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(Aburgine)

BRINJAL

BOTANICAL NAME :
SOLANUM MELONGENA
FAMILY :
SOLANACEAE
SYNONYMOUS :
EGG PLANT , BAINGAN(HINDI)
DISTRIBUTION:

West Godavari, East Godavari, Visakhapatnam and


Guntur districts cover about 50% of total area under
BRINJAL in AP.
India is considered as one of the centers of origin of
eggplant or brinjal

It is a popular vegetable in the country

Marginal and poor farmers grow eggplant as it


provides cash flow for a minimum of six months

According to the latest statistics available, 30 % of


brinjal area in India is under hybrid cultivation.

Brinjal is the most important common vegetable


in both acreage and production.
IMPORTANCE AND UTILITY
 It is an annual crop cultivated all over India as one of
the principal vegetables.
 The unripe fruit are used as vegetable.
 The fruits are employed as a cure for tooth-ache.
 It is an excellent remedy for those suffering from liver
complaints.
 It’s green leaves contain vitamin-c.
 White brinjal is said to be good for diabetic patients
ORIGIN:

•The brinjal, eggplant or aubergine(French name) has


originated in the Indian sub-continent and China

•Brinjal is an important vegetable crop of the Far


East, Bangladesh, India,China and the Philippines
Eggplant is probably a native of India and has been in
cultivation for a long time. A wild type with many
small fruits, sometimes called as S. melongena var.
insanum, is found on the Bengal plains of India.

Various forms, colors and shapes of eggplant are


found throughout South east Asia, suggesting that
this area is an important center of variation and
possibly of origin..
Vavilov(1928) felt that its center
of origin was in the Indo-Burma
region. It originated in India but
has a secondary center of
variation in China. In China,
eggplant has been known for the
last 1,500years
Seasons

It can be grown in plains throughout the year but rabi season


is the best.

Rainy Season - June – July


Winter Season - October – November
Summer Season - February - March

SOILS:

A well drained soil with medium to high fertility is best


suited
Plant characters:
Plant height : 133 cm
Growth habit : Upright
Stem & leaves : Green with tinge of purple and covered
with fine hairs.
Fruit characters:

Colour - Purple dark


Flesh - Greenish
Shape - Long & slender
Size - 56.7cm(L)x3.4cm(W)
Weight - 130g
Fruit Yield - 3kg/plant(range 2.4-3.4kg/plant)
Days to Flowering - 21 days after transplanting
Days to Harvest - 40 days after transplanting
VARIETIES:-
•The round or egg-shaped
varieties are grouped
under var. ESCULENTUM.

•The long and slender


varieties are put under
var. SERPENTINUM.

•Dwarf and early ones are under var.


DEPRESSUM.
LONG VARIETIES :
1. PUSA PURPLE LONG
ROUND VARIETES:
2. PUSA KRANTI 1. PUSA PURPLE ROUND
3. ARKASHEEL 2. ARKA NAVNEETH
4. ARKAKUSUMAKAR
LONG VARIETIES:
PUSA PURPLE LONG:[Released by IARI, New Delhi]
• It is an early maturing and long fruited type variety.
• Fruits are glossy, light purple in colour, 25-30 cm long, smooth
and tender.
• Crop is ready for picking in 100 to 110 days.
• Suitable for spring and autumn plantings, average yield is
27.5 t/ha.
• It is moderately tolerant to shoot borer and little leaf disease.
PUSA KRANTHI:[Released by IARI, New Delhi]
• It is an early maturing and long fruited type variety.
• Fruits are small, dark purple in colour and borne in clusters.
• The crop is ready for picking in 75 days after transplanting.
• Variety is resistant to little leaf disease under natural
conditions
ARKA SHEEL: [Released by IIHR, Bangalore]
• Fruits medium long with deep shining purple skin.
• Calyx fleshy and Green.
• Purple flower with solitary bearing habit.
• Crop is ready for picking in 150-160 days.
• Average yield is 38 t/ha.

ARKA KUSUMAKAR: [Released by IIHR, Bangalore]


• Spreading plant habit with green stem & green leaves.
• Flowers white green small fruits borne in cluster.
• Soft texture with good cooking quality.
• Crop is ready for picking in 140-150 days.
• Average yield is 40 t/ha
ROUND VARIETES:
PUSA PURPLE ROUND:
• Leaves and stems are dark green colour and without spines.
leaves are with entire margin.
• Fruits round weighing 130-150gm purple glossy, smooth and
large.
• Resistant to little leaf disease; 135-150 days duration ;
• Yields moderate i.e., 20-25 tons/ha.
ARKA NAVEET:[Released by IIHR, Bangalore]
• Fruits are large oval to oblong with deep purple shining skin
with each fruit 450 g in weight.
• Purple flowers with solitary bearing habit.
• Free from bitter principles with very good cooking qualities.
• Crop is ready for picking in 150-160 days.
• Average yield is 65-70 t/ha.
HYBRID VIGOUR:
•It has been reported in brinjal by many workers in INDIA
and abroad.

•The first generation hybrids not only give earlier and higher
yields, but the hybrids are also more resistant to adverse
weather conditions and pests and diseases.

•The cost of hybrid seed production of


brinjal is not high as compared to other
vegetables .

•This can be further reduced by the


use of male sterile lines.
• The best varietal combination selected at I.A.R.I is a cross of
Pusa purple long and Hyderpur known as ‘Pusa Anmol’
[New Delhi].
Pusa Anmol- Fruits are dark purple and oblong.

• The varietal combination of selected at I.I.H.R is a cross of


IHR 22-1-2-1 and supreme known as ‘Arka Navneeth’
[Bangalore].
Arka Navneeth-High yielding hybrid round variety. Fruits are
large oval to oblong with deep purple shining skin with each fruit
450 g in weight.
• Purple flowers with solitary bearing habit. Fruit has excellent
cooling quantity. Free from bitter principles with very good
cooking qualities. Crop is ready for picking in 150-160 days.
• Average yield is 65-70 t/ha.
BOTANY:
•Four types of flowers are seen in brinjal.

•This grouping is made on the basis of length of style.

•The types are


i.Long-styled
ii.Medium-styled
iii.Pseudo-short styled
iv.True-short styled

•Only long and medium styled flowers , marked by a swollen


ovary at the base , bear fruits.

•Other two types have rudimentary ovaries which do not develop


into fruits.
FRUIT SET:
•Anthesis starts from 7:30 AM and continues up to 11 AM.
Peak time for Anthesis is 8:30 AM to 10:30 AM.

•The pollen dehiscence starts from 9:30 AM to 10:00 AM.

•It has been observed that Anthesis and dehiscence are mainly
influenced by daylight , temperature and humidity.

•The stigma becomes receptive


one day before anthesis and continues
to remain receptive for two days after
anthesis.

•The maximum receptivity is at the time


of anthesis.
SEED PRODUCTION:
Brinjal is a self-pollinated crop , even though a 20% of cross
pollination occurs.

It is advisable to keep at least 50 to 100 meters of isolation


distance b/w any two varieties grown for seed production.

The outer covering of the fruits is peeled off and the flesh with
the seeds is cut into thin slices.

These are then softened by soaking till the seeds are separated
from the pulp to which water is added gradually and kept for
overnight.

After separation , seeds should be dipped in to water.


Environment:
A day temperature of 25–32 °C and a night temperature of
21–27 °C are ideal for styled flowers.
Crop management:
Cultural practices and crop management for seed
production are almost same as for market fruit production
except that fruits are harvested when they are ripe and the
skins become yellow.
Plant protection:
Timely protection of crops is essential. In the tropics,
eggplant is attacked by several pests, including
epilachna beetle, fruit and shoot borer, jassids , aphids, and
mites. Chemical sprays are usually used to control these
pests.
Seed extraction and drying:
The harvested fruits are stored for three to four days until
they become soft. This allows the seed to mature fully. The
top one-third of the fruit is removed since it contains almost
no seed.
Pollen collection;
Pollen flowers are collected from the male plants in the
early morning hours before the anthers dehisce. After most
of the anthers have dehisced in the container, the pollen is
gathered in convenient small-sized vessels by vibrating the
flowers.
Fig. Solanaceous flower before and after emasculation. The anthers are removed
to prevent self-pollination. The petals and sepals are cut to identify the flower for
future pollination.

Emasculation
Flower buds about one to two days away from opening should be
chosen for emasculation. At this stage, the petals are still white.
Emasculating very young flower buds could lead to injury to the
style and ovary. On the other hand, emasculating large
flower buds which petals have turned violet color are not
recommended since the likelihood of self pollination is high.
To emasculate, use sharp-pointed forceps to
open the unopened bud, and then carefully remove all the anthers
inside leaving only the petals, ovary, and style (Fig.). The
emasculated flower buds are covered with bags or left uncovered
depending on the field isolation condition and insect activity
Pollination:

The flowers emasculated one or two days earlier should have


completely blossomed and are ready for cross-pollination.
Using a small pair of scissors , cut two calyxes of the emasculated
flower buds to mark the hybridized buds.
Then, the stigma is dipped into pollen mass kept in a suitable
pollen container.
Pollination can also be done by dipping the tip
of the little finger into a pool or pollen,
then touching the stigma with the pollen-covered
finger.

Mark the pollinated flowers with either small


rubber bands or strings or tin ties on the peduncles
of the hybridized flowers.
Seed yield:

The seed yields of eggplant vary with different varieties or


parents and production conditions. Generally, the standard of
seed yield is between 600–800 kg/ha. The cost of hybrid seed
production of eggplant is not as high as compared to other
vegetables because each fruit contains a large number of seeds.
The cost can be further reduced by the use of male
sterile line in hybrid seed production.

This advancement has made the exploitation of


hybrid vigor in eggplant more economical.