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# Module 5: Advanced Transmission Lines

OGI EE564
Howard Heck

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

S-Parameters

EE 564

## Where Are We?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Introduction
Transmission Line Basics
Analysis Tools
Metrics & Methodology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Losses
Intersymbol Interference
Crosstalk
Frequency Domain Analysis
2 Port Networks & S-Parameters

6. Multi-Gb/s Signaling
7. Special Topics

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

## Much of the material in this section has been adapted

from material developed by Stephen H. Hall and
James A. McCall (the authors of our text).

S-Parameters

EE 564

Acknowledgement

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

S-Parameters

EE 564

Contents
Two Port Networks
Z Parameters
Y Parameters
Vector Network Analyzers
S Parameters: 2 port, n ports
Return Loss
Insertion Loss
Transmission (ABCD) Matrix
Differential S Parameters (MOVE TO 6.2)
Summary
References
Appendices
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

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## Two Port Networks

Linear networks can be completely characterized by
parameters measured at the network ports without knowing
the content of the networks.
Networks can have any number of ports.
Analysis of a 2-port network is sufficient to explain the theory and
applies to isolated signals (no crosstalk).
I2

Port 1

+
V1
-

2 Port
Network

+
V2
-

Port 2

S-Parameters

I1

## The ports can be characterized with many parameters (Z,

Y, S, ABDC). Each has a specific advantage.
Each parameter set is related to 4 variables:
2 independent variables for excitation
2 dependent variables for response
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

EE 564

Z Parameters
Impedance Matrix: Z Parameters
V1
V
2

Z11
Z
21

VN

Z12

Z N1

ZN2

S-Parameters

where

Z1 N

Z NN

Z ij

Vi
Ij

I1

I 2

[5.5.2]

## (Open circuit impedance)

V1 Z11 I1 Z12 I 2
2

[5.5.1]

IN

I k j 0

2 Port example: V

V Z I

or

Z 21 I1 Z 22 I 2

[5.5.3]

V1 Z11
V Z
2 21

Z12
Z 22

I1
I
2

[5.5.4]

## Advantage: Z parameters are intuitive.

Relates all ports to an impedance & is easy to calculate.

## Disadvantage: Requires open circuit voltage

measurements, which are difficult to make.
Open circuit reflections inject noise into measurements.
Open circuit capacitance is non-trivial at high frequencies.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

EE 564

Y Parameters
I1
I
2

Y11
Y
21

IN

YN 1 YN 2

where
S-Parameters

Y12

Y1N

YNN

Yij

Ii
Vj

Vk j 0

2 Port example:

V1

V2

I Y V

or

[5.5.5]

VN

I1 Y11V1 Y12V2
I 2 Y21V1 Y22V2

[5.5.7]

I1 Y11 Y12 V1
I Y

2 21 Y22 V2

[5.5.6]
[5.5.8]

## Advantage: Y parameters are also somewhat intuitive.

measurements, which are difficult to make.
Short circuit reflections inject noise into measurements.
Short circuit inductance is non-trivial at high frequencies.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

ZA

ZB

V1

+
I1

I2

V2

ZC

S-Parameters

Z11

Z 21

V1
I1

V2
I1

I 2 0

I 2 0

H. Heck 2008

V1
V1

Z A ZC

I1 Z C
ZC
I1

Port 2

+
Port 1

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Example

Z A ZC

Z12

Z 22

Section 5.5

V1
I2

V2
I2

I10

I10

I 2ZC
ZC
I2

V2
V2

Z B ZC

Z B ZC

EE 564

## Frequency Domain: Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)

I

1
2
VNA offers a means to
+
+
2-Port
V1
V2
characterize circuit elements
Network
as a function of frequency.
VNA is a microwave based instrument that provides the
ability to understand frequency dependent effects.

S-Parameters

## Characterizes the network by observing transmitted and

reflected power waves.
Voltage and current are difficult to measure directly.
It is also difficult to implement open & short circuit loads at high
frequency.
Matched load is a unique, repeatable termination, and is
insensitive to length, making measurement easier.
Incident and reflected waves the key measures.
We characterize the device under test using S parameters.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

a1

S-Parameters

+
V1

b1

a2

2 Port
Network

+
b2

V2
-

Port 2

Port 1

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S Parameters

## We wish to characterize the network by observing

transmitted and reflected power waves.
ai represents the square root of the power wave injected into port i.
2

use

P V

to get

V1
ai P
R

[5.5.9]

[5.5.10]

bi represents the square root of the power wave injected into port j.
bj

H. Heck 2008

V j

[5.5.11]

Section 5.5

10

a1

Port 1

## We can use a set of

linear equations to
describe the behavior of
the network in terms of
the injected and
reflected power waves.
For the 2 port case:

+
V1
-

b1

a2

2 Port
Network

b1 S11a1 S12 a2
b2 S 21a1 S 22 a2

bj

where

Sij

in matrix form:

b1 S11
b S
2 21

H. Heck 2008

ai

+
b2

V2
-

Port 2

S-Parameters

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S Parameters #2

[5.5.12]

## power measured at port j

power measured at port i
S12 a1
S 22 a2

Section 5.5

[5.5.13]

11

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S Parameters n Ports
an

Vn

Vi

S-Parameters

Sij

bi
aj

a k 0 ,k j

bn

[5.5.14]

Z 0n

Vn

Z 0n

Z 0i

[5.5.16]

V j
Z0 j

[5.5.15]

Vk0 ,k j

## b1 S11a1 S12 a2 S1n an

b2 S 21a1 S 22 a2 S 2 n an

[5.5.17]

bn S n1a1 S n 2 a2 S nn an

b1 S11
b S
2 21

bn S n1
H. Heck 2008

S12 S1N

a1
a
2

S nn an

or

Section 5.5

b S a

[5.5.18]

12

S-Parameters

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## Scattering Matrix Return Loss

S11, the return loss, is a
measure of the power
returned to the source.
When there is no
reflection from the
is zero, S11 is equal to
the reflection
coefficient.
V

b
S11 1
a1

In general:

Sii

H. Heck 2008

bi
ai

a 2 0

V1

Z0
Z0

RS = 50

RL = Z0

Z0

z=0

V1 Vreflected
Z 50

0 0
V1
Vincident
Z 0 50

z=l

[5.5.19]

[5.5.20]

a j 0 , j 0

Section 5.5

13

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Z0

S-Parameters

z=0

ZL

z=l

RS = 50

Zin

## When there is a reflection from the load,

S11 will be composed of multiple reflections
due to standing waves.
Use input impedance to calculate S11 when
the line is not perfectly terminated.
Z in Z ( z 0) Z o

1 ( z 0)
1 ( z 0)

[5.5.21]

## S11 for a transmission line will exhibit

periodic effects due to the standing
waves.
If the network is driven with a 50 source,
S11 is calculated using equation [5.5.22]
S11 v

Z in 50
Z in 50

[5.5.22]

## In this case S11 will be maximum when Zin is real. An imaginary

component implies a phase difference between Vinc and Vref. No phase
difference means they are perfectly aligned and will constructively add.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

14

a1
+
Z0

V1
-

b1

a2

2 Port
Network

+
b2 Z0

V2
-

Port 2

Port 1

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S-Parameters

## When power is injected into Port 1 and measured at Port

2, the power ratio reduces to a voltage ratio:

S 21

b2
a1

a 20

V2
Z o V2 Vtransmitted

Vincident
V1
V1
Zo

[5.5.22]

## S21, the insertion loss, is a measure of the power

transmitted from port 1 to port 2.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

15

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True losses come from physical energy losses.

S-Parameters

## Ohmic (i.e. skin effect)

Field dampening effects (loss tangent)

## Insertion and return losses include other effects, such

as impedance discontinuities and resonance, which
are not true losses.
Loss free networks can still exhibit significant insertion
and return losses due to impedance discontinuities.

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

16

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Reflection Coefficients
L

Z L Z0
Z L Z0

[5.5.23]

S-Parameters

ZS Z0
ZS Z0

[5.5.24]

S12 S 21 L
S122 L
in S11
S11
1 S 22 L
1 S11 L

[5.5.25]

out S 22

S12 S 21 S
1 S11 S

H. Heck 2008

[5.5.26]
Section 5.5

17

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a1

a2

b1

b2

+90

0.8 135

Positive
Phase

180
Port 1

Port 2

Negative
Phase

S21 = b2/a1
S-Parameters

-90

## We can calculate the delay per unit length

(or velocity) from S21:
d

S 21
1

f 360 l v p

[5.5.27]

## Where (S21 ) is the phase angle of the S21 measurement.

f is the frequency at which the measurement was taken.
l is the length of the line.

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

18

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## Transmission Line Z0 Measurements

Impedance vs. frequency
Recall

Z0,

Zin

1 e 2 jl
Z in Z 0
1 e 2 jl

z=0

ZL
z=l

S-Parameters

## We can use Zin equations for open and short circuited

lossy transmission.
Z in ,open Z 0 tanh l

[5.5.28]

Z in ,short Z 0 coth l

[5.5.29]

Z 0 Z in , short Z in ,open

[5.5.30]

## Using the equation for Zin,

in, and Z0, we can find the
impedance.
H. Heck 2008

Z0,

Zin
z=0
Section 5.5

ZL

open &
short

z=l
19

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## Transmission Line Z0 Measurement #2

Zin

Z0,

ZVNA
z=0

ZL

open &
short

z=l

S-Parameters

Input reflection coefficients for the open and short circuit cases:
in ,open

S122 1
S122
S11
S11
1 S11 1
1 S11

in ,short

S122 1
S122
S11
S11
1 S11 1
1 S11

## Input impedance for the open and short circuit cases:

1 in , short e 2 j 0
1 in , short
Z in , short ZVNA

Z
VNA
1 in , short e 2 j 0
1 in , short
1 in ,open e 2 j 0
1 in ,open
Z in ,open ZVNA

Z
VNA
1 in ,open e 2 j 0
1 in ,open

[5.5.31]
[5.5.32]

## Now we can apply equation [5.5.30]:

Z 0 Z in ,short Z in ,open
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

20

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## Scattering Matrix Example

Using the S11 plot shown below, calculate Z0 and estimate
R = 50
r.
S

RL = 50

Z0

z=0

z=5"

0.4
S11 Magnitude

S-Parameters

0.45
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

1.0

1.5

H. Heck 2008

Frequency [GHz]

4.0

4.5

Section 5.5

5.0
21

0.45

1.76GHz

2.94GHz

0.25

## Step 1: Calculate the d

of the transmission line
based on the peaks or
dips.

0.2

0.4
S11 Magnitude

EE 564

## Scattering Matrix Example #2

Peak=0.384

0.35
0.3

0.15

t d 423.7 ps

0.1

S-Parameters

1
2t d

0.05

423.7 ps
84.7 ps / inch
5in

Step 2: Calculate r based on the velocity (prop delay per unit length).
1
c
3 108 m / s
1
v

d
84.7 ps / inch 39.37inch / m
r
r

r 1.0

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

22

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## Example Scattering Matrix (Cont.)

Step 3: Calculate the input impedance to the transmission line
based on the peak S11 at 1.76GHz, assuming a 50 port.
S11

Z in 50
0.384
Z in 50

Z in 112 .33

S-Parameters

( x) 0 e 2l
e j 4 fl

50 Z o j 4fl
e
50 Z o

LC

50 Z o
1
(1)
1 ( z 5)
50 Z o
Z in Z o
112 .33 Z o
50 Z o
1 ( z 5)
1
(1)
50 Z o
Z o 74.9
LC

## Solution: r = 1.0 and Z0 = 75

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

23

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S-Parameters

Ease of measurement: It is much easier to measure
power at high frequencies than open/short current and
voltage.
They are more difficult to understand and it is more
difficult to interpret measurements.

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

24

## The transmission matrix describes the network in terms of

both voltage and current waves (analagous to a Thvinin
Equivalent).
V AV BI
[5.5.33]
I1
I2
I CV DI

S-Parameters

+
V1
-

2 Port
Network

+
V2
-

Port 2

Port 1

EE 564

V1 A B V2

I1 C D I 2

[5.5.34]

A

H. Heck 2008

V1
V2

I1
V2

I 2 0

I 2 0

[5.5.29]

[5.5.31]

Section 5.5

V1
I2

V2 0

I1
I2

V2 0

[5.5.35]

[5.5.36]
25

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## Transmission (ABCD) Matrix

Since the ABCD matrix represents the ports in terms of currents and
voltages, it is well suited for cascading elements.
I1
+
V1

S-Parameters

I1

I2

D1

I3

A B
C D2

V2

+
V3
-

V1 A B V2

I1 C D 1 I 2
V2 A B V3

I 2 C D 2 I3

V1
I1

A B A B V3

C D 1 C D 2 I3

[5.5.37]

## This is the best way to cascade elements in the frequency domain.

It is accurate, intuitive and simple to use.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

26

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## ABCD Matrix Values for Common Circuits

Z

Port 1

Port 1

S-Parameters

Z1

[5.5.38]

Port 2

A 1
C Y

[5.5.39]

Z2
Z3

Port 1

Port 2

A 1 B Z
C 0 D 1

Port 2

Y3
Port 1

Y1

Port 1

Y2 Port 2

Zo ,
l

H. Heck 2008

Port 2

B0
D 1

A 1 Z1 / Z 3

B Z1 Z 2 Z1 Z 2 / Z 3

C 1/ Z3

D 1 Z2 / Z3

A 1 Y2 / Y3
C Y1 Y2 Y1Y2 / Y3

B 1 / Y3
D 1 Y1 / Y3

A cosh(l )

B Z o sinh(l )

C (1 / Z o ) sinh(l )

D cosh(l )

Section 5.5

[5.5.40]

[5.5.41]

[5.5.42]
27

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## Converting to and from the S-Matrix

The S-parameters can be measured with a VNA, and
converted back and forth into ABCD the Matrix

S-Parameters

## Allows conversion into a more intuitive matrix

Allows conversion to ABCD for cascading
ABCD matrix can be directly related to several useful circuit
topologies

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

28

L1

Port 1

EE 564

L1

Port 2

S-Parameters

Cvia

## The model can be extracted as either a Pi or a T network

The inductance values will include the L of the trace and
the via barrel
assumes the test setup minimizes the trace length, so
that trace capacitance is minimal.
The capacitance represents the via pads.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

29

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## ABCD Matrix Example #1

The measured S-parameter matrix at 5 GHz is:
S11

S12

S 21

S 22

0.110 j 0.153

0.798 j 0.572

0.798 j 0.572

0.110 j 0.153

S-Parameters

## Converted to ABCD parameters:

A

1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21

2 S 21
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2 ZVNA S 21

ZVNA

1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21

2 S 21
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2S 21

0.827

j 20.08

j 0.0157

0.827

## Relating the ABCD parameters to the T circuit topology,

the capacitance can be extracted from C & inductance
from A:
C j 0.0157

Z1
Port 1

Z2
Z3

H. Heck 2008

Port 2

A 1

Z3

1
CVIA 0.5 pF
1
j 2fCVIA

Z1
j 2fL
0.827 1
L1 L2 0.35nH
Z3
1 /( j 2fCVIA )
Section 5.5

30

S-Parameters

EE 564

The ABCD matrix is intuitive: it describes all ports with
voltages and currents.
Easy conversion to and from S-parameters.
Easy to relate to common circuit topologies.
Difficult to directly measure: Must convert from
measured scattering matrix.

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

31

## We can characterize interconnect networks

using n-Port circuits.
The VNA uses S- parameters.
From S- parameters we can characterize
transmission lines and discrete elements.

S-Parameters

EE 564

Summary

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

32

S-Parameters

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References
D.M. Posar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc. (Wiley Interscience), 1998, 2nd edition.
B. Young, Digital Signal Integrity, Prentice-Hall PTR, 2001,
1st edition.
S. Hall, G. Hall, and J. McCall, High Speed Digital System
Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Wiley Interscience), 2000,
1st edition.
W. Dally and J. Poulton, Digital Systems Engineering,
Chapters 4.3 & 11, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector
Network Analysis, Agilent Technologies application note
1287-1, 2000.
In-Fixture Measurements Using Vector Network Analyzers,
Agilent Technologies application note 1287-9, 2000.
De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks
Using A Vector Network Analyzer, Agilent Technologies
application note 1364-1, 2001.
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

33

S-Parameters

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Appendix

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

34

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Reciprocal

Z ij Z ji

Z ij Z ji

Re Z mn 0

Lossless

ReYmn 0

## for any m,n

S-Parameters

Y Z 1

Z ij

Yij

Vi
Ij
Ii
Vj

I k 0 , k j

Vk 0 , k j

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

35

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S Parameters
Scattering Matrix: S Parameters
V1

V2

VN

S11
S
12

S1N

S 21

S2 N

S-Parameters

where

S N1

S NN

Vi
Sij
Vj

V1

V2

V S V

or

[5.5.1]

VN

[5.5.2]
Vk0 ,k j

Vn Vn Vn
I n I n I n Vn Vn

????

Z I Z I Z I V V V
Z U V Z U V

1 0
0 1
U

S V 1 V Z U 1 Z U
H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

36

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S Parameters #2
S V 1 V Z U 1 Z U
S Z U Z U S Z S U

[5.5.1]

Z U S 1 U S

[5.5.2]

S-Parameters

where
Reciprocal

S S

S
k 1
N

ki

S
k 1

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

S ki* 1

ki

S kj* 0, i j

37

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S Parameters n Ports
an

Vn

bn

Z 0n

Vn

Z 0n

Vn Vn Vn Z 0 n an bn
Vn Vn
In

Z 0n

S-Parameters

Pn

1 2 1
an bn
2
2

[5.5.2]

b
Sij i
aj

b S a

[5.5.1]

1
an bn
Z 0n

b1 S11
b S
2 21

bn S n1

Vi
Sij

a k 0 , k j

bi
aj

a k 0 ,k j

S12 S1N

a1
a
2

S nn an

Z 0i

V j
Z0 j

Vk0 ,k j

## b1 S11a1 S12 a2 S1n an

b2 S 21a1 S 22 a2 S 2 n an

bn S n1a1 S n 2 a2 S nn an

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

38

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S Parameters #4
n

[5.5.1]

where

Sij =

S-Parameters

Sij =
Sij =
b S a

## ij is the reflection coefficient of the ith

port if i=j with all other ports matched
Tij is the forward transmission coefficient
of the ith port if I>j with all other ports[5.5.2]
matched
Tij is the reverse transmission coefficient
of the ith port if I<j with all other ports
matched
Sij

bi
aj

a k 0 ,k j

Vi
Sij

H. Heck 2008

bi
aj

a k 0 , k j

Z 0i

V j
Z0 j

Vk0 ,k j

Section 5.5

39

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VNA Calibration
Proper calibration is critical!!!
There are two basic calibration methods
Short, Open, Load and Thru (SOLT)
Calibrated to known standard( Ex: 50)
Measurement plane at probe tip

S-Parameters

## Thru, Reflect, Line(TRL)

Calibrated to line Z0
Helps create matched port condition.

## Measurement plane moved to desired position set by

calibration structure design.

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

40

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## SOLT Calibration Structures

OPEN

SHORT
S

S
G

Signal

S-Parameters

Ground

THRU

Calibration Substrate

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

41

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## TRL Calibration Structures

TRL PCB Structures
Normalized Z0 to line
De-embeds launch structure parasitics

Short

Open

S-Parameters

## 6mil wide gap

100 mils

100 mils

Thru

Measurement
Planes

L1

L2

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

42

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Calibration- Verification
Always check the calibration prior to taking
measurements.

S-Parameters

## Smith Chart: Open & Short should be inside the perimeter.

Ideal response is dot at each location when probing the calibration
structures.

S11(Short)

o
o
Inductance
Inductance

S11(Open)

+j1.0
+j1.0

+j0.5
+j0.5

S21/12(Thru)
Short
Short

0.2
0.2

Normalized
Normalized
Zo
Zo 1.0

Open
Open

20
20

1.0

-j0.5
-j0.5
-j1.0
-j1.0

H. Heck 2008

Perimeter
Zo Perimeter
= 0+/- j X
Zo = 0+/- j X

Normalized
ZoNormalized
= 0.2 - j1
Zo = 0.2 - j1

Capacitance
Capacitance

Section 5.5

43

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## One Port Measurements

Practical sub 2 GHz technique for L & C data.
Structure must be electrically shorter than /4 of fmax.
1st order (Low Loss):
Zin = jwL (Shorted transmission line)
Zin = 1/jwC (Open transmission line)

S-Parameters

## At the short, we have Imax and Vmin.

Measure L using a shorted transmission line with negligible loss.
At the open you have Vmax and Imin.
Measure C using an open transmission line with negligible loss.
RS= 50

DUT

V
Zin = j LI

H. Heck 2008

Short

RS = 50

DUT

V
Open

Current
Zin = V/j C
Section 5.5

44

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## One Port Measurements L & C

VNA - Format
Use Smith chart
format to read L & C data

o
o
Inductance
Inductance

S-Parameters

Short
Short

0.2
0.2

+j1.0
+j1.0

+j0.5
+j0.5

Normalized
Normalized
Zo
Zo 1.0

Open
Open

20
20

1.0

-j0.5
-j0.5
-j1.0
-j1.0

Perimeter
Perimeter
Zo = 0+/- j X
Zo = 0+/- j X

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

Normalized
Normalized
Zo = 0.2 - j1
Zo = 0.2 - j1

Capacitance
Capacitance

45

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Connector L & C
Use test board to measure connector inductance and
capacitance
Measure values relevant to pinout
Procedure

S-Parameters

## Measure test board L & C without connector

Measure test board with connector
Difference = connector parasitics

Open

Short

H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

46