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MATRIX ACIDISING

INTRODUCTION
Overview of Acidising
Sources of Formation damage

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this lecturer, students should be able to:
Design acidising treatment
Assess the degree of formation damage present in a
formation

ACIDISING
Uses of Acid in the oilfield:
Wellbore cleaning
Formation damage removal
Source, type, location, form of damage

Formation stimulation
Matrix
Fracturing

WHERE IN THE WELL?


Treat in the wellbore above open formation

Protect lower completion


Prevent well flow
Wash well across formation
Clean screen
Perforation wash
Matrix treat
Isolation (type of completion)
Below Frac pressure
Frac
Above Frac Pressure
Protect completion packer
May need isolation

Keep fluid out of Matrix


Fluid will contact Matrix

ACIDISING
Two types of Rock
Two types of Goal
Two types of Treatment
Two types of Matrix Acidizing
Two types of Acid

ACIDISING
Two types of Rock:
Carbonates (Limestone)
Calcite, dolomite
Porosity in matrix, vugs, fractures
Matrix perm often low
Clastics (Sandstone)
Quartz and other alumino - silicates
Porosity between particles
Permeable matrix between particles

ACIDISING
Two types of Goal:
Damage Removal
Removal of material that is preventing
maximum productivity

Stimulation
Improving production beyond natural
capability

ACIDISING
Two types of Treatment:
Matrix Acidizing
Clastics for damage removal
Carbonates for stimulation
Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing
Acid Fracturing

FLOW REGIMES
Radial flow
Natural fractures
Hydraulic fractures

Matrix Production

Fracture Production

MATRIX ACIDISING
Two types of Matrix Acidizing:
Dissolve mineral structure to
build pathways to natural
fractures or natural porosity
Push acid through matrix
framework, dissolving damage
and restoring natural perm

ACIDISING
Two types of Acid:
Acid that dissolves alumino-silicates
Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)
Acid that dissolves carbonate material
Hydrochloric Acid (HCI), Organic Acids

HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCL)


Low cost and availability
Strengths used 3-28%
Excellent reaction rate with calcite - controllable
Economical Corrosion inhibition possible up to 175 C
Retains large quantities of dissolved species (salts) in
solution after spending
Most reaction products are water-soluble

ORGANIC ACIDS
Acetic
Formic
Citric
Others
Sulphamic

Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)


Used in both carbonates and sandstone
Can be used in with HCl or formic
Can be used alone instead of HCl
Lower reactivity
Lower corrosivity - less costly to inhibit
High temperature applications
Formic Acid (HCOOH)
Mostly used with HCl or Acetic
More expensive
Primary application in hot wells
Useful in slower reacting acid fracturing systems

ACID CONCENTRATIONS

HYDROFLUORIC ACID (HF)


Always pumped as a mix of HF and other acid
Normal concentrations HF 0.5% to 6.0%
Can be inhibited to over 175 C
Sandstone matrix acidizing - Removal of HCl insoluble fines
One US gallon of 12:3 HCl:HF will dissolve 0.217 pounds of
silica based material
Caution must be taken with carbonates
Insoluble Calcium Fluoride precipitates

TREATING MATRIX DAMAGE WITH HF


HF is very good at
removing damage
For safety reasons, usually
mixed from Ammonium
Bifluoride with HCL
Called Mud Acid
To reduce this damage
the ratio of HCL to HF has
been increased from 12:3
to 10:1.5 even to 9:1
with additional HCL
(preflush / postflush)
to keep the pH low

But mud acid can also cause damage


Precipitation from reactions with:
Calcium Compounds
Metallic Cations
Iron Compounds
Silicates (Clays and Feldspars)
Risk of deconsolidation
most reaction in few cms
But increased % age of HCl has its
own problems
Corrosion
Inhibitor
Handling
And there is reduced HF available

ACIDISING ADDITIVES
Nearly always necessary:
Corrosion inhibitor
Iron control agent
Surfactant
Others:
Need should be demonstrated or justified

CORROSION INHIBITORS
Always necessary
Can be damaging (oil-wetting) when used in excess
Concentration depends on acid strength, type,
temperature, metal type, job duration
At higher temps, and for special steel, lab testing is
recommended - for inhibitor / intensifier selection and
loadings

IRON CONTROL AGENTS


Iron is very soluble in most oilfield acid
Cannot be avoided
Iron precipitate can be very damaging
Chemical control within main treatment
Iron sequestering agents & iron reducing agents
Iron control is especially important in injection
wells

WATER-WETTING SURFACTANT
Aids in clean-up of acid
Leaves formation surfaces water-wet
Different requirements for sandstones or carbonates
Enhances flow-back of oil or gas
Concentration must be limited (< ~1%)
Excessive use can cause emulsion or foaming
in production processing equipment

IDENTIFYING THE NEED FOR ACID


Does damage exist ??
How much ??
Where ??
What cause ??

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
Identifying impaired production is not enough
The production potential must be determined
Even if damage exists, the treatment may not be
economical if the production improvement
potential is very small
Cost of job vs payback
Cost may depend on location, job duration, lost
production
Consider payback in short term, consider also
cumulative value

COMPONENTS OF SKIN
st = sc+f + sp + sd
sc+ f - partial completion
fraction of the interval is perforated
well is deviated
sp - skin due to incomplete perforations
damaged perforations
insufficient shot density
sd - skin due to damage

EFFECT OF SKIN

NODAL ANALYSIS

SOURCES OF DAMAGE
Sources of Formation Damage:
Drilling
Cementing
Perforating
Completion and Workover
Gravel packing
Production
Stimulation
Injection

USING ACID
Follow Safety Procedures
Ensure Correct PPE is used
Check the Paperwork
MSDS
Chemical Risk assessment
COSHH
Job Risk Assessment

ACID PROCEDURES
HOLD SAFETY MEETING
Types of fluids and hazards of each
Safety equipment to be worn
Treatment Procedure
Maximum Pressure
Pumping Rate
Schedule backside rate or
monitoring procedures
Review job assignments for each individual
Obtain headcount of ALL personnel on location
Designate Emergency Vehicle
who will drive it
DO NOT move injured person until injuries are known

PRESSURES
Surface Treating (pump) pressure
Friction pressure (tubing, perforation)
Hydrostatic pressure
Bottom Hole pressure
Formation (pore) pressure
Fracture pressure

TREATMENT DESIGN
Determine the cause and type of formation damage
Identify extent and location of damage
Design the treatment to clean up that damage and to
prevent additional damage
The treatment must be able to be placed properly
(Access, Diversion, Coil)
Physical limitations of well equipment

INJECTION PROFILE
Depends on flow capacity kh
and pressure differential dP
Remember that acid will change the kh
Can be controlled
Mechanical Isolation (bridge plug, squeeze packer, straddle)
Diverters (solids, wax, polymers, surfactants, foams)
Placement (coiled tubing)

PLACEMENT
Placement depends on:
Completion design
Job requirements
1) Completion Design
Cased and Perforated - Good access - good isolation
Open Hole - Good access - isolation variable
Predrilled or Slotted Liner - poor annular isolation
Standalone Screens - poor annular isolation
Gravel Packed Screens - damage may be in GP, formation, both
Production tubing / packers - limiting access
2) Job requirements
Total Coverage - inject into whole interval
Volume, rate - Coil or Bullhead
Other zones - oil or water zones - protect or avoid waste
Cost - Bullhead vs Coil - job economics - volumes - control

HIGH PRESSURE PUMP


High pressure pumps
Fed by centrifugal
Controlled remotely
Emergency shutdowns

COILED TUBING UNIT (CTU)

QUESTION ??

THANK YOU