OGI EE564
Howard Heck
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
SParameters
EE 564
Introduction
Transmission Line Basics
Analysis Tools
Metrics & Methodology
Advanced Transmission Lines
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Losses
Intersymbol Interference
Crosstalk
Frequency Domain Analysis
2 Port Networks & SParameters
6. MultiGb/s Signaling
7. Special Topics
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
SParameters
EE 564
Acknowledgement
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
SParameters
EE 564
Contents
Two Port Networks
Z Parameters
Y Parameters
Vector Network Analyzers
S Parameters: 2 port, n ports
Return Loss
Insertion Loss
Transmission (ABCD) Matrix
Differential S Parameters (MOVE TO 6.2)
Summary
References
Appendices
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
EE 564
Port 1
+
V1

2 Port
Network
+
V2

Port 2
SParameters
I1
Section 5.5
EE 564
Z Parameters
Impedance Matrix: Z Parameters
V1
V
2
Z11
Z
21
VN
Z12
Z N1
ZN2
SParameters
where
Z1 N
Z NN
Z ij
Vi
Ij
I1
I 2
[5.5.2]
V1 Z11 I1 Z12 I 2
2
[5.5.1]
IN
I k j 0
2 Port example: V
V Z I
or
Z 21 I1 Z 22 I 2
[5.5.3]
V1 Z11
V Z
2 21
Z12
Z 22
I1
I
2
[5.5.4]
Section 5.5
EE 564
Y Parameters
Admittance Matrix: Y Parameters
I1
I
2
Y11
Y
21
IN
YN 1 YN 2
where
SParameters
Y12
Y1N
YNN
Yij
Ii
Vj
Vk j 0
2 Port example:
V1
V2
I Y V
or
[5.5.5]
VN
I1 Y11V1 Y12V2
I 2 Y21V1 Y22V2
[5.5.7]
I1 Y11 Y12 V1
I Y
2 21 Y22 V2
[5.5.6]
[5.5.8]
Section 5.5
ZA
ZB
V1
+
I1
I2
V2
ZC
SParameters
Z11
Z 21
V1
I1
V2
I1
I 2 0
I 2 0
H. Heck 2008
V1
V1
Z A ZC
I1 Z C
ZC
I1
Port 2
+
Port 1
EE 564
Example
Z A ZC
Z12
Z 22
Section 5.5
V1
I2
V2
I2
I10
I10
I 2ZC
ZC
I2
V2
V2
Z B ZC
Z B ZC
EE 564
1
2
VNA offers a means to
+
+
2Port
V1
V2
characterize circuit elements
Network
as a function of frequency.
VNA is a microwave based instrument that provides the
ability to understand frequency dependent effects.
SParameters
Section 5.5
a1
SParameters
+
V1
b1
a2
2 Port
Network
+
b2
V2

Port 2
Port 1
EE 564
S Parameters
use
P V
to get
V1
ai P
R
[5.5.9]
[5.5.10]
bi represents the square root of the power wave injected into port j.
bj
H. Heck 2008
V j
[5.5.11]
Section 5.5
10
a1
Port 1
+
V1

b1
a2
2 Port
Network
b1 S11a1 S12 a2
b2 S 21a1 S 22 a2
bj
where
Sij
in matrix form:
b1 S11
b S
2 21
H. Heck 2008
ai
+
b2
V2

Port 2
SParameters
EE 564
S Parameters #2
[5.5.12]
Section 5.5
[5.5.13]
11
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S Parameters n Ports
an
Vn
Vi
SParameters
Sij
bi
aj
a k 0 ,k j
bn
[5.5.14]
Z 0n
Vn
Z 0n
Z 0i
[5.5.16]
V j
Z0 j
[5.5.15]
Vk0 ,k j
[5.5.17]
bn S n1a1 S n 2 a2 S nn an
b1 S11
b S
2 21
bn S n1
H. Heck 2008
S12 S1N
a1
a
2
S nn an
or
Section 5.5
b S a
[5.5.18]
12
SParameters
EE 564
b
S11 1
a1
In general:
Sii
H. Heck 2008
bi
ai
a 2 0
V1
Z0
Z0
RS = 50
RL = Z0
Z0
z=0
V1 Vreflected
Z 50
0 0
V1
Vincident
Z 0 50
z=l
[5.5.19]
[5.5.20]
a j 0 , j 0
Section 5.5
13
EE 564
Z0
SParameters
z=0
ZL
z=l
RS = 50
Zin
1 ( z 0)
1 ( z 0)
[5.5.21]
Z in 50
Z in 50
[5.5.22]
Section 5.5
14
a1
+
Z0
V1

b1
a2
2 Port
Network
+
b2 Z0
V2

Port 2
Port 1
EE 564
SParameters
S 21
b2
a1
a 20
V2
Z o V2 Vtransmitted
Vincident
V1
V1
Zo
[5.5.22]
Section 5.5
15
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Comments On Loss
True losses come from physical energy losses.
SParameters
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
16
EE 564
Reflection Coefficients
Reflection coefficient at the load:
L
Z L Z0
Z L Z0
[5.5.23]
ZS Z0
ZS Z0
[5.5.24]
[5.5.25]
S12 S 21 S
1 S11 S
H. Heck 2008
[5.5.26]
Section 5.5
17
EE 564
a2
b1
b2
+90
0.8 135
Positive
Phase
180
Port 1
Port 2
Negative
Phase
S21 = b2/a1
SParameters
90
S 21
1
f 360 l v p
[5.5.27]
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
18
EE 564
Z0,
Zin
1 e 2 jl
Z in Z 0
1 e 2 jl
z=0
ZL
z=l
SParameters
[5.5.28]
Z in ,short Z 0 coth l
[5.5.29]
Z 0 Z in , short Z in ,open
[5.5.30]
Z0,
Zin
z=0
Section 5.5
ZL
open &
short
z=l
19
EE 564
Z0,
ZVNA
z=0
ZL
open &
short
z=l
SParameters
Input reflection coefficients for the open and short circuit cases:
in ,open
S122 1
S122
S11
S11
1 S11 1
1 S11
in ,short
S122 1
S122
S11
S11
1 S11 1
1 S11
Z
VNA
1 in , short e 2 j 0
1 in , short
1 in ,open e 2 j 0
1 in ,open
Z in ,open ZVNA
Z
VNA
1 in ,open e 2 j 0
1 in ,open
[5.5.31]
[5.5.32]
Section 5.5
20
EE 564
RL = 50
Z0
z=0
z=5"
0.4
S11 Magnitude
SParameters
0.45
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
1.0
1.5
H. Heck 2008
4.0
4.5
Section 5.5
5.0
21
0.45
1.76GHz
2.94GHz
0.25
0.2
0.4
S11 Magnitude
EE 564
0.35
0.3
0.15
t d 423.7 ps
0.1
SParameters
1
2t d
0.05
423.7 ps
84.7 ps / inch
5in
Step 2: Calculate r based on the velocity (prop delay per unit length).
1
c
3 108 m / s
1
v
d
84.7 ps / inch 39.37inch / m
r
r
r 1.0
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
22
EE 564
Z in 50
0.384
Z in 50
Z in 112 .33
SParameters
50 Z o j 4fl
e
50 Z o
LC
Section 5.5
23
EE 564
Advantages/Disadvantages of S Parameters
SParameters
Advantages:
Ease of measurement: It is much easier to measure
power at high frequencies than open/short current and
voltage.
Disadvantages:
They are more difficult to understand and it is more
difficult to interpret measurements.
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
24
SParameters
+
V1

2 Port
Network
+
V2

Port 2
Port 1
EE 564
V1 A B V2
I1 C D I 2
[5.5.34]
H. Heck 2008
V1
V2
I1
V2
I 2 0
I 2 0
[5.5.29]
[5.5.31]
Section 5.5
V1
I2
V2 0
I1
I2
V2 0
[5.5.35]
[5.5.36]
25
EE 564
SParameters
I1
I2
D1
I3
A B
C D2
V2
+
V3

I1 C D 1 I 2
V2 A B V3
I 2 C D 2 I3
V1
I1
A B A B V3
C D 1 C D 2 I3
[5.5.37]
Section 5.5
26
EE 564
Port 1
Port 1
SParameters
Z1
[5.5.38]
Port 2
A 1
C Y
[5.5.39]
Z2
Z3
Port 1
Port 2
A 1 B Z
C 0 D 1
Port 2
Y3
Port 1
Y1
Port 1
Y2 Port 2
Zo ,
l
H. Heck 2008
Port 2
B0
D 1
A 1 Z1 / Z 3
B Z1 Z 2 Z1 Z 2 / Z 3
C 1/ Z3
D 1 Z2 / Z3
A 1 Y2 / Y3
C Y1 Y2 Y1Y2 / Y3
B 1 / Y3
D 1 Y1 / Y3
A cosh(l )
B Z o sinh(l )
C (1 / Z o ) sinh(l )
D cosh(l )
Section 5.5
[5.5.40]
[5.5.41]
[5.5.42]
27
EE 564
SParameters
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
28
Port 1
EE 564
L1
Port 2
SParameters
Cvia
Section 5.5
29
EE 564
S12
S 21
S 22
0.110 j 0.153
0.798 j 0.572
0.798 j 0.572
0.110 j 0.153
SParameters
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2 S 21
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2 ZVNA S 21
ZVNA
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2 S 21
1 S11 1 S 22 S12 S 21
2S 21
0.827
j 20.08
j 0.0157
0.827
Z1
Port 1
Z2
Z3
H. Heck 2008
Port 2
A 1
Z3
1
CVIA 0.5 pF
1
j 2fCVIA
Z1
j 2fL
0.827 1
L1 L2 0.35nH
Z3
1 /( j 2fCVIA )
Section 5.5
30
SParameters
EE 564
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
31
SParameters
EE 564
Summary
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
32
SParameters
EE 564
References
D.M. Posar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc. (Wiley Interscience), 1998, 2nd edition.
B. Young, Digital Signal Integrity, PrenticeHall PTR, 2001,
1st edition.
S. Hall, G. Hall, and J. McCall, High Speed Digital System
Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Wiley Interscience), 2000,
1st edition.
W. Dally and J. Poulton, Digital Systems Engineering,
Chapters 4.3 & 11, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector
Network Analysis, Agilent Technologies application note
12871, 2000.
InFixture Measurements Using Vector Network Analyzers,
Agilent Technologies application note 12879, 2000.
Deembedding and Embedding SParameter Networks
Using A Vector Network Analyzer, Agilent Technologies
application note 13641, 2001.
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
33
SParameters
EE 564
Appendix
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
34
EE 564
Reciprocal
Z ij Z ji
Z ij Z ji
Re Z mn 0
Lossless
ReYmn 0
SParameters
Y Z 1
Z ij
Yij
Vi
Ij
Ii
Vj
I k 0 , k j
Vk 0 , k j
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
35
EE 564
S Parameters
Scattering Matrix: S Parameters
V1
V2
VN
S11
S
12
S1N
S 21
S2 N
SParameters
where
S N1
S NN
Vi
Sij
Vj
V1
V2
V S V
or
[5.5.1]
VN
[5.5.2]
Vk0 ,k j
Vn Vn Vn
I n I n I n Vn Vn
????
Z I Z I Z I V V V
Z U V Z U V
1 0
0 1
U
S V 1 V Z U 1 Z U
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
36
EE 564
S Parameters #2
S V 1 V Z U 1 Z U
S Z U Z U S Z S U
[5.5.1]
Z U S 1 U S
[5.5.2]
SParameters
where
Reciprocal
S S
S
k 1
N
ki
S
k 1
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
S ki* 1
ki
S kj* 0, i j
37
EE 564
S Parameters n Ports
an
Vn
bn
Z 0n
Vn
Z 0n
Vn Vn Vn Z 0 n an bn
Vn Vn
In
Z 0n
SParameters
Pn
1 2 1
an bn
2
2
[5.5.2]
b
Sij i
aj
b S a
[5.5.1]
1
an bn
Z 0n
b1 S11
b S
2 21
bn S n1
Vi
Sij
a k 0 , k j
bi
aj
a k 0 ,k j
S12 S1N
a1
a
2
S nn an
Z 0i
V j
Z0 j
Vk0 ,k j
bn S n1a1 S n 2 a2 S nn an
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
38
EE 564
S Parameters #4
n
[5.5.1]
where
Sij =
SParameters
Sij =
Sij =
b S a
bi
aj
a k 0 ,k j
Vi
Sij
H. Heck 2008
bi
aj
a k 0 , k j
Z 0i
V j
Z0 j
Vk0 ,k j
Section 5.5
39
EE 564
VNA Calibration
Proper calibration is critical!!!
There are two basic calibration methods
Short, Open, Load and Thru (SOLT)
Calibrated to known standard( Ex: 50)
Measurement plane at probe tip
SParameters
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
40
EE 564
OPEN
SHORT
S
S
G
Signal
SParameters
Ground
LOAD
THRU
Calibration Substrate
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
41
EE 564
Short
Open
SParameters
100 mils
100 mils
Thru
Measurement
Planes
L1
L2
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
42
EE 564
Calibration Verification
Always check the calibration prior to taking
measurements.
Verify open, load etc..
SParameters
S11(Short)
o
o
Inductance
Inductance
S11(Open)
+j1.0
+j1.0
+j0.5
+j0.5
S21/12(Thru)
Short
Short
0.2
0.2
Normalized
Normalized
Zo
Zo 1.0
Open
Open
20
20
1.0
j0.5
j0.5
j1.0
j1.0
S11(load)
H. Heck 2008
Perimeter
Zo Perimeter
= 0+/ j X
Zo = 0+/ j X
Normalized
ZoNormalized
= 0.2  j1
Zo = 0.2  j1
Capacitance
Capacitance
Section 5.5
43
EE 564
SParameters
DUT
V
Zin = j LI
H. Heck 2008
Short
RS = 50
DUT
V
Open
Current
Zin = V/j C
Section 5.5
44
EE 564
o
o
Inductance
Inductance
SParameters
Short
Short
0.2
0.2
+j1.0
+j1.0
+j0.5
+j0.5
Normalized
Normalized
Zo
Zo 1.0
Open
Open
20
20
1.0
j0.5
j0.5
j1.0
j1.0
Perimeter
Perimeter
Zo = 0+/ j X
Zo = 0+/ j X
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
Normalized
Normalized
Zo = 0.2  j1
Zo = 0.2  j1
Capacitance
Capacitance
45
EE 564
Connector L & C
Use test board to measure connector inductance and
capacitance
Measure values relevant to pinout
Procedure
SParameters
Open
Short
H. Heck 2008
Section 5.5
46