You are on page 1of 9

Fundamentals of

Cellular and Wireless Networks


Lecture ID: ET- IDA-113/114

Tutorial-5

Mobile Security Fundamentals-I


Theory of Secret-Key Ciphers, Block Ciphers
20.05.2012 , v07
Prof. W. Adi

Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 1

Summary of security fundamentals


Shannon security theorem: Perfect Security condition is

H (Z) K
nu

r
r

Unicity Distance nu

H (Z) H (X)

Where r is the
clear text redundancy

N H(X )
N

H(Z)= Key entropy, H(x)=Information entropy, N information length, K key length

Plain Text Padding PTP:


N Bits
Clear text

Clear text redundancy


L

H(X)

N H ( X)
r
N

Bits padding

and

nu

r
r
After PTP:
L N

Random pattern
New unicity distance:

Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

K
r

Cellular & Wireless Networks

n u L

N
N

nu

Page : 2

Problem 5-1:
The following two mapping functions, F and transposition are to be used
as a round operation in a block cipher.
L

n
( )2

|*|n

Ki

|*| means that only the first n- LSB bits


of the product are taken

squaring

Transposition

1.
2.
3.

Prove that the given function F is an involution


Compute the cipher text Y = R1, L1 for an input R=9, L=11 using two rounds
with the keys K1=2, K2=3. Take n=4 bits.
Decipher the cryptogram Y

Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 3

Solution 5-1:
L

1. Involution proof
for function F

|*|n

( )2

+
L + R.K2 + R.K2

=
L
IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

|*|n means multiply and


take as a result only the
first n LSB bits of the
product

L+ R.K2

Technical University of Braunschweig

( )2

Input

|*|n
R
Same as input !
F*F=1
F=F-1
=> F is an Involution
Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 4

Solution 5-1:
11

2. Encryption

Clear text = (11

9 )decimal

(1011 1001)binary

n=4 bits

4
36

( )2

|*|4

|*|4 means multiply and


take only the the
first 4 LSB bits of the
product

1001

1011 + 0100 = 1111

15
9

135

( )2

|*|4

7
1001 +0111=1110

1111

Cryptogram Y = 1111
1111
Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

1110

1110
Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 5

Solution 5-1:
1111

1110

14

15

Cryptogram Y = 1111

1110

3. Decryption
n=4 bits

9
135

( )2

|*|4

|*|4 means multiply and


take only the the
first 4 LSB bits of the
product

1111

1110 + 0111 = 1001

9
4

36

( )2

|*|4

4
1111 + 0100 = 1011 = 11
Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Clear Text = 11
Cellular & Wireless Networks

9
Page : 6

Problem 5-2:
A cipher encrypting an information block of 250 bits. The entropy of the
information source is 150 bits. The key length of the cipher is 64 bits.
How many cryptogram (cipher text) bits are at least necessary for an
attacker to observe, in order to be theoretically capable to break the cipher.

Solution 5-2:
The minimum number of cipher text bits necessary to enable theoretically
breaking the cipher is the unicity distance nu
Where:

nu

K
r

K is the cipher key length and r the clear text redundancy


The Information redundancy is :

N H ( X ) = 250 150 / 250 = 0.40


N

The minimum number of cryptogram bits to break the cipher is


nu = K/r = 64/0.4 = 160 bits
Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 7

Problem 5-3:
A cipher having a key length of 80 bits is encrypting a clear text information block of length 800 bits
having an information entropy of 300 bits.
1.
2.

Compute the unicity distance of the cipher.


Find the new unicity distance if a random pattern of 1000 bits is appended to the information
block.
How much Is the change in the new channel data rate

3.

Solution 5-3:
1. The unicity distance can be found by substituting in the formula:

N H(X )
N

= 800-300/800 = 0.625,

2. The new unicity distance

nu

K
r

n u L N nu
N

nu

= 80 / 0.625 = 128 bits

K
r

, r is to be computed.

nu = (800 +1000/800) 128 =288 bits

3. 800 useful data bits and 1000 non-useful random bits are appended to enhance security
however, these additional random bits include no transmitted information.
percentage of useful data is = 800 / (800 + 1000) = 44% thus the channel data rate is reduced
by 100% -44% = 56%
Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 8

Problem 5-4:
A cipher is to be designed with a unicity distance of 2500 bits.
1.

Compute the key length required for the cipher if the encrypted clear text block length is 1000
bits and clear text entropy is 500 bits.
Find the required data compression to reduce the key length by 20% without reducing the system
security (unicity distance).
The unicity distance is to be increased to 3000 bits, how many random bits are to be padded to
the information block to achieve the new unicity distance

2.
3.

Solution 5-4:
1. The key length can be found by substituting in the relation:
Where: nu=2500

and

N H(X )
N

= 1000-500/1000 = 0.5,

K
nu
r

nu

K
r

2500 = K/0.5 =>

K = 1250 bits

2. To reduce the key length by 20%= 1250 x 0.2 = 250 bits to become 1000 bits, and still keep the
unicity distance unchanged =2500, the new redundancy is r = K/n u= 1000/2500 = 0.4 to find the
new data length, substitute in the redundancy formula
r

3.

N H (X )
N

n u L

0.4 =(N-500)/N => N=833 bits (data compressed to 833 bits)

N
nu
N

3000 = [(L + 833)/833] 2500 => L=167 random bits are to be appended to 833

Technical University of Braunschweig

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 9