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Titansorb

Filter Media for Arsenic removal

by Watch GmbH

Arsenic in water
1. The main cause of Arsenic presence in ground water is believed to be the reductive
dissolution of sedimentary Arsenic-containing Iron Oxy-hydroxide by microbial driven
oxidation of organic matter. This cause the release of adsorbed Arsenic, since the
adsorbed As (V) is reduced to As (III) and leached into ground water.
2. Anthropogenic sources also contribute to Arsenic pollution.
Arsenic compounds were employed as pesticide, herbicide and in wood preservation.
Other sources of Arsenic are mining waste and glass industry.
Fertilizers are also suspected to have an important contribution to the contamination of
groundwater with Arsenic.
Coal combustion, metal smelting and refining processes release Arsenic in the
atmosphere, which eventually it is transported by rain in the surface water and
groundwater.

Need for Arsenic


treatment
Presence of Arsenic in drinking water leads to many
proved health problems, including cancers.

Adsorbers for Arsenic removal


Passive systems little or no user intervention
Easy to operate
Almost no waste water
In some cases, no hazardous spent material
Can achieve the best cost for treated water, especially for medium and small

systems

Titansorb

Appearance:
Particle size:
Moisture content:
Bulk density:

White granules
0.5 1.5 mm
less than 10%
ca. 550 kg/m2

Titansorb
Typical Physical and Chemical Properties
Appearance:
Particle size:
Active surface:
Porosity:

White granules
0.5 1,5 mm
400-450 m2/g
ca. 65%

Typical equilibrium capacity (static, 1000 ppb, pH=6.5)


Arsenic (V)
28-30 g / kg
Arsenic (III)
13-15 g / kg
Typical equilibrium capacity (static, 50 ppb, pH=7.0)
Arsenic (V)
14-16 g /kg
Arsenic (III)
5-6 g/ kg

Titansorb
made of Nanosized Titanium Oxyhydrate
Titanium Oxyhydrate TiO(OH)2 or Metatitanic Acid H2TiO3 - reactive material, containing
maximum number of active centers: Ti-OH groups.
Titanium Oxyhydrate is partially crystallized as Anatase nanocrystals (10 - 20 nm),
containing a high density of Ti-OH active centers on their surface:

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Active Ti-OH groups on Anatase nanocrystals

TEM image of Anatase

Titansorb
The contaminants are strongly adsorbed on the active surface of nanocrystalline Anatase.
As an example, arsenate anion (As5+) may be retained under several possible
coordinative structures:
O
As
O
O

O
Ti

Ti

Ti
O

As

As

OH O

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Chelating
tridentate

Ti

O
Ti

Ti
O

H
O

As
O

Ti

Ti

Ti

Brigded bidentate

Chelating bidentate

O
Ti
O

Chelating tridentate on a step

Titansorb
Operation conditions
High service flow rate:

15 - 35 m/h (6 14 gpm / ft2) (depending on Arsenic concentration)

Backwash flow rate:

14- 24 m/h (6 - 10 gpm / ft 2)

Freeboard:

55% of bed depth

Short contact time:

30 s 3 min (or more, depending on Arsenic concentration)

Bed depth:

at least 0.8 - 1 meter

Operational pH:

4-10

Titansorb
Testing water
NSF/ANSI 53 Standard
Calcium

40 ppm

Magnesium

24 ppm

Sodium

10 ppm

Chloride

100 ppm

Sulfate

50 ppm

Silica (SiO2)

20 ppm

Nitrate

Fluoride

1 ppm

Phosphate

ppm

0.04 ppm

Titansorb
Comparative Arsenic Adsorption Media Test

Flow rate 20 BV/h, pH=7.5, 300 ppb As(V), silica 10 ppm, hardness 150 mg/l

Titansorb
pH influence on Arsenic adsorption
- Activated Alumina, Iron Hydroxide, Titansorb

Flow rate 60 BV/h, 50 ppb As(V), silica 20 ppm, hardness 150 mg/l

Titansorb
Service Flow Rate and Arsenic Adsorption

Test water: pH=7.5, 300 ppb As(V), silica 20 ppm, hardness 150 mg/l

Titansorb
Comparative Arsenic Adsorption Media Test
- influence of pH fluctuations (pH re-set at 6.5 thereafter)
pH = 7.2

pH = 7.0

Flow rate 20 BV/h, pH=6.5, 300 ppb As(V), silica 10 ppm, hardness 150 mg/l

Why Titansorb?

Stronger adsorption of arsenic in comparison with alumina or iron-based media, therefore no


leaching was observed

One of the highest Arsenic adsorption capacity

Fast arsenic adsorption less media, small footprint

Cost per liter of water treated is lower compared with other adsorbers

Wider pH tolerance (Titanium Dioxide is not soluble in acidic or basic media)

Less prone to Arsenic leaching due to pH fluctuations

Best results at pH 7 or lower

Less sensitive to ionic strength or concurrent anions (phosphate, sulfate, nitrate, etc.)

Removes other hazardous contaminants from water - such as chromate, cadmium, lead, copper,
selenium

No staining due to iron leaching

Almost no microbiological contamination (such as iron bacteria) therefore less disinfection


required and less disinfection toxic by-products (THM, chloramines, HAAs) are generated

Titansorb

- second generation-

Thank you!

Questions?
Watch GmbH
Fahrlachstrasse 14
68165 Mannheim
Germany
Web: www.watchwater.de
Dr. Valentin Cimpeanu
Tel. +49-621-87951-55
Email: cimpeanu@watchwater.de