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GTG Response to

fluctuation of Demand &


Disturbance
DPC Generation
Date: 3rd March 2010

Start with something familiar


Imagine this:

Eff. G.F = Salalah Load Demand


B.F

= Generation from NPS

Bikers

= Gas Turbines at NPS (Biker falls = GT trip)

Speed of the bike = Freq. of Salalah Elect. System. (5.0km/hr = 50Hz)


* The rule: BIKER(s) need to maintain speed of 5.0km/hr

To keep the bike move at a constant speed up the slope, all 3 bikers need
to give B.F exactly equal to Eff. G.F.

Generatio
n

B.F
Demand

Eff.
G.F

Gravity
(G.F)

SPEED1 = 5.0 km/hr

If 1 biker falls. Momentarily the B.F < Eff.G.F and speed of the bike is
slowing down.
The other 2 bikers notice the bike is slowing down and try to compensate
the B.F by cycling harder putting more torque to the pedal.
At the moment when B.F = Eff.G.F again, the bike will move up the slope
with a new speed which is less than the initial speed.
Generatio
B.F
n

Demand

Eff.
G.F

Gravity
(G.F)

SPEED2 = 5.0
4.9 km/hr
4.8

The 1st & 2nd bikers want to bring the speed from 4.8km/hr back to
the original speed of 5.0km/hr. Both bikers now have to pedal
harder so that B.F > Eff.G.F and bike will accelerate to 5.0km/hr
(speed increase).

B.F
Eff.
G.F

SPEED3 = 4.8
5.0
4.9

km/hr

It is advised that you


thoroughly understand the
previous slides before going to
the next slides

DROOP Mode Simplified


This is how the
controls logic
looks like in
Mark V

Logic simplified!.....

Min/Max Limiter

Droop
FSNL
Gain
Constant
Setting

TNR

TNH

Fuel Gas Control


Valve

DROOP Mode Simplified


Min/Max Limiter
Droop
FSNL
Gain
Constant
Setting

TNR

TNH

Fuel Gas Control


Valve

DROOP is a proportional controller. Fuel Gas Control valve will be


commanded to open or close based on the ERROR between the speed
(LOAD) reference (TNR) and the actual speed of the GT (TNH).

DROOP is set at 4%. By default of the droop setting, the TNR can be
varied from 100% to 104%. 100% TNR being the setting for putting the
GT at FSNL, 102% TNR for 50% load and 104%TNR for BASE LOAD. If
the TNH is 100% (50Hz), the machines TNR must be brought to 104% to
reach BASE LOAD.

-In a small grid system, if a GT trip, the remaining running GTs will see the
reduction in TNH. Error is increased GCV opening increased allowing
more fuel to GTs Generator produces more output.
-The above will continue until the system reaches its new equilibrium when
the Generation = Demand. The Error (TNR-TNH) will settle at a new
value. Note that TNR will not automatically change in case of NPS due to
the absence of AGC, therefore the TNH is changed and no longer settle at
50Hz without corrective action.
-To correct the frequency, Operator has to manually increase the TNR by
clicking the Raise Load button. As a result, TNR increasesError
increasesGCV admits more fuelGeneration IncreasesMore energy
injected to systemGTs and all rotating machineries in grid absorb
additional energy, rotate faster and system frequency increases back to
50Hz.

ISOCHRONOUS Mode Simpified


ERROR

50Hz
TNH(%)
100%*50Hz

Min/Max Limiter

PID

+
-

Fuel Gas Control


Valve

The GTG which is running on Isoch. mode will always try to maintain the
system at 50Hz.

Scenario if an Isoch. Machine is


introduced
in Salalah Power
As the Droop machine is "loaded, ie: during startup, the tendency would be for
the grid frequency to increase - the Isoch machine reduces its power output to
maintain the frequency.
System

When a droop machine is tripped, the grid frequency will drop the Isoch AND
droop machines will respond by increasing its power output. The fine tuning of
generation output will be done automatically by the Isoch. machine to maintain
the 50Hz frequency.

When Isoch machine is tripped, the frequency will drop. All remaining droop
machines will increase the generation output depending on the droop setting.
Operator has to manually fine tune the output from the droop machines to bring
the frequency back to 50Hz. Other option like automatic switching of droop mode
to isoch. Mode to one of the droop machine can also be implemented.

When a there is a change on the demand (Salalah port, bulk load &
customer/feeder trip etc), all machines will respond and the isoch. Machine will
fine tune its generation output to automatically bring the frequency back to 50Hz.

If the GTG running on Isoch. requires load adjustment, Operator should not adjust
the loading of the Isoch. machine directly but instead change the load of the GTGs
which are running on Droop.

When Central Dispatch Center,


NPS
&
IWPP
in
operation

All machine will operate on Droop to


provide primary frequency response to
any grid frequency disturbance.

In AGC mode, the Secondary frequency


response to bring back the system
frequency to 50Hz will be done by Central
Dispatch Center by sending updated load
setpoint(s) to all power stations.

Typical AGC control in Power


Plant

KEMA Incident Report - 2003

Salalah Blackout on May 7, 2003 as during the commissioning of AGC


(Part of Dispatch Module Software).
The followings is a paragraph from the KEMA incident report explaining
the function of AGC and the deviation from 50Hz when GTGs are in Droop
control (Kema Incident Report: 40310061-TDC03-35554A, page , 2.2.1):

Conclusion

NPS is only operating on Droop Mode.


Operator has to do the fine tuning of the
system Frequency manually.
When there is a disturbance in the
system, the GTGs will respond as per
the droop but the steady state
frequency fine tune must be done
manually by raising or lowering the load
of each GTG.