,3
HRHx: AMR HR hysteresis x amrConfigurationHr: hysteresisx, with x=1,2,3

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

TRX Prioritisation in TCH Allocation

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Enhanced TRX Prioritization in TCH


Allocation

Traffic channels in BCCH TRX can be in the first


hand allocated for non-AMR terminals.
Targeted for handling of non-AMR roamers and
home PLMN non-AMR terminal subscribers.
AMR terminals tolerate lower C/I radio conditions
than the others
Better signal quality can be provided for non-AMR
terminals in BCCH TRX.

52

CS data calls are preferred over non-AMR terminals


in BCCH TRX.

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

SDCCH

BCCH

preferred TCHs for


non-AMR calls

BCCH TRX
TRX 2

Fixed
CS

PS territory

TRX 3

Dynamic TCH

TRX 4

Dynamic TCH

Enhanced TRX Priorisation in TCH


Allocation
New values of TRP:
(TRX Priority in TCH allocation )
TRP

(prefer BCCH frequency GPRS)

Effect

BFG

Effect

(default)

All TRXs are treated equally in TRX selection for


GPRS use

All TRXs are treated equally in TCH allocation

A traffic channel is allocated primarily from the


BCCH TRX

GPRS channels are allocated primarily from the


BCCH TRX

A traffic channel is allocated primarily beyond


BCCH TRX

GPRS channels are allocated primarily beyond


the BCCH TRX

A traffic channel is allocated primarily from the


BCCH TRX for the non-AMR users and for the
AMR users beyond the BCCH TRX

(default)

(new value)

53

New values of BFG:

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HO and PC in AMR

54

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HO and PC in AMR Environment


HOC and POC is done based on RX quality
Following actions are taken based on Rx quality cases of PC & HO algorithms in
BSC:
If the quality is below lower thresholds then HO or PC (more power) is triggered
depending on the current threshold values. Otherwise if quality is above lower
thresholds, nothing is done.
Respectively, if the quality is above upper thresholds then PC (less power) is
triggered. Otherwise if quality is below upper thresholds, nothing is done.
Above cases are valid only in quality HO, not for example in PBGT HO
RXLEV and Power Budget HO parameters are identical for AMR and EFR
AMR call would handover at the same point as an EFR call

55

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Intracell HO in AMR
New RxQual HO parameters are specified for FR and HR AMR and they are taken
into account when making intra-cell handovers between FR AMR and HR AMR:
Intra HO threshold Rx Qual for AMR FR
Intra HO threshold Rx Qual for AMR HR
Current Nx and Px values of RxQual thresholds are used.
All the information (codec usage and quality) goes to BSC statistics part for further
processing.
Intra cell Handover process ( FR to HR packing ) is based upon BTS load, call quality
and current codec being used as shown in the next slides.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Intracell HO in AMR
Intra-cell HO process (packing)
Packing
Process

Previous
Packing
finished

No

No Packing attempt

Yes
TCH rate intra-cell
Handover(TRIH) = 0?

No

TCH rate intra-cell


Handover(TRIH) = 3?

Yes
TCH rate internal
Handover(HRI) = 3

No
Yes

No

TRIH=0 Means: Constraints given by the BSS-level parameter TCH rate


internal HO are followed
TRIH=3 Means: Channel rate and speech codec changes denied
HRI=3 Means: Channel rate and speech codec changes denied
57

Yes

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Yes

upper limit for FR TCH


resources < lower limit for
FR TCH resources

No

Selection
Based
on
Cell load

Intracell HO in AMR
Selection
Based
on
Cell load

Intra-cell HO process (packing)

Is packing being
started?

Yes

Packing is stopped

Existing 2 calls with


quality >intra HO
threshold Rx Qual AMR
FR ?

No

No
No Packing attempt

Yes

No
% of free TCH
voice CHL < lower limit for
FR TCH resources
?

No

Yes

% of free TCH
voice CHL
> upper limit for
FR TCH resources
?

Yes

No

Both calls using least


robust codec mode?

Yes
Packing of 2 calls.
Packing is considered as
started

Packing is not started

58

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HR Radio
Resource
Search

Inter cell HO in AMR


Separate RXQUAL threshold parameters for AMR on BTS level
Default set to worse values compared to the EFR RXQual parameters (e.g. EFR =4, AMR =
5)
Same px/nx values used for both AMR and EFR
With these default settings AMR calls would be expected to have fewer HO due to quality

No difference in RXQUAL measurement method between EFR and AMR


EFR call and AMR call in identical location should show identical RXQUAL measurements
Packing/Unpacking
Unpacking from HR to FR is always based on RX quality
In congested cell with no available TS for unpacking, Inter-cell HO required based on
RXQUAL.
Improved robustness in AMR over EFR
AMR better able to handle poor radio conditions - low RXLEV, poor RXQUAL, low C/I
optimization of separate AMR parameters is important to ensure no negative impact to HO.
Different environments will need different parameter settings to optimise the performance.
Other AMR parameters should have no negative impact in a network designed for EFR
59

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

RXQuality Handover Parameters


Separate thresholds for AMR-FR than for AMR-HR

d
e
v
o
Same px/nx values used for both AMR and EFR
em
r
AMR allows to use more aggressive HObthresholds
(1-2 classes
e
lower)
o
t
e
d
i
BTS level parameters
l
s
is
h
T

Different HO thresholds for AMR than for EFR

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Inter cell HO in AMR


RXQUAL parameters for AMR HR and AMR FR
Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR
threshold level of the signal quality downlink measurements for triggering the
handover
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR
threshold level of the signal quality uplink measurements for triggering the
handover
Threshold dl Rx qual for AMR FR
threshold level of the signal quality downlink measurements for triggering the
handover
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR
threshold level of the signal quality uplink measurements for triggering the
handover

61

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Configuration in Handovers


amrConflnHandover
1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred
2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred
amrSetGradesEnabl Y/N
Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied
N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same, these 2
parameters has no impact.

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Configuration in Handovers


If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are difference (e.g. Talk family
BTS supports less codecs than UltraSite and MetroSite), the multirate configuration
can be aligned before or after HO.
Recommendation
amrConflnHandover = 2
amrSetGradesEnabl = Y
Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on source side before HO if target BTS
support less codec (downgraded, UltraSite Talk family)
Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on target side after HO if target BTS
support more codec (upgrade, Talk family UltraSite)
In order to make it possible to connect unidirectional speech path on target side,
the multirate configuration on both sides should be the same (reduce muting
period during HO).

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Thresholds Overview


RXQuality Class:
7
6 Qual_reason_HO for FR
5

UDRF, UURF

4 unpack HR -> FR
3 Qual_reason_HO for HR;

LDRF, LURF

2 pack FR -> HR

UDRH, UURH

1
0

64

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

LDRH, LURH

Handover Prioritization
When there are cells with
In order to facilitate the continuation of an
AMR call
HO target cell list is sorted so that lightlyloaded AMR-capable cells are more
attractive.
AMR-capable cells can be defined by the
AMR target cell of direct access to desired
layer (DADLA)
Prioritized by BTS Load Threshold (BLT)
Prioritization only used for an on-going AMRmode call

Call set-up

In AMR environment, DADL/B is used to handover


AMR calls from non-AMR-capable cell to co-located
AMR capable cells during call set-up phase.

Handover

1) DADL/B used to direct AMR


mobiles to AMR capable cells

No-AMR
2nd gen. BTS
capable
AMR capable
UltraSite
(co-located)
65

SDCCH

TCH

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR and without AMR

AMR cells which load below BTSLoadThreshold and


meet hoMarginPBGT are prioritised for AMR call.

2) Prioritisation of AMR capable


cells in handovers

Relation with other HOs: Priority


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Interference (UL or DL)


NonBCCHLayerExit
Uplink quality
Downlink quality
AMR unpacking due to UL level HO
threshold and UL quality (unpacking
is started instead of UL level based
HO if both, UL level and UL quality for
unpacking triggers)
6. Uplink level
7. AMR unpacking due to DL level HO
threshold and DL quality (unpacking
is started instead of DL level based
HO if both, DL level and DL quality
for unpacking triggers)

8.

Downlink level

9.

MS-BS Distance

10. Turn-around-corner MS
11. Rapid field drop
12. Fast/Slow moving MS
13. Better cell (Power budget HO or
Umbrella HO)
14. Load based HO in Common BCCH from
BCCH/non-BCCH layer to non-BCCH
layer
15. AMR packing
16. AMR unpacking

* Priority applies when criteria are fulfilled at the same time


66

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Power Control in AMR

There are special parameters for PC in AMR due to the


better FER performance
PC can be more aggressive than in EFR
Parameters separately for FR and HR
BTS level parameters

67

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Power Control Parameters

PC parameters for FR:


PC lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR:
threshold level of the downlink signal quality measurements for the BTS power
increase
PC upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR:
threshold level of the downlink signal quality measurements for the BTS power
decrease
PC lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR:
threshold level of the uplink signal quality measurements for the MS power
increase
PC upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR:
threshold level of the uplink signal quality measurements for the MS power
decrease

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Power Control Parameters

PC parameters for HR:


PC lower threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR:
threshold level of the downlink signal quality measurements for the BTS power
increase
PC upper threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR:
threshold level of the downlink signal quality measurements for the BTS power
decrease
PC lower threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR:
threshold level of the uplink signal quality measurements for the MS power
increase
PC upper threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR:
threshold level of the uplink signal quality measurements for the MS power
decrease

69

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Handover & Power Control


Parameters
Quali
ty 0

Qual (load)/ Pack/ IntraHO

Intra HO Threshold Rx Qual AMR FR


PcUpperThreshold UL/DL RXQual AMR FR/HR

Decrease Power
Level Ho

PcLowerThreshold UL/DL RxQual AMR FR/HR

No PC Action Needed

Increase Power
Intra HO Threshold Rx Qual AMR HR

Threshold UL/DL RxQual AMR FR/HR

No action
needed
PcUpperThreshold UL/DL RXQual FR/HR
PcLowerThreshold UL/DL RXQual FR/HR
PcUpperThreshold LevUL/DL
PcLowerThreshold LevUL/DL
RxLevAccMin
RxLevMinCell(n)
Power decrease
Power increase
No action
needed
70

Unpack/ IntraHO

Interference HO

Quality HO

Ho Thresholds

-50

-52

-54

-56

-58

-60

-62

-64

-66

-68

-70

-72

-74

-76

-78

-80

-82

-84

-86

-88

-90

-92

-94

-96

-98

-100

-102

-104

-106

Actions

-108

7
-110

Threshold UL/DL RxQual AMR FR/HR


HoThreshold Lev UL/DL
HoThreshold Interference UL/DL
RxLevMinCell(n)
RxLevAccMin
Interference HO
Quality Ho
Level Ho

Qual/ Lev

Leve
l

PcUpperThresholds LevUL/DL
HoThreshold Interference UL/DL

Pc Thresholds

PcLower Thresholds Lev UL/DL


HoThreshold Lev UL/DL

Actions

RxlevAccMin
RxlevMin(n)

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Switch to Slide Show mode

Impact at system level of Power Control


Parameters
Performance vs. PC settings

EFR vs AMR

d
e
v
o
m100% EFR PC=2/3
e
r
e
b
o
t
e
d
140 %
i
l
s
is
h
T
100% AMR PC=3/5
4.5%

4.5%
3.5%

100% AMR

3.5%
3.0%

3.0%

T CH fE R > 4%

% Bad Quality Samples

4.0%

4.0%

2.5%
2.0%
1.5%

2.5%
2.0%
1.5%

1.0%

1.0%

0.5%

0.5%

0.0%
P C=5/3

PC=5/4

PC=4/3

PC= 3/2

PC se ttings

0.0%
5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

EFL( %)

TCH FE R > 4%

71

% ended call avg estimated MOS < 3.5

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Codec MA

EFR

30%

35%

Radio Link Timeout in AMR

72

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

RLT Background
3GPP 05.08 states that Radio Link Failure (RLF) in the MS is determined by the
success rate of decoding messages on the downlink SACCH
The aim of determining RLF in the MS is to ensure that calls with unacceptable
voice/data quality, which cannot be improved either by RF power control or
handover, are either re-established or released in a defined manner
The Radio Link Timeout (RLT) parameter controls that a forced release (drop) will
not normally occur until the call has degraded to a quality below that at which the
majority of subscribers would have manually released it
The RLF procedure is implemented in the RRM at the BSC and is as follows:
After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized to RLT
When a SACCH message is unsuccessfully decoded the counter is decreased by
1
When a SACCH message is successfully decoded the counter is increased by 2
If the counter reaches 0 a RLF is declared Call is released

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NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

RLT Background
RLT is based on SACCH deletion. SACCH is though not using a dynamic codec like
voice in AMR, which means:
Using the EFR RLT value an AMR customer can have the call dropped because
RLT = 0 when still the FER is good
RLT is not anymore reliable with the same value in AMR than in EFR
Due to the fact that the FER performance is different when comparing AMR calls to
EFR calls, the Radio Link Timeout need to be defined separately for AMR
The Radio Link Timeout parameter for AMR is ARLT, available from S11.5. The
principle of ARLT is the same than in the RLT but it is used only for the AMR capable
mobile stations.
With ARLT the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks
for AMR calls is defined. The values range from 4 to 64 blocks, and can be changed
by 4-block steps at a time. The default value for ARLT is 20 (SACCH).

74

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

RLT AMR-FR vs. EFR - Test 1

AMR

EFR

The RLT is based on SACCH erased


frames, which are independent of
speech frames

Time

RLT

Number of
Number of unaccepta
una cceptable
ble
samples
sa mples
(FER>5 0%) ( FER>25
%)

FER

Time

RLT

d
e
v
o
m
e
r
The tests were aimed to find RLT value
e
b
producing the same speech degradation
o
t
in AMR as EFR would suffer with default
e
d
RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20)
i
l
s
is
h
T
The indicator used was number of BQSFER (with FER>50%/25%) between the
time when the counter starts decreasing
from its top value (64) to the point
where the link would be released (i.e.,
when the counter is decreased by the
RLT parameter)

00:25:55:82
00:25:56:30
00:25:56:78
00:25:57:26
00:25:57:74
00:25:58:23
00:25:58:71
00:25:59:20
00:25:59:68
00:26:00:16
00:26:00:64
00:26:01:12
00:26:01:60
00:26:02:08
00:26:02:56
00:26:03:05
00:26:03:53
00:26:04:01
00:26:04:49
00:26:04:97
00:26:05:45
00:26:05:93
00:26:06:41
00:26:06:89
00:26:07:37
00:26:07:85
00:26:08:34
00:26:08:82
00:26:09:30
rivada:
00:26:09:78
RLT = 44 is equivalent to
0 when using FI XED RLT
00:26:10:26
equal to 20 (DEFAULT
00:26:10:74
NOKIA VALUE)
00:26:11:23
00:26:11:71
00:26:12:19
00:26:12:67
00:26:13:15
00:26:13:63
00:26:14:11

64
64
63
62
64
63
62
64
64
63
62
64
64
63
62
61
60
59
61
60
59
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44

13
42
54
25
50
42
54
38
50
54
46
58
58
46
67
75
58
67
58
75
54
58
79
58
88
92
63
88
83
88
88
88
75
75
83
83
96
92
83

00:26:01:79
00:26:02:27
00:26:02:76
00:26:03:24
00:26:03:72
00:26:04:20
00:26:04:68
00:26:05:16
00:26:05:65
00:26:06:13
00:26:06:61
00:26:07:09
00:26:07:58
00:26:08:06
00:26:08:54
00:26:09:02
00:26:09:50
00:26:09:99
00:26:10:47
00:26:10:95
00:26:11:43
00:26:11:91
00:26:12:40
00:26:12:88
00:26:13:36
00:26:13:84
00:26:14:32
00:26:14:80
00:26:15:28
00:26:15:76
00:26:16:25
00:26:16:73
00:26:17:21

26

64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
39
38
37
36
35

FER

29
43
75
50
29
50
29
70
21
63
63
82
92
78
58
71
92
91
67
88
88
83
100
63
70
96
88
80
88
82
95
78
92

Number of
unacceptable
samples
(FER>50%)
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

RLT to
select

Number of
unaccepta
ble
samples
(FER>25
%)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
25
26
27
28
29

27

RLT has very high impact on


DCR
75

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

RLT AMR-FR vs. EFR - Test 2


Aim is to evaluate when AMR-FR is used which RLT value will result in comparable
performance (point at which call is released) to the recommended RLT for EFR

76

d
e
v
o
The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent
of speech
m
e the same speech
frames. The principle of the tests is to find RLT value producing
r
e
degradation (FER > 15 % MOS < 1.5 no audiblebspeech
during 30 sec before
oRLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20)
dropping) in AMR as EFR would suffer with default
t
e
d
i
l
s
is
The driving route started at a goodhcoverage
location and ended at a bad coverage
T
area

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR vs. EFR: FER Before Dropping


d
e
v
o
em
r
e
b
o
t
e
d
i
l
s
is
h
T

FER average every 5 seconds, during last 30 seconds before dropping for: RLT = 20,
28, 32, 36
77

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Dropped Call Experience


Dropped call experience: how long terminal does not receive any audible speech
(MOS<1.5) before it drops
During 30 seconds before dropping, FERAMR is lower than FEREFR

d
e
FER > 15 % during last 30 seconds before dropping, for RLT =
v20
o
em
r
e
AMR, FER > 15 %
EFR, FER > 15%
b
o
t
RLT = 20
10-15 seconds before dropping
e25-30 s. before drop
d
i
l
s
RLT = 28
15-20 seconds before dropping
is
h
T
RLT = 32
18-22 seconds before dropping
EFR

RLT = 36

25-30 seconds before dropping

RLT = xx

Conclusion:
AMRRLT=36 has a similar dropped call experience to EFRRLT=20

78

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

35-40 s. before drop

EFR customers w/ increased RLT due


to AMR
EFR customers wont be negatively effected from increased RLT
The only effect that is visible is a possible decrease in the (Dropped d
Call Ratio) DCR
e
v will close the
due to the fact that, possibly, due to the longer RLT some customer
o
conversation will the system will release it. Note that these cases
m should be pretty
e
r
rare due to the fact that the cases where the UL link is still available (RLT > 0) and
be
the DL link is not available (RLT = 0) are rare.

o
t
e
d
i
l
s
is
h
T

79

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

MaxCap Feature

80

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

General Description
MaxCap feature was developed to improve the AMR channel adaptation
performance
It was observed that when inter cell handover and unpacking is triggered, and
there is no suitable target cell, the call remains in HR the call does not unpack
As a result Voice Quality of HR call may become worse and customer will
experience bad speech quality
The MaxCap feature can be activated/deactivated from S11.0 CD 3.0 onwards and
the default value is ON (unpacking allowed)
Note that when MaxCap feature is ON unpacking is allowed in the specific condition
described above. Therefore, we expect more number of intra cell HOs (depending
upon quality threshold, Nx/Px) and this increases the probability of dropping calls

81

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

MaxCap OFF
If quality HO is triggered without a suitable target cell, the call will stay in HR and
will not unpack
Case 1:
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) = amrHandoverHR (unpacking)
->

call will not unpack if there is no suitable neighbor

Case 2:
If HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking)
a) the call will unpack only if the RXQUALITY does not go higher than the value
set for
unpacking.
b) if the RXQUALITY triggers unpacking and quality HO at the same time, the call
will not
unpack

82

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

MaxCap OFF /Case 1


HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) = amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> call will not
unpack if there is no suitable neighbor

When the RXQUALITY reaches the set QHO


threshold and there is no target cell the call
remains in HR.
83

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off and the rate is based on IAC and
load.

MaxCap OFF /Case 2a


HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> the call will
unpack in case the RXQUALITY does not go higher than the value set for unpacking

84

RXQUALITY reaches the unpacking


threshold first and triggers unpacking. The
call goes from HR to FR. Later, RXQUALITY
reaches QHO threshold and QHO is
NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL
initiated.
th

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off
and the rate is based on IAC and load.
Otherwise it remains in the old cell.

MaxCap OFF /Case 2b


HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> if the RXQUAL
triggers unpacking and quality HO at the same time, the call will not unpack

85

The RXQUALITY jumps up quickly triggering


both QHO and unpacking at the same time.
If there is no target cell the call remains in
HR.

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off
and the rate is based on IAC and load.

MaxCap ON
If quality HO is triggered and there are no suitable target cells, the call will unpack.
Case 1:
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) = amrHandoverHR (unpacking)
Case 2:
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking)

86

a)

the RXQUALITY does not go higher than the value set for unpacking

b)

the RXQUALITY triggers unpacking and quality HO at the same time

->

In Case1 and Case2 the call will always unpack if there is no suitable neighbor

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

MaxCap ON /Case1
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) = amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> call will unpack if
there is no suitable neighbor

When RXQUALITY reaches the set QHO


threshold and there is no target cell the call
will unpack to FR.
87

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off
and the rate is based on IAC and load.

MaxCap ON /Case 2a
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> RXQUALITY
weakens slowly -> the call will unpack

88

RXQUALITY reaches the unpacking


threshold first and triggers unpacking. The
call goes from HR to FR. Later, RXQUALITY
reaches QHO threshold and QHO is
NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL
initiated.
th

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off
and the rate is based on IAC and load.
Otherwise it remains in the old cell.

MaxCap ON /Case 2b
HoThresholdsQualUL (quality HO) > amrHandoverHR (unpacking) -> RXQUALITY
weakens rapidly -> the call will unpack

89

The RXQUALITY jumps up quickly triggering


both QHO and unpacking at the same time.
If there is no target cell the call will unpack
to FR.

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

If there is a suitable target cell the call


hands off
and the rate is based on IAC and load.

AMR Optimisation Remarks

90

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Optimisation Remarks (1/2)


It should be noted that the impact to BSC capacity for each dual rate timeslot is
double the impact of a full-rate-only RTSL. This impact is seen in the maximum
number of RTSLs that may be attached to a BCSU (max. 512 = 64 FR TRXs per
BCSU). For this reason, only a limited number of radio timeslots should be
configured as Dual Rate.
While only dual rate timeslots may serve HR mobiles, they are the last timeslots to
be allocated FR traffic. This avoids filling up the valuable DR slots with FR only
traffic.
This priority of allocating FR only timeslots overrides the TRP preference defined for
the cell. (i.e. if TRP prefers BCCH but all BCCH timeslots are DR while Hopping
timeslots are FR, FR calls will be assigned to hopping layer first), HR time slots are
allocated based on load thresholds.
With the AMR HR implementation BSCs maximum channel capacity 4096 must be
taken into the account in BSCs TRX amount dimensioning. For example, the BSC2i
provides with 512 full-rate TRXs capacity or 256 half rate TRXs.
Unpacking shall take place before any HO is triggered to other cells.
91

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR Optimisation Remarks (2/2)


Aggressive PC settings shall be used for higher capacity gain where as for better
speech quality conservative PC setting shall be used.
HR shall be used aggressively in dense urban areas where C/I is good and traffic is
very high whereas in rural area FR shall be preferred and HR shall be used
conservatively based on traffic loads
Couple of trials were performed to better understand the affect of parameter
changing on performance and find best set of parameters for optimum
performance in AMR network.
Drive tests were done to understand AMR algorithms and check the working in real
network

92

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

FRTx / HRTx Optimisation Trial

93

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Trial on FRTx/HRTx
9 sites were selected RVSDBSC16 to see the affect of changes in the
FRT/HRT/FRH/HRH values.
Three set of parameters were tested as given in the following table. Parameter
changes were made only for few hours for drive test purpose.
Parameter

94

Current Value

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 1 (dB)

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 2 (dB)

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 3 (dB)

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 1 (dB)

11

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 2 (dB)

12

14

10

12

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 3 (dB)

16

18

14

16

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 1 (dB)

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 2 (dB)

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 3 (dB)

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 1 (dB)

14

16

12

14

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 2 (dB)

17

19

15

17

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 3 (dB)

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Trial Area 1

95

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Trial Area 2

96

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

DL Codec Usage
100

12.2
kbit/s

90
80
70
60

Cu
rre
nt
t
va hres
lu e h o
ld

50
40

Hi
gh
Mo er t
re hre
s
c
co han hold
d in n e l
g

Lo
we
Mo r th
re res
co spee hold
din ch g

7.4
kbit/s
5.9
kbit/s

Hy
ste
4.75
r
e
fro sis kbit/s
m
1 t cha
o 2 ng
db ed

30
20
10
0
Current Value
97

Case 1

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Case 2

Case 3

UL Codec Usage
100
90
80

No noticeable change in codec set usage


12.2
kbit/s

70

7.4
kbit/s

60

5.9
kbit/s

50

4.75
kbit/s

40
30
20
10
0
Current Value
98

Case 1

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Case 2

Case 3

FER Comparison Area 1

Case 1

Case 3

99

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Case 2

Current Value

FER Comparison Area 2

Case 1

Case 3

100

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Case 2

Current Value

Trial Summary
There is no noticeable change in DL FER with change in FRTx/FRHx values.
There is a change in codec usage in DL with change in the thresholds.
No noticeable change in codec usage in UL.
The overall C/I is good in the area chosen for the trial and mostly codec 12.2 and
7.4 are used.
The current threshold values are good as best codec in terms of speech is used
most of the times.
Another area ( Trial area 1 ) is selected where the C/I is not as good so that we can
see the affect of FRTx/HRTx values on the DL FER.
The DL FER is best when using the current set of FRTx/HRTx values and
degraded in all other three set of values.
The current set of FRTx/HRTx values shall be used to have best DL FER.
101

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HOC, POC, BTS Optimisation Trial

102

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Trial Objective, Schedule,


Parameter Setting, Area
Objective :
Identify the best set of HOC, POC, BTS for an AMR network.
Schedule :
Phase I

Before 01/22/04

= Parameter Setting 1

Phase II

01/22/04

= Parameter Setting 2

Phase III

02/02/04

= Parameter Setting 3

Area
LSANBSC09 was selected as test area for the trial.

103

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Parameter Setting
Parameter

Level

Setting 1

Setting 2

Setting 3

Comments

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 1

BTS

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 2

BTS

AMR Configuration FR Hysteresis 3

BTS

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 1

BTS

12

18

18

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 2

BTS

18

24

24

AMR Configuration FR Threshold 3

BTS

22

32

32

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 1

BTS

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 2

BTS

AMR Configuration HR Hysteresis 3

BTS

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 1

BTS

22

28

28

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 2

BTS

28

34

34

AMR Configuration HR Threshold 3

BTS

AMR HO HR Threshold DL RxQual

BTS

AMR HO HR Threshold UL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC FR PCL Threshold DL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC FR PCL Threshold UL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC FR PCU Threshold DL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC FR PCU Threshold UL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC HR PCL Threshold DL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC HR PCL Threshold UL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC HR PCU Threshold DL RxQual

BTS

AMR POC HR PCU Threshold UL RxQual

BTS

PC Interval

Poc

PC L T Qual DL RxQual

POC

PC L U Qual DL RxQual

POC

HO T Qual DL Rx Qual

HOC

HO T Qual UL Rx Qual

HOC

Setting 1 and 3
are very
aggressive (low
POC & HOC
quality threshold)
as AMR allow MS
to maintain good
FER in low C/I

104

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

CODEC Profile
Composition of Calls
70% calls using AMR Codec
30 % calls using EFR Codec
This profile didnt change in the
different trial phases.

105

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

UL FER Behaviour
Observation
Overall UL FER profile (FER
<=4 %) didnt change.
Composition CODEC
Utilization has changed as the
AMR threshold changed.
Note that we have used only
UL FER because the DL FER
Stats are not reliable.

106

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

KPI Behaviour
Observation
Retainability didnt change.
Accessibility didnt change.
UL RxQual didnt change.
DL RxQual did change:
Improved when POC & HOC
set to higher threshold (Phase
II)
RxQual HO Threshold moved
5 4 for non AMR CALL had
the advantage to remove the
bad samples in the RxQual
Stats

107

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

EFR Call Behaviour


EFR call Performance
30% of Calls are EFR.
HO RxQual Threshold has set, in
the 3 trial phases, to 5 4 5.
UL FER didnt change.
UL RxQual didnt change.
DL RxQual improved as PC & HO
Quality threshold set to 3 & 4
(Phase II)

108

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HO Success Rate Behaviour


Ho Success Rate (Incoming & Outgoing) is stable. It is not influenced at all
parameter changing.

109

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

HO Causes Distribution
Phase I Phase II
PBGT HO has reduced.
DL/UL RxQual HO has increased as the HO quality threshold is triggered to Rx
Qual = 4
HO CAUSE TREND

62%

35.0%

Area2 Setting
POC,HOC,AMR

More qual HO and less PBGT


HO as HO threshold for HO
quality changed from Rx qual 5
to Rx qual 4

60%

30.0%

25.0%

HO PBGT

20.0%

56%

15.0%

EMERGENCY HO

58%

HO Power Budget
HO UL Qual
HO DL Qual
HO UL RxLev
HO DL RxLev

54%
10.0%

52%
5.0%

50%

0.0%
10Jan

110

11Jan

12Jan

13Jan

14Jan

15Jan

16Jan

17Jan

18Jan

19Jan

20Jan

21Jan

22Jan

23Jan

24Jan

25Jan

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

26Jan

27Jan

28Jan

29Jan

30Jan

31Jan

1Feb

2Feb

3Feb

4Feb

5Feb

6Feb

7Feb

8Feb

Average Power Behaviour


Phase I Phase II changes
AMR POC Lower RxQual Threshold 5 4
POC lower threshold for non AMR set 5 3
AVERAGE POWER TREND
38.6

26

Area 1 Setting
POC,HOC, AMR

38.4

Area 2 Setting
POC,HOC,AMR

Area 2 Setting : AMR


Area 1 Setting : POC & HOC
25.8

38.2

AV BS PWR = 38.22 dBm


25.6

38

AV BS PWR = 37.73 dBm


25.4

AV BS PWR = 37.74 dBm

37.8

Avg BS Power

AV MS PWR = 25.38 dBm

Avg MS Power

37.6

25.2

AV MS PWR = 25.28 dBm


AV MS PWR = 25.21 dBm
37.4

25
37.2
24.8

111

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

08.F eb

07.Feb

06.Feb

05.Feb

04.Feb

03.Feb

02.Feb

01.Feb

31.J an

30.J an

29.J an

28.J an

27.J an

26.J an

25.J an

24.J an

23.J an

22.J an

21.J an

20.J an

19.J an

18.J an

17.J an

16.J an

15.J an

14.J an

13.J an

12.J an

11.J an

36.8

10.J an

37

24.6

Summary
Threshold changing has no impact on retainability (DCR).
Threshold changing has no impact on UL path as no quality improvement (FER,
BER) or Average MS Power changing noticed. This indicate that we have better
performance on UL than DL.
Increase of 0.5 dB in average BTS transmit power when POC DL_lower_ threshold
set to higher threshold as it is try to keep call on better BER but at the same time
increase level of interference.
As the HO Quality threshold increase 5 to 4 for AMR, number of HO due to quality
increased too (almost double).
DL quality has improved as less calls with higher BER have been removed due to
the increment number of HO due to quality.
No DL FER Data is available to prove if there is real improvement on DL voice
quality. We can assume that better BER will generated better FER.
112

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Drive Test in AMR

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Drive Test
Drive test was done using TEMS investigation to verify the following events:
Call packing from FR to HR
Call unpacking from HR to HR
Link adaptation depending upon channel conditions

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Packing = FR HR (1/3)
The slide
shows MS
call on AMR
FR on codec
set 12.2 and
VQ = 0
AS VQ is
good,
depending
upon load
thresholds
the call packs
from FR 12.2
codec to HR
4.75 codec as
shown in next
slide

AMR FR Call, DL VQ =0, good C/I


Codec used 12.2 kbps
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Packing = FR HR (2/3)
After packing
from FR to HR the
MS first selects
most robust
codec (4.75 kbps)
on HR and then
does the link
adaptation to
select another
codec depending
upon channel
conditions.
The slide shows
MS call on AMR
HR on codec set
4.75 and VQ = 0

AMR HR Call, DL VQ =0, good C/I


HR Codec used is 4.75 kbps
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AS VQ is good,
(good C/I ) MS
does the link
adaptation and
changes from
codec 4.75 to
codec 7.4

Packing = FR HR (3/3)
After packing
from FR to HR
the MS first
selects most
robust codec
(4.75 kbps ) on
HR.
AS VQ is good,
(good C/I ) MS
does the link
adaptation and
changes from
codec 4.75 to
codec 7.4
The slide shows
MS call on AMR
HR on codec set
7.40 kbps and
VQ = 0
AMR HR Call, DL VQ =0 , good C/I
HR Codec used is 7.40 kbps

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Unpacking = HR FR (1/2)
The slide
shows MS call
on AMR HR on
codec set 4.75
and VQ = 5,
and bad C/I
AS VQ is bad,
call unpacks
from HR 7.4
codec to FR
5.3 codec as
shown in next
slide

AMR FR Call, DL VQ =5, bad C/I


Codec used 4.75 kbps

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Unpacking = HR FR (2/2)
The slide
shows MS on
HR on AMR FR
on codec set
5.3 and VQ =
6

AMR FR Call, DL VQ =6
Codec used 5.3 kbps

119

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HR Link Adaptation (1/3)


After packing
from FR to HR
the MS first
selects most
robust codec
( 4.75 kbps )
on HR.
The slide
shows MS call
on AMR HR on
codec set 7.4
and VQ = 0
and good C/I.

AMR HR Call, DL VQ =0, good C/I


Codec used 7.40 kbps

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HR Link Adaptation (2/3)


After packing
from FR to HR
the MS first
selects most
robust codec
( 4.75 kbps )
on HR.
The slide
shows MS call
on AMR HR on
codec set 4.75
and VQ = 0

AMR HR Call, DL VQ =6, bad C/I


Codec used 4.75 kbps

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AS VQ is good,
( good C/I ) MS
does the link
adaptation
and changes
from codec
4.75 to codec
7.4

HR Link Adaptation (3/3)


After packing
from FR to HR
the MS first
selects most
robust codec
( 4.75 kbps )
on HR.
The slide
shows MS call
on AMR HR on
codec set 4.75
and VQ = 0

AMR FR Call, DL VQ =6
Codec used 5.3 kbps

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As VQ is good,
( good C/I ) MS
does the link
adaptation
and changes
from codec
4.75 to codec
7.4

Capacity and Coverage

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AMR Effect on Capacity & Coverage


AMR provides a significant performance enhancement that can be translated into
a tradeoff between quality and capacity
AMR feature impact and deployment strategy depends strongly upon the AMR
capable mobile penetration
AMR gains:
Quality -> AMR maintains good speech quality in the situation where the
connection faces low C/I or low signal level. Also due to retransmissions
schemes used by these channels the probability of signaling success maintain
very high even for very degraded conditions
Capacity -> HR utilization doubles the hardware capacity of the cell since
two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot. Practically
the gain is up to 150% higher capacity for the same quality
Coverage -> additional 3-4 dB effective coverage
Cost (HR hardware efficiency) -> 20-40% lower number of TRXs
Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality with same
frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH
layer

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AMR KPIs and Network Doctor


Reports

125

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AMR Performance Monitoring


AMR brings new speech codecs and channel encoders into air interface
Speech Codecs impact would be reflected in the speech quality perceived
Channel encoding enhancement is translated into better error correction capabilities
(lower FER for same RawBER), which, in turn, enhances the speech quality
Traditional performance monitoring indicators based on RXQUAL distribution, or Drop
Call Rate, etc. does not reflect clearly the perceived speech quality by the end user.
New methods to monitor the performance of AMR closer to speech quality perceived
by the user. 2 Main indicators are proposed: FER and O-MOS (Objective MOS).
O-MOS is not simple to measure
(BSS 10.5) FER is available in UL, but DL FER will be reported when R99 MS
come. In the meantime DL FER is just estimated from RXQUAL values

RXQUAL

126

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O-MOS

AMR KPIs
RXQUALITY: Reported raw bit error rate
RXLEV: Reported received power
FER: Frame Erasure Rate (after decoding)
Codec distribution
MOS - speech quality
FER per codec
Call Drop Rate and other standard benchmarking measures
Network collected measurements:
Micros oft Word
Document

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AMR KPIs
The AMR feature itself will not impact the individual connections DCR, but it will
affect the overall system DCR since the interference generated in the network is
lower due to the AMR power control settings.
Radio Link Timeout can be adapted to AMR in order for dropped calls to maintain the
same correlation with voice quality degradation as with EFR
v ed

mo

e
rchanged
AWS National standard changed for Radio Link Timeout
from 20 to 44
e
b
o
t
SACCHs.The new standard is due to theefact
ts that the AMR calls may still have a good
l
l
u
communication but radio link e
timeout
b is small and call is cleared based on RLT.

s
e
h
T
The new standard was implemented to Los Angeles market .Increasing the radio link
timeout to 44 clearly improved the retainability in L.A. core area.

Quality -> better perceived speech quality.


Traditionally, GSM voice quality has been usually benchmarked based on BER
measurements
With Frequency Hopping and AMR, BER becomes increasingly meaningless and
therefore alternative indicators are needed to benchmark the voice quality
BSS10.5 brings FER based counters:
In UL, the system measures the UL FER and related counters are available
In DL, the system estimates the DL Frame Erasure Probability (FEP) based on the
rest of information available
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MOS & FER

Example of relation MOS-FER:

4-5% FER seems to be acceptable for almost all codecs


M OS
0.50

Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER


(FR Tests in Clean Speech)

M OS
0.50

GSM
06.7
5

0.00

-0.50

Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER


(HR Tests in Clean Speech)

0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.00

7.95 HR
-1.50

-1.50

12.2
10.2
7.95 FR
7.4 FR
6.7 FR
5.9 FR
5.15 FR
4.75 FR

-2.00

-2.50

-3.00
0.001%

0.010%

6.7 HR
-2.00

5.9 HR
5.15 HR

-2.50

4.75 HR

FER
0.100%

1.000%

10.000%

FER
100.000%

MOS degradation for FR

129

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-3.00
0.001%

0.010%

0.100%

1.000%

10.000%

MOS degradation for HR

100.000%

AMR Effect on HO_QUALITY

RXLEV and Power Budget HO parameters identical for AMR and EFR
AMR call would handover at the same point as an EFR call.

Separate RXQUAL threshold settings for AMR


Default set to worse values than EFR. (e.g. EFR =4, AMR = 5)
With these default settings AMR calls would be expected to have fewer
HO due to quality
No difference in RXQUAL measurement method between EFR and AMR
EFR call and AMR call in identical location should show identical RXQUAL
measurements
Packing/Unpacking
Unpacking from HR to FR is always based on RX quality
In congested cell with no available TS for unpacking, Inter-cell HO
required based on RXQUAL.

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AMR Effect on HO_Failures


Improved robustness in AMR over EFR
AMR better able to handle poor radio conditions - low RXLEV, poor RXQUAL,
low C/I
Separate RXQUAL HO threshold for AMR
Effort to squeeze more performance from AMR could have negative impact
in case parameters are not properly set up and/or traffic is low
Packing/Unpacking
Congestion could cause negative impact to HO_Fail
No available TS for unpacking within cell. Inter-cell HO required
Conclusion
Optimization of separate AMR parameters is important to ensure no
negative impact to HO_Failures. Different environments will need different
parameter settings to optimise the performance.
Unpacking algorithm under congested conditions may negatively impact
HO_Failures

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AMR Effect on DCR


The AMR feature itself will not impact the individual connections DCR, but
it will affect the overall system DCR since the interference generated in the
network is lower due to the AMR power control settings.
Radio Link Timeout can be adapted to AMR in order for dropped calls to
maintain the same correlation with voice quality degradation as with EFR
(RLT value could be moved from 20 to 36, for instance)

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AMR Effect on BH_Congestion


Use of AMR HR will decrease BH_Cong
Special dimensioning techniques are required:
% of HR capable terminals -> system level
Load in busy hour (C/I distribution) determines % of HR terminals which can use
HR -> cluster level
HR Dimensioning tables determine the traffic (Erlangs) to be carried for a
certain TSL configuration, a certain grade of service and % of HR traffic -> cell
level

133

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Network Doctor Reports related to


AMR
Report 246:
Summary report for AMR KPI
Percentage of call time using non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR
UL/DL RxQual classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR
UL/DL FER classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR

Report 244:
Distribution of call samples UL/DL by codecs and RxQual classes
In FLA the codec mode reported is the last used in 480ms measurement
interval (statistics will be fully accurate for SLA)

Report 245:
Distribution of call samples UL/DL by FER classes separated for codec
types and rates

Report 247: Call Failure rate per codec type


Report 248: Seizure and failure statistics for codec set modifications in
internal HO
Report 249: AMR counters summary

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AMR MML Commands

135

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MML Commands
Following are the frequently used MML commands used for AMR activation,
measurement, parameter monitoring and changes

136

ZWOC:2,619:A; , Activate AMR at BSC


ZWOC:2,628,A; Activate FER Feature at BSC
ZWOS:2; Output Feature Activation Status
ZTPM:MEASUR,FER:ALL,00-00-2400,15:CL1=2,CL2=5,CL3=10,CL4=20,CL5=40,CL6=70,CL7=120,WIN=2,:;
Activate FER Measurement
ZEQO:BTS=X:AMR; Output BTS level AMR parameters
ZEEO:GEN; Output BSC Level AMR parameters
ZEUO:BTS=X; Output AMR Power control parameters
ZEHO:BTS=X; Output AMR Hand-off and packing parameters
ZEGO:PAR; Output FEP parameters

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

AMR & Soft Channel Capacity


Feature (S11.0)

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Soft Channel Capacity to Help AMR


Deployment
One of the NOKIA BSS practical limits that has been highlighted from the customer
is the fact that we cant deploy all the BSC as HR
This is true till S10.5
In S11.0 Nokia is introducing the Soft Channel Capacity feature that allows to
define all the RTSL in the BSS as Dual Rate
This will have in important (positive) impact on the OPEX and CAPEX savings for
the customers.
As we write the feature is under trial in the AWS Los Angeles market but it is very
promising
UPDATE!!!!

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BSC Capacity Roadmap


BSC2i
BSC Release
Platform
Capacity
PCUs

BSC3i

S10.5 S11.0 S11.5 S10.5 S11.0 S11.5


B9
B9
B11
B11
B9
B11
24

Black = Under
Development
Blue =
Planned
S12 (Planning Items)
B12
BSC3i 2-rack
96

16

16

3 040

3 040 3 040 3 920

3 920 3 920

TRX

512

512

660

TCH

4 096

8 192 8 192 5 280

10,560 10 560

E1/T1

144

144

144

124

124

256

256 / rack + SDH/SONET

BTS Site

248

248

248

248

248

500

2 000

BTS sector

248

248

512

248

248

660

2 000

Erlang

16

24

24

11 880

Connectivity

139

512

660

TCSM/MGW Ch 960 Ch

960 Ch

768 Ch

768 Ch

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

660

2 000
32 000

10 000

Attachments
- HRI Study
- Packing/unpacking Threshold

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OXNARD BSC 2
PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION
Toni Viitanen and Timothy Paul
05/12/03

141

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Back to AMR Paramet


ers

Executive Summary
On April 16 AMR was activated on BSC 16. Upon activation the following issues
were seen:
1.

Retain ability degradation


TCH Drops increased from close 2000 to 3300/day.

Root cause found.

TCH HO Drop increased from 1000 to 1500/day.

Root cause found.


2.

SDCCH Accessibility degradation

This is due to pool switching, will be confirmed after


testing with new pool settings.
3.

142

Ericsson TEMS phone DTMF tones sustained


Root cause investigation ongoing

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Major Events
Event 1

AMR activated on 5/16/03

Event 2

May 5, 4:00 PM - AMR pool blocked accidentally.


Event 3

May 7, 1:00 PM AMR pool reactivated, Pool size doubles.


Event 4

May 8, 10:00 AM Downlink DTX turned OFF

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Ericsson TEMS phone DTMF tones


sustained
DTMF signalling is between MS and MSC and is transparent to BSS
Abis traces indicate that MS did not send the STOP DTMF message to MSC =>
Hence STOP DTMF ACK message was not sent by MSC.

UL event

DL event
Chan. Act. (AMR)

CHAN. ACT. ACK (DCh) T=0


EST. IND (RLL) T=0
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE (RR)
ALERTING
CONNECT

(CC) (SSN: 0)
(CC) (SSN: 0)

CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE (CC) (SSN: 0)


START DTMF
(CC) (SSN: 1)
STOP DTMF

(CC) (SSN: 0)

START DTMF

(CC) (SSN: 1)

START DTMF ACK

(CC) (SSN: 0)

STOP DTMF ACK

(CC) (SSN: 0)

START DTMF ACK

(CC) (SSN: 0)

T200
CHANNEL RELEASE
(RR)
DEACT. SACCH (DCh) T=0
RF CHANNEL REL. (DCh) T=0
RF CH. REL. ACK (DCh) T=0
144

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Nokias implementation of 26.093 CR


BTS SW CX3.3

Following changes are implemented for BB2E:


If a FACCH needs to be sent during a speech pause, and:
1) if the frame preceding the FACCH is not of TX_TYPE=SPEECH_GOOD, then an ONSET
frame shall be signaled to the CHE, followed by the FACCH frame(s);
2) if the frame following the FACCH frame is not of TX_TYPE=SPEECH_GOOD, then a
SID_FIRST shall be signaled to the CHE.

BTS SW CX3.3-1

Changes mentioned above are implemented for BB2A


Following changes are implemented for both BB2E and BB2A

3) A stolen SID_UPDATE should be rescheduled on the frame subsequent to the SID_FIRST marker that
follows the FACCH frame(s) (when that marker exists), unless that rescheduling would steal a frame of
TX_TYPE="SPEECH_GOOD", or if a frame of TX_TYPE="SID_UPDATE" has been received before the
rescheduling could take place. This rescheduling shall not affect the timing of subsequent SID_UPDATE
frames.

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Analysis of DL DTX
Dropping calls can be seen when making calls with some phones through Nokias
infra. Other related problems that may occur are DTMF, Hold-mode and even some
audible noises.
Problems occur only when AMR DTX is on.
Change Request to GSM 26.093 Handling of FACCH and RATSCCH during AMR DTX
It helps phones to detect FACCH messages during AMR DTX. Without implementing
this it may cause call dropping and disturbing noises with some terminals.
Note, this CR is targeted to 3GPP release 6.
Nokia has implemented the following of CR:
Specify that FACCH frames shall be framed by ONSET and SID_FIRST in order to fill
that part of the burst which would otherwise be undefined
BTS SW that includes these changes is CX3.3
Recommendation: Until deployment of CX3.3, it is recommended to turn OFF DL
DTX.

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TCH Drops and TCH HO summary

147

TCH Radio Drop (counter 1003) and TCH HO Drop

Call dropping could be explained if pool switchingwas absolutely necessary but


there are no appropriate circuits available (all pools full, congestion) and HO is not
possible then the call is dropped if radio conditions go worse enough

This situation could not be seen in monitoring logs but switching of pools were
always successful and thus it cannot be proven that problem is due to lack of Ainterface circuits

New Nethawk logs were captured on 05/07

Most of error indication message (CC 20) comes after call release procedure was
triggered

This will trigger the counter 1003 in conversation phase and not in Call release phase
as BSC does not know of the call release procedure yet.
Disconnect and Release messages are transparent to BSC

T200 timer expires when call release phase is triggered

Further investigation is ongoing from BSC and BTS perspective

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

SDCCH_ACC degradation analysis


Analysis shows the counter increases due to congestion and pegs counters (1122,
4097, 4098, 4101), call is redirected due to AMR circuit not available. Call
continues as EFR to EFR.
Increase in counters is caused due to the incorrect dimensioning of the AMR circuit pools
(20 % penetration of AMR mobiles in the Oxnard area, dimensioning done for lower
penetration). If AMR pool full->pool switching to EFR pool.
Additional T1 circuits to be added week 19.
No new information until new circuit available.
This is NORMAL Behaviour
Scorecard analysis on SDCCH_ACC formula will be done after additional circuits are
available to ensure appropriate grading.

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SDCCH_ACC counter increase detailed


analysis 1(3)
Message monitoring for AIV, RRM, and HAS were
analysed and below are the findings:
A handover channel required message is sent by the A-interface
program block to the handover program block with the following
parameters:
Channel rate and type = fr_p_ch_al_c (Full or half rate TCH,
full rate preferred, changes allowed also after first channel
allocation as a result of the request)
A_Circuit type = 0x17 = fr3_hr3_c (Pool 23, supports full rate
speech version 3 and half rate speech version 3)
Pool_switch_ind (indicates the pools to which the current pool
is allowed to be changed) = 0x0003 = fr1 and fr2
Handover program block passes on this request to the Radio
Resource Manager program block with the same parameters to
reserve a channel
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SDCCH_ACC counter increase detailed


analysis 2(3)

Radio Resource Manager responds to the channel request with a


negative acknowledgement with the following fields:
Dx_cause = rrm_switch_crc_pool_c
Cause = switch_crc_pool_c
Handover program block then sends a handover failure message to
the A-interface program block with cause rrm_switch_crc_pool_c
which is eventually sent towards the MSC
According to GSM 8.08 3.1.1.2:
If, on reception by the BSS of an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message allocating a circuit,
the circuit pool implied by the CIC is compatible with the channel type indicated (that
is, the pool supports at least one of the radio resource types indicated by the channel
type), but the BSS still wishes to change the circuit pool, it sends an ASSIGNMENT
FAILURE with the cause "switch circuit pool" and the "circuit pool list" information
element.

At this point the counters 001122, 004097, 004098, and 004101


will be incremented depending on the type of handover
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SDCCH_ACC counter increase detailed


analysis 3(3)

If pool switching is possible,HANDOVER FAILURE with cause


"switch circuit pool" is sent to MSC =>MSC allocates new circuit
and sends new HANDOVER REQUEST
Succeeding messages indicates that the handover was attempted
again but with a different pool and the handover was successful.
It is expected that the counters 1122, 4097, 4098and4101 are
incremented whenever pool switching occurs.

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Analysis to Date (continued)


A-interface signalling logs (K1205) analysed (HRI =
1)
It was confirmed from the signaling logs that the MSC does send a
Handover Request to the BSC requesting the BSC to reserve an
AMR FR radio resource as preferred
MSC has already selected the A-interface circuit and it was
confirmed to be AMR
BSC responds with a Handover Failure message with cause switch
circuit pool

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Analysis to Date (continued)


HANDOVER REQUEST (from GSM 8.08)
This message contains details of the resource(s) required. If the MSC allocates
the A interface circuits, and if the requested resource(s) is/are for speech or
data the message also indicates the terrestrial resource that shall be used
between the MSC and the BSS. The MSC should only ever ask for resources
from the BSS that it knows are not totally incompatible with the nominated
circuit. The type of channel(s) required can be different from the type of
channel(s) in use, e.g. in the case of directed retry. The description of the
resource(s) can either be a complete specification, or give the BSS some
freedom in the selection (for instance channel rate selection, speech version
selection etc.). The message may also specify the channel(s) in use, and, in
case current channel mode is speech, the speech version used.

HANDOVER FAILURE (from GSM 8.08)


If, on reception of the HANDOVER REQUEST by the BSS, the circuit pool implied
by the CIC is compatible with the channel type indicated (that is, the pool
supports at least one of the radio resource types indicated by the channel
type), but the BSS still wishes to change the circuit pool, it sends a HANDOVER
FAILURE with the cause "switch circuit pool" and the "circuit pool list"
information element.

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Analysis to Date (continued)


BSC and BTS parameters analyzed
To determine what is causing the BSC to switch the circuit pool
contrary to the pool that the MSC has already chosen the BSC and
BTS parameter were analysed
It was determined that all cells under Oxnard BSC 2 are all
configured to be AMR capable
The BSC has circuit pools which supports FR, EFR, and AMR
BSC level parameters were verified and found that the TCH IN
HANDOVER (HRI) parameter was set to 1 - CALL SERVING TYPE
OF TCH HAS TO BE ALLOCATED PRIMARILY

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Analysis to Date (continued)


HRI =4 causing counters 004097 and 004098 to
increase
Those two counters are updated if A-interface circuit needs to
be changed during inter/intra cell HO.
RRM message monitoring for internal handover messages
needs to be captured for further investigation

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Conclusions
Handovers which failed due to pool switchings were re-attempted with
a different type of pool and were successful
BSC is performing circuit pool switching because the HRI parameter is
set to primarily allocate same type of TCH as the current serving cell
The reason why this was not seen when the AMR circuits were blocked
is because the MSC does not even try to allocate it to AMR in the
Handover Request message

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SDCCH_ACC and TCH Drop and TCH


HO Drop impacting counters,
detailed description
Signaling Chart for External HO
HRI Description

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1122, 4097
Descriptions of the concerned counters for
accessibility
001122 TCH_REJ_DUE_REQ_CH_A_IF_CRC
Number of requests for TCHs that are rejected due to a
mismatch between the types of the requested channel and
the A interface circuit, whether queuing occurred or not.
This is updated when there is an assignment failure message
with cause switch circuit pool

158

004097 BSC_I_UNSUCC_A_INT_CIRC_TYPE
Number of incoming HOs that are unsuccessful due to a
wrong A interface circuit type
Updated when an internal incoming inter-cell HO attempt is
interrupted because the BSC wants to change the A interface
circuit pool before TCH allocation
Updating is only done when there is unsuccessful circuit
reservation with cause switch_crc_pool

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4098, 4101

159

004098 HO_UNSUCC_A_INT_CIRC_TYPE
Number of HOs unsuccessful due to a wrong A interface
circuit type
Updated when an internal intra-cell HO attempt is interrupted
because the BSC wants to change the A interface circuit pool
before TCH allocation
Updating is only done when there is unsuccessful circuit
reservation with cause switch_crc_pool

004101 MSC_CONTROLLED_IN_HO_NUMBER
Number of incoming unsuccessful HOs due to a wrong A
interface circuit type.
When the HO attempt ends as a result of a TCH allocation
attempt which is unsuccessful because of a mismatch
between the requested TCH channel type and the A interface
circuit type. The cause switch_circuit_pool is sent in the
HANDOVER_FAILURE message to the A interface.

All of these counters are being incremented whenever there is an


attempt to reserve a channel and was unsuccessful with cause
switch_crc_pool

NOKIA AMR optimization Guidelines / Jan 16th 2006 / Ver 01.01 / NOKIA CONFIDENTIAL

Signaling Chart for External HO


Signaling chart for External handover

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HRI Parameter Description


HRI parameter explained

Parameter
HRI =

With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation during BSS
internal or external handovers. The parameter controls the target cell selection
and the TCH channel rate and speech codec determination in traffic channel
allocation. The values are:
Value Explanation
1
The call serving type of TCH has to be allocated primarily. The call serving type of speech codec
inside the call serving type of TCH can change.
2
Primary allocation is preferred for the call serving type of TCH and the call serving type of speech
codec during the speech connection. The channel rate change is possible during data connection, if
necessary, and if the radio interface data rate allows
3
The channel rate and speech codec changes are denied totally.
4
The preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec have to be primarily allocated.
5
TCH has to be allocated primarily from the best BTS of the handover candidate list.

Therefore, with a value set to 1 the BSC will try to allocate the same type of
rate and speech codec on which the call is currently using. In this case with
Oxnard BSC 2, the incoming handovers are observed to be EFR and the MSC
initially tries to allocate it to an AMR resource basing on the MS capability. But
since the BSC has to fulfill the requirements set by the HRI parameter it then
has to advise the MSC to switch circuit pool from AMR to EFR.
By using value 4 channel is allocated according to request regardless of
channel type used in source side. In this case pool switching could be avoided
and EFR would be changed to AMR FR during external HO.
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Back to AMR Paramet


ers

Packing/Unpacking Threshold
Selection

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Back to AMR Paramet


ers

RXQUALITY vs. Average FER


2 sec Periods
Averaged RXQuality distribution in ROUTE 1

(TEMS) Average FER in 2sec periods


AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB Thr & 3dB Hyst

50%
45%
25

40%
35%

20

25%

Average FER

30%

20%
15%

15
10

10%
5

5%
0%
RXQUAL0 RXQUAL1 RXQUAL2 RXQUAL3 RXQUAL4 RXQUAL5 RXQUAL6 RXQUAL7

Averaged RXQual distribution in ROUTE 1

0
RXQUAL1

RXQUAL2

RXQUAL3

RXQUAL4

RXQUAL5

RXQUAL6

RXQUAL7

Average FER in 2sec

According to the average FER, RXQUALITY 5 can be considered still as providing


enough quality to serve AMR-HR. Also note that in such conditions, most robust HR
codecs will be used but for high capacity networks this would be enough

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Correlation RXQUALITY vs. FER


2sec Period

With RXQuality 5, still AMR-HR can provide enough quality to serve traffic if high
capacity numbers are required.
(TEMS) Distribution of FER in 2sec per RXQUAL class for AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB and 3dB Hyst
100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%

RXQual 1
RXQual 2
RXQual 3
RXQual 4
RXQual 5
RXQual 6
RXQual 7

10.00%
.00%

10% of
samples
having worse
than 4% FER
WITH RXQual
5
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TEMS Snapshot
In an
environment
around RXQual
5, less than 2
frames erased
per SACCH
period.
AMR-HR with
RXQuality 5
could be used
when trying to
have agressive
HR penetration

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Packing/Unpacking threshold
selection
From the performance of AMR-HR it can be concluded that RXQuality 4 might be a safe
value for packing from FR to HR in order to ensure proper quality of AMR-HR.
If more agressive deployment is required and more penetration of AMR-HR is aimed at,
then RXQuality 5 threshold can be used still safely.
(NOTE: In the current implementation of BSS10.5 calls pack when RXQuality is < IHRF
and unpack when RXQuality is >= IHRH. Additionally, for packing, the codec used in FR
has to be the least robust one.)

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Channel mode adaptation: Additional


notes
HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on working FR TSLs
for CS in individual BTS.
Lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU)
are BTS specific parameters. They have priority over (HRL) and (HRU)
The feature is disable when set HRU <= HRL or FRU <= FRL
Requirements for maximum usage of HR
HRU = 99
HRL = 98
IAC = 1
IHRF = 3, RX Qual 0, 1, 2, 3 are required for packing
IHRH = 4, Rx Qual 4, 5, 6, 7 triggers unpacking
TRIH = 0, no restriction, channel rate selection based on HRI

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Review Questions 1 ( )
Slide 14: The suggested LA rate is the fast one is it true? In Parameter dictionary the
SLA is as default
Slide 21: Despite that all codec are availabe, only four out of eight can be used at once.
Slide 23: AMR will be implemented in all new Nokia high volume phones? AMR is not
implemented yet?
The AMR capable MS can be identified through the
MS Capability NMS measurements
(P_NBSC_MS_CAPABILITY table) and mapping
the classmark w/ the EDGE? What has to do with EDGE?
Slide 29: MMI or MML commands?
Slide 38: slow AMR LA enabled
BSC
SAL
No
Enable slow link adaptation.
This is a proprietary algorithm where codec mode changes happen every SACCH period
(480ms) instead of as fast as 40ms ? No means SAL is enabled
Slide 47: To configure the RTSL for half rate support, the existing FR only configuration
(TCHF) must be changed to Dual Rate (TCHD) depending upon the traffic need and
blocking on the site Does it mean that some
channels remain TCHF??
Slide 56: optimization of separate AMR parameters is important to ensure no negative
impact to HO. Different
environments will need different parameter settings to optimise
the performance. Other AMR
parameters should have no negative impact in a
network designed for EF EFR?
Slide 57: May be following should be added:
TRIH=0 Means:Constraints given by the BSS-level parameter TCH rate internal HO are followed
TRIH=3 Means: Channel rate and speech codec changes denied
HRI=3 Means: Channel rate and speech codec changes denied

Slide 65-68: PoC may need a liitle more explanation.


Slide 68: After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized to RLT
What is the initial value of the counter? Which Counter?
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Slide
75: MaxCap??? Not in NED??
th