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Technology Acceptance Model

Sherif Kamel

The American University in Cairo

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Introduction

Emerging information technology can not deliver


improved organizational effectiveness if it is not accepted
and used by potential users.
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one of the most
successful measurements for computer usage effectively
among practitioners and academics.
TAM is consistent with Everett Rogers (1983) theory on
diffusion of innovation where technology adoption is a
function of a variety of factors including
o
o

Relative advantage
Ease of use

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Organizational Investments in IT

Investments in computer-based tools to support


planning, decision making and communication
processes are usually risky
o
o

Role of a champion
Change management

Recognizing the difficulty of specifying the right systems


requirements based on their own preferences and logic,
systems builders always seek methods for evaluating the
acceptability of systems as early as possible
Need to know why people resist computers? Predicting
how users will respond? Attempt to improve users
response

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Challenges faced

Understanding why people accept or reject computers


had proven to be one of the most challenging issues in
information systems (Swanson, 1988)
o
o
o
o
o

Users beliefs and attitude is a major determinants


Satisfaction measures are also important
Adaptation to change
Role of culture
Education and awareness are vital

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Theory of Reasoned Action

TAM is an adaptation of the Theory of Reasoned Action


TRA is a widely studied model from social psychology
which is concerned with the determinants of consciously
intended behavior (more general theory)
According to TRA, a persons performance of a specific
behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention
(BI) to perform the behavior and BI is jointly determined
by the persons attitude (A) and subjective norm (SN)
concerning the behavior in question

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Theoretical Framework (TRA)


Beliefs and
evaluations

Attitude
towards
behavior
Behavioral
intention (BI)

Normative beliefs
and motivation to
comply

Subjective
norm

BI = A + SN
Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Actual
behavior

Technology Acceptance Model

Introduced by Fred Davis in 1986 an adaptation of TRA


and specifically tailored for modeling user acceptance of
information systems
TAM is based on two main assumptions:
o
o

Perceived usefulness (PU)


Perceived ease of use (PEOU)

TAM attempts not only for prediction but also for


explanation to help researchers and practitioners identify
why a particular system may be unacceptable and
pursue appropriate steps

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Copyright 1986 Fred D Davis

Technology Acceptance Model

Purpose of TAM is to assess the user acceptance of


emerging information technology
TAM is more specific and applies only to the use of
computers (usage behavior)
o

TAM addresses the human-computer interface (HCI)

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Technology Acceptance Model

An important factor in TAM is to trace the impact of


external factors on internal beliefs, attitudes and
intentions.
Two particular beliefs are addressed through TAM
o

Perceived usefulness (PU)

Prospective users subjective probability that using a


specific application system will increase his or her job
performance within an organizational context

Perceived ease of use (PEOU)

Degree to which the prospective user expects the


target system to be free of effort.

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Copyright 1986 Fred D Davis

PU and PEOU Scales

Perceived usefulness
o
o
o
o
o
o

Work more quickly


Job performance
Increased productivity
Effectiveness
Makes job easier
Useful

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Perceived ease of use


o
o
o
o
o
o

Easy to learn
Clear and understandable
Easy to become skillful
Easy to use
Controllable
Easy to remember

Theoretical Framework (TAM)


Perceived
Usefulness
(PU)
Attitude
toward
using

External
Variables

Perceived
Ease of Use
(PEOU)

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Behavioral
Intention to
use

Actual
system
use

Technology Acceptance Model


(TAM) by F D Davis (1986)

Copyright 1986 Fred D Davis

Example beliefs

I would save time in creating and editing documents


I would find it easier to create and edit documents
My documents would be of a better quality
I would not use alternative presentation packages
I would experience problems gaining access to the
computing center due to crowds
I would become dependent on PowerPoint
I would not use PowerPoint after I leave my current
employer

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Determinants of managerial
computer use
1.

2.

3.

Peoples computer use can be predicted reasonably


well from their intentions
Perceived usefulness is a major determinant of peoples
intentions to use computers
Perceived ease of use is a significant secondary
determinant of peoples intentions to use computers

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

TAM Implications

Planning is vital for IS success


o
o
o
o

Early warning techniques


Systems testing
Mapping paper designs to actual systems outcomes
Continuous exposure, usage and assessment during systems
development phases

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Relationship between ease of use,


usefulness and usage

Everett Rogers claims that adoption of innovation is a


function of a variety of factors including
o
o

Relative advantage
Ease of use of the innovation itself

It is important to note whether the use of the innovation


is a
o
o

Job requirement
Voluntary

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Example Applications

Electronic mail
Voice mail

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel

Word processing
Spreadsheets
Graphics

Conclusion

There is no absolute measure to ease of use or


usefulness
User perceptions of these constructs may vary with time
and experience for any given application
Technology innovation and frequent use are important
elements
Element of trust is an integral part of the formula

Copyright 2004 Sherif Kamel