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Introduction to

MPLS
presented by

Dafi Yondra

Outline
Overview
What Are the Foundations of Traditional IP Routing?
Basic MPLS Features
Benefits of MPLS
What Are the MPLS Architecture Components?
What Are LSRs?
Summary

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Why MPLS ?
A HQ

B Branch

192.168.1.0/24

192.168.4.0/24

D HQ

Pekanbaru

Balikpapan

192.168.1.0/24

C Branch
192.168.4.0/24

C HQ
D Branch

192.168.3.0/24

192.168.2.0/24

B HQ
192.168.3.0/24

Jakarta

Surabaya
A Branch
192.168.2.0/24

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Question :
Why havent heard about MPLS ?

Answer :
Probably because of the availability

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Networking
There are three (3) networking methode available to
manage networks :
Routing
protocols : RIP, OSPF, BGP
Bridging
protocols : STP, RSTP
Switching
protocols : MPLS, ATM, Frame Relay

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Concept of Switching

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Switching
Switching is a network communications methode
that groups all transmitted data no matter of
content, type or structure into suitably-sized
blocks.
Each block is then transmited over the network
independently of each other
Network is capable of allocating transmission
resources as needed, in this way optimizing
utilization of link capacity and robustness of
communication

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What is
MPLS ?

What is MPLS
MPLS stands for Multi protocol Label Switching
MPLS is a packet forwarding metho based on
labels attached to packet and a label forwarding
table with minimal lookup overhead
With MPLS the packet forwarding decision is no
longer based on IP header and routing table
Efficiency of forwarding process is the main
benefit of MPLS
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MPLS in OSI Layer


Multi Protocol Label Switching is arranged
between Layer 2 and Layer 3

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Foundations of Traditional IP Routing


Routing protocols are used to distribute Layer 3
routing information.
Forwarding decision is made based on:
Packet header
Local routing table
Routing lookups are independently performed at
every hop.

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Traditional IP Routing

Every router may need full Internet routing


information.
Destination-based routing lookup is needed on
every hop.
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Traditional IP Routing .. Cont.

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Basic MPLS Features


MPLS leverages both IP routing and CEF (Cisco
Express Forwarding) switching.
MPLS is a forwarding mechanism in which packets
are forwarded based on labels.
MPLS was designed to support multiple Layer 3
protocols
Typically, MPLS labels correspond to destination
networks (equivalent to traditional IP forwarding).

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Topology MPLS
R3

R5

R1

R6
END HOST
R2

R4

END HOST

R1 & R6 = Provider Edge (PE) Router = Edge Label Switch Router (ELSR)
R2, R3, R4, R5 = Provider (P) Router = Label Switch Router (LSR)
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MPLS Operation (1)

EDGE LSR

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MPLS Label (1)

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MPLS Label (2)

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MPLS Operation (2)

Lx

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Label Switch Routers:


Architecture of LSRs

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MPLS Architecture: Control Plane

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MPLS Architecture: Data Plane

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LSRs:
Architecture of Edge LSRs

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MPLS Devices: LSRs

The LSR forwards labeled packets in the MPLS domain.


The edge LSR (LER) forwards labeled packets in the MPLS
domain, and it forwards IP packets into and out of the MPLS
domain.

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LSR Architecture Example

MPLS router functionality is divided into two major


parts: the control plane and the data plane.
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MPLS operation (1)

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Basic MPLS Example

MPLS core routers swap labels and forward packets based on simple label
lookups.
MPLS edge routers also perform a routing table lookup, and add or remove
labels.
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MPLS Operation (2)

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Component of MPLS
MPLS VPN
-

L3 VPN (Virtual Private Routed Network)

L2 VPN (Virtual Private LAN Service)


( AToM = Any Transport Over MPLS)

MPLS QoS
MPLS Traffic Engineering

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Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) (1)

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Layer 2 VPN (VPLS) (2)

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L3 VPN . (1)

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MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)

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MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)

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Redundancy (Fail Over)

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QoS and Bandwidth Optimization

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Benefits of MPLS
MPLS supports multiple applications including:
Unicast and multicast IP routing
VPN
TE
QoS
AToM (Any Transport over MPLS)

MPLS decreases forwarding overhead on core


routers (better forwarding perfomance)
MPLS can support forwarding of non-IP protocols.
Scalability
Redundancy & Fail Over
Build Once Sell Many
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How To Practice ?
Using MPLS enabled Real Hardware
Cisco
Alcatel Lucent
Mikrotik
Using Emulator

Packet Tracer ?

Dynamip + GNS3, need MPLS Cisco IOS Image


Cisco IOU/IOL (IOS Over Unix/Linux) only legal for Cisco employee

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Summary
Traditional IP routing forwards packets based on the
destination address.
MPLS forwards packets based on labels.
MPLS supports multiple applications.
MPLS has two major architectural components:
Control plane (exchanges routing information, exchanges
labels)
Data plane (forwards packets)
LSRs implement label exchange protocols and primarily
forward packets based on labels. The role of Edge LSRs is
primarily to forward packets into and out of the MPLS
domain.

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Q&A

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