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Types of Material

Why Materials ???

Ashby,: Material Selection


in Mechanical Design

Engineering Materials

Materials
Ferrous metals: carbon-, alloy-, stainless-, tool-and-die steels
Non-ferrous metals: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel,
titanium, superalloys, refractory metals,
beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys,
gold, silver, platinum,
Plastics: thermoplastics (acrylic, nylon, polyethylene, ABS,)
thermosets (epoxies, Polymides, Phenolics, )
elastomers (rubbers, silicones, polyurethanes, )
Ceramics, Glasses, Graphite, Diamond, Cubic Boron Nitride
Composites: reinforced plastics, metal-, ceramic matrix composites
Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, superconductors,

Properties of materials

Properties of materials
Physical properties
Density, Specific heat, Melting and boiling point,
Thermal expansion and conductivity,
Electrical and magnetic properties
Chemical properties
Oxidation, Corrosion, Flammability, Toxicity,

Mechanical properties of materials


Strength, Toughness, Hardness, Ductility,
Elasticity, Fatigue and Creep

Physical properties
colour light wave length
specific heat the heat required to raise the temperature of one
gram of a substance by one degree centigrade (J/kg K)
density mass per unit volume expressed in such units as kg/cm 3
thermal conductivity rate at which heat flows through a given
material (W/m K)
melting point a temperature at which a solid begins to liquify
electrical conductivity a measure of how strongly a material
opposes the flow of electric current (m)

Densities of structural materials


Density (kg/m3)
Engineering materials
Steel

7800

Concrete
Rubber

2300
1100

Biological materials
Bone

2000

Cartilage

1100

Tendon

1300

Locust cuticle

1200

Comparison: density of water is 1000 kg/m3

Physical properties
permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the
formation of a magnetic field within itself. Magnetic permeability is
typically represented by the Greek letter
In SI units, permeability is measured
in henries per meter (Hm1),
or Newton per ampere squared (NA2).
The permeability constant (0), also
known as the magnetic constant or the
permeability of free space, 0 =
Simplified comparison of
7
1
410 Hm
permeabilities
ferromagnets (f),paramagnets(p),
free space(0) anddiamagnets (d)
coefficient of thermal expansion degree of expansion divided
by the change in temperature (m/C)

Chemical properties
corrosion resistance - is the property of a metal, or in general a
material, to resist to corrosion attack in a particular environment at
defined operating conditions, pressure, temperature and fluid
velocity. Usually the resistance to corrosion is expressed in terms
of Corrosion rate, mm/y or mils per year (mpy). 1 mpy = 0.0254
mm/y = 25.4 microm/y
To calculate the corrosion rate from metal loss:
mm /y = 87.6 x (W / DAT)
where:
W = weight loss in milligrams, D = metal density in g /cm3
A = area of sample in cm2, T = time of exposure of the metal
sample in hours

Mechanical properties
tensile strength measures the force required to pull something
such as rope,wire or a structural beam to the point where it breaks
ductility a measure of how much strain a material can take
before rupturing
malleability the property of a material that can be worked or
hammered or shaped without breaking
brittleness breaking or shattering of a material when subjected
to stress (when force is applied to it)

Mechanical properties
elasticity the property of a material that returns to its original
shape after stress (e.g. external forces) that made it deform or
distort is removed
plasticity - the deformation of a material undergoing nonreversible changes of shape in response to applied forces
toughness the ability of a material to absorb energy and
plastically deform without fracturing
hardness the property of being rigid and resistant to pressure;
not easily scratched
machinability the property of a material that can be shaped by
hammering, pressing, rolling

types of stresses

Tension

Compression

Shear

Torsion

13

Tensile Test

14

Stress-Strain Test
specimen

machine
15

Important Mechanical Properties


from a Tensile Test
Young's Modulus: This is the slope of the linear portion
of the stress-strain curve, it is usually specific to each
material; a constant, known value.
Yield Strength: This is the value of stress at the yield
point, calculated by plotting young's modulus at a
specified percent of offset (usually offset = 0.2%).
Ultimate Tensile Strength: This is the highest value of
stress on the stress-strain curve.
Percent Elongation: This is the change in gauge length
divided by the original gauge length.
16

Terminology
Load - The force applied to a material during testing.
Strain gage or Extensometer - A device used for
measuring change in length (strain).
Engineering stress - The applied load, or force,
divided by the original cross-sectional area of the
material.
Engineering strain - The amount that a material
deforms per unit length in a tensile test.

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
return to
initial

F
Elastic means reversible.

Linearelastic

Non-Linearelastic

18

Plastic Deformation (Metals)


1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
& planes
shear

planes
still
sheared

elastic + plastic

plastic

F
F
Plastic means permanent.

linear
elastic

linear
elastic

plastic

19

Typical stress-strain
behavior for a metal
showing elastic and
plastic deformations,
the proportional limit P
and the yield strength
y, as determined
using the 0.002 strain
offset method (where there
is noticeable plastic deformation).

P is the gradual
elastic to plastic
transition.

20

Plastic Deformation (permanent)


From an atomic perspective, plastic
deformation corresponds to the breaking of
bonds with original atom neighbors and then
reforming bonds with new neighbors.
After removal of the stress, the large number of
atoms that have relocated, do not return to
original position.
Yield strength is a measure of resistance to
plastic deformation.
21

22

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Localized deformation of a ductile material during a tensile


test produces a necked region.
The image shows necked region in a fractured sample

Permanent Deformation
Permanent deformation for metals is
accomplished by means of a process called slip,
which involves the motion of dislocations.
Most structures are designed to ensure that only
elastic deformation results when stress is
applied.
A structure that has plastically deformed, or
experienced a permanent change in shape, may
not be capable of functioning as intended.
24

Yield Strength, y

Elastic+Plastic
at larger stress

tensile stress,

Elastic
initially

tensile stress,

permanent (plastic)
after load is removed

engineering strain,
plastic strain

engineering strain,

p = 0.002

25

Stress-Strain Diagram
ultimate
tensile
strength

3
Slope=
E

UTS

yield
strength

Strain
Hardening

Stress (F/A)

Plastic
Region
Elastic
Region

1
E

necking

y
2 1

Fracture
5

Elastic region
slope =Youngs (elastic) modulus
yield strength
Plastic region
ultimate tensile strength
strain hardening
fracture

Strain ( ) (L/Lo)

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)


Elastic Region (Point 1 2)
- The material will return to its original shape
after the material is unloaded( like a rubber band).
- The stress is linearly proportional to the strain in
this region.

or

: Stress(psi)
E : Elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) (psi)
: Strain (in/in)

- Point 2 : Yield Strength : a point where permanent

deformation occurs. ( If it is passed, the material will


no longer return to its original length.)

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)


Strain Hardening
- If the material is loaded again from Point 4, the
curve will follow back to Point 3 with the same
Elastic Modulus (slope).
- The material now has a higher yield strength of
Point 4.
- Raising the yield strength by permanently straining
the material is called Strain Hardening.

Stress-Strain Diagram (cont)


Tensile Strength (Point 3)
- The largest value of stress on the diagram is called
Tensile Strength(TS) or Ultimate Tensile Strength
(UTS)
- It is the maximum stress which the material can
support without breaking.
Fracture (Point 5)
- If the material is stretched beyond Point 3, the stress
decreases as necking and non-uniform deformation
occur.
- Fracture will finally occur at Point 5.

The stress-strain curve for an aluminum alloy.

(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Stress-strain
behavior found
for some steels
with yield
point
phenomenon.

31

T
E
N
S
I
L
E

P
R
O
P
E
R
T
I
E
S

32

Yield Strength: Comparison


Metals/
Alloys

300
200

Al (6061)ag
Steel (1020)hr
Ti (pure)a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500)hr

100
70
60
50
40

Al (6061)a

30
20

10

Tin (pure)

dry

PC
Nylon 6,6
PET
humid
PVC
PP
HDPE

LDPE

Hard to measure,

700
600
500
400

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)a
W (pure)
Cu (71500)cw
Mo (pure)
Steel (4140)a
Steel (1020)cd

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

1000

Composites/
fibers

Steel (4140)qt

Hard to measure,
since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

Yield strength, y (MPa)

2000

Graphite/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Semicond

Room T values
a
hr
ag
cd
cw
qt

= annealed
= hot rolled
= aged
= cold drawn
= cold worked
= quenched & tempered

33

Tensile Strength, TS
After yielding, the stress necessary to
continue plastic deformation in metals
increases to a maximum point (M) and then
decreases to the eventual fracture point (F).
All deformation up to the maximum stress
is uniform throughout the tensile sample.
However, at max stress, a small
constriction or neck begins to form.
Subsequent deformation will be confined
to this neck area.
Fracture strength corresponds to the stress
at fracture.

Region between M and F:


Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are aligned and about to break.

34

In an undeformed
thermoplastic polymer
tensile sample,
(a)the polymer chains are
randomly oriented.
(b)When a stress is
applied, a neck develops
as chains become aligned
locally. The neck
continues to grow until the
chains in the entire gage
length have aligned.
(c)The strength of the
polymer is increased

35

Tensile Strength: Comparison


Metals/
Alloys

Tensile strength, TS(MPa)

5000
3000
2000
1000

300
200
100
40
30
20

Graphite/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Semicond

Composites/
fibers
C fibers
Aramid fib
E-glass fib

Steel (4140)qt
Diamond
W (pure)
a
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)
a
Steel (4140)
Si nitride
Cu (71500)cw
Cu (71500)hr Al oxide
Steel (1020)
Al (6061)ag
Ti (pure)a
Ta (pure)
Al (6061)a
Si crystal
<100>

Glass-soda
Concrete
Graphite

AFRE (|| fiber)


GFRE(|| fiber)
CFRE (|| fiber)

Room T values
Nylon 6,6
PC PET
PVC
PP
HDPE

wood(|| fiber)
GFRE( fiber)
CFRE ( fiber)
AFRE( fiber)

LDPE

10

wood(

fiber)

Based on data in Table B4, Callister 6e.

a = annealed
hr = hot rolled
ag = aged
cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.
36

Ductility, %EL
Ductility is a measure of the
plastic deformation that has
been sustained at fracture:
Engineering
tensile
stress,
A material that
suffers very
little plastic
deformation is
brittle.

% EL

l f lo
lo

x100

smaller %EL
(brittle if %EL<5%)
larger %EL
(ductile if
%EL>5%)

Lo

Ao

Engineering tensile strain,

Another ductility measure:

% AR

Af

Ao A f
Ao

Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (%


plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area.
%AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form in neck.

Lf

x100

37

Toughness is
the ability to
absorb
energy up to
fracture (energy

Toughness
Lower toughness: ceramics
Higher toughness: metals

per unit volume of


material).

A tough
material has
strength and
ductility.
Approximated
by the area
under the
stress-strain
curve.

38

Toughness
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.

Engineering
tensile
stress,

smaller toughness (ceramics)


larger toughness
(metals, PMCs)
smaller toughnessunreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain,


21

Linear Elastic Properties


=E

Hooke's Law:

Poisson's ratio: xy
metals:
~ 0.33
ceramics: ~0.25
polymers: ~0.40

simple
tension
test

E
1

Linearelastic
Units:
E: [GPa] or [psi]
: dimensionless

Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(Young's modulus)

40

Youngs Moduli: Comparison


Metals
Alloys
1200
1000
800
600
400

E(GPa)

200
100
80
60
40

109 Pa

Graphite
Composites
Ceramics Polymers
/fibers
Semicond
Diamond

Si carbide
Tungsten
Al oxide
Molybdenum Si nitride
Steel, Ni
<111>
Tantalum
Si crystal
Platinum
<100>
Cu alloys
Zinc, Ti
Silver, Gold Glass-soda
Aluminum

C arbon fibers only

CFRE(|| fibers)*
Aramid fibers only

AFRE(|| fibers)*
Glass fibers only

Magnesium,
Tin

GFRE(|| fibers)*
Concrete
GFRE*

20
10
8
6
4
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

E ceramics
>E metals
>>Epolymers

CFRE *
GFRE( fibers)*

Graphite

Polyester
PET
PS
PC

CFRE( fibers)*
AFRE( fibers)*

Composite data based on


reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned carbon (CFRE),
aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE)
fibers.

Epoxy only

PP
HDPE
PTFE
LDPE

Wood(

grain)

41

Material Specification
Chemical composition
Mechanical properties Strength, hardness
(under various conditions: temperature,
humidity, pressure)
Physical properties density, optical,
electrical, magnetic
Environmental green, recycling

Metals
Ferrous Metals
Cast irons
Steels

Super alloys
Iron-based
Nickel-based
Cobalt-based

Non-ferrous metals

Aluminum and its alloys


Copper and its alloys
Magnesium and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Zinc and its alloys
Lead & Tin
Refractory metals
Precious metals

General Properties and Applications of


Ferrous Alloys
Ferrous alloys are useful metals in terms of
mechanical, physical and chemical properties.
Alloys contain iron as their base metal.
Carbon steels are least expensive of all metals
while stainless steels is costly.

Carbon and alloy steels


Carbon steels
Classified as low, medium and high:
1. Low-carbon steel or mild steel, < 0.3%C,
bolts, nuts and sheet plates.
2. Medium-carbon steel, 0.3% ~ 0.6%C,
machinery, automotive and agricultural
equipment.
3. High-carbon steel, > 0.60% C, springs,
cutlery, cable.

Carbon and alloy steels


Alloy steels
Steels containing significant amounts of
alloying elements.
Structural-grade alloy steels used for
construction industries due to high strength.
Other alloy steels are used for its strength,
hardness, resistance to creep and fatigue, and
toughness.
It may heat treated to obtain the desired
properties.

Carbon and alloy steels


High-strength low-alloy steels
Improved strength-to-weight ratio.
Used in automobile bodies to reduce weight
and in agricultural equipment.
Some examples are:
1. Dual-phase steels
2. Micro alloyed steels
3. Nano-alloyed steels

Stainless steels
Characterized by their corrosion resistance,
high strength and ductility, and high
chromium content.
Stainless as a film of chromium oxide protects
the metal from corrosion.

Stainless steels
Five types of stainless steels:
1. Austenitic steels
2. Ferritic steels
3. Martensitic steels
4. Precipitation-hardening (PH) steels
5. Duplex-structure steels

Typical Selection of Carbon and Alloy Steels


for Various Applications
TABLE5.1
Product

Aircraftforgings,
tubing,fittings
Automobilebodies
Axles
Ballbearingsandraces
Bolts
Camshafts
Chains(transmission)
Coilsprings
Connectingrods
Crankshafts(forged)

Steel

4140,8740
1010
1040,4140
52100
1035,4042,4815
1020,1040
3135,3140
4063
1040,3141,4340
1045,1145,3135,3140

Product

Differentialgears
Gears(carandtruck)
Landinggear
Lockwashers
Nuts
Railroadrailsandwheels
Springs(coil)
Springs(leaf)
Tubing
Wire
Wire(music)

Steel

4023
4027,4032
4140,4340,8740
1060
3130
1080
1095,4063,6150
1085,4063,9260,6150
1040
1045,1055
1085

Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and


Alloy Steels in Various Conditions
TABLE5.2TypicalMechanicalPropertiesofSelectedCarbonandAlloySteelsintheHotRolled,
Normalized,andAnnealedCondition
AISI

Condition

1020

Asrolled
Normalized
Annealed
Asrolled
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed
Normalized
Annealed

1080
3140
4340
8620

Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
448
441
393
1010
965
615
891
689
1279
744
632
536

Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Elongationin
50mm(%)

Reductionof
area(%)

Hardness
(HB)

346
330
294
586
524
375
599
422
861
472
385
357

36
35
36
12
11
24
19
24
12
22
26
31

59
67
66
17
20
45
57
50
36
49
59
62

143
131
111
293
293
174
262
197
363
217
183
149

Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and


Applications of Annealed Stainless Steels
TABLE 5.4 Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Typical Applications of Selected Annealed
Stainless Steels
Ultimate
tensile
Yield
Elongation
AISI
strength
strength
in 50 mm
(UNS)
(MPa)
(MPa)
(%)
Characteristics and typical applications
303
550620
240260
5350
Screw machine products, shafts, valves, bolts,
(S30300)
bushings, and nuts; aircraft fittings; bolts; nuts;
rivets; screws; studs.
304
(S30400)

565620

240290

6055

Chemical and food processing equipment,


brewing equipment, cryogenic vessels, gutters,
downspouts, and flashings.

316
(S31600)

550590

210290

6055

High corrosion resistance and high creep strength.


Chemical and pulp handling equipment,
photographic equipment, brandy vats, fertilizer
parts, ketchup cooking kettles, and yeast tubs.

410
(S41000)

480520

240310

3525

416
(S41600)

480520

275

3020

Machine parts, pump shafts, bolts, bushings, coal


chutes, cutlery, tackle, hardware, jet engine parts,
mining machinery, rifle barrels, screws, and
valves.
Aircraft fittings, bolts, nuts, fire extinguisher
inserts, rivets, and screws.

Tool and die steels


Designed for high strength, impact toughness,
and wear resistance at a range of
temperatures.

Processing and Service Characteristics of


Common Tool and Die Steels
TABLE 5.6 Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels
Resistance to
decarburization
Medium
High
Low
Medium
Medium
Medium

Resistance to
cracking
Medium
High
Medium
Highest
Highest
Highest

Approximate
hardness
(HRC)
6065
6065
6065
3855
5762
3556

Machinability
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium to high
Medium
Medium

Toughness
Low
Low
Low
Very high
Medium
High

Resistance to
softening
Very high
Very high
Highest
High
High
High

D2

Medium

Highest

5461

Low

Low

High

D3
H21

Medium
Medium

High
High

5461
3654

Low
Medium

Low
High

High
High

H26
P20

Medium
High

High
High

4358
2837

Medium
Medium to high

Medium
High

Very high
Low

P21
W1, W2

High
Highest

Highest
Medium

3040
5064

Medium
Highest

Medium
High

Medium
Low

AISI
designation
M2
T1
T5
H11, 12, 13
A2
A9

Source: Adapted from Tool Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, 1978.

Resistance to
wear
Very high
Very high
Very high
Medium
High
Medium to
high
High to very
high
Very high
Medium to
high
High
Low to
medium
Medium
Low to
medium

Aluminium and aluminium alloys


Factors for selecting are:
1. High strength to weight ratio
2. Resistance to corrosion
3. High thermal and electrical conductivity
4. Ease of machinability
5. Non-magnetic

Aluminium and aluminium alloys

Magnesium and magnesium alloys

Magnesium (Mg) is the lightest metal.


Alloys are used in structural and non-structural
applications.
Typical uses of magnesium alloys are aircraft and
missile components.
Also has good vibration-damping characteristics.

Copper and copper alloys


Copper alloys have electrical and mechanical
properties, corrosion resistance, thermal
conductivity and wear resistance.
Applications are electronic components,
springs and heat exchangers.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.

Nickel and nickel alloys


Nickel (Ni) has strength, toughness, and
corrosion resistance to metals.
Used in stainless steels and nickel-base
alloys.
Alloys are used for high temperature
applications, such as jet-engine components
and rockets.

Nickel and nickel alloys

Superalloys
Superalloys are high-temperature alloys use
in jet engines, gas turbines and reciprocating
engines.

Titanium and titanium alloys


Titanium (Ti) is expensive, has high strengthto-weight ratio and corrosion resistance.
Used as components for aircrafts, jet-engines,
racing-cars and marine crafts.

Refractory metals
Refractory metals have a high melting point
and retain their strength at elevated
temperatures.
Applications are electronics, nuclear power
and chemical industries.
Molybdenum, columbium, tungsten, and
tantalum are referred to as refractory metal.

Other nonferrous metals


1. Beryllium
2. Zirconium
3. Low-melting-point metals:
- Lead
- Zinc
- Tin
4. Precious metals:
- Gold
- Silver
- Platinum

Special metals and alloys


1. Shape-memory alloys (i.e. eyeglass frame, helical
spring)
2. Amorphous alloys (Metallic Glass)
3. Nanomaterials
4. Metal foams

Mechanical Failure & Failure


Analysis

Mechanical Failure & Failure Analysis


ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How do flaws in a material initiate failure?
How is fracture resistance quantified; how do different
material classes compare?
How do we estimate the stress to fracture?
How do loading rate, loading history, and temperature
affect the failure stress?

Ship-cyclic loading
from waves.
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph,
Chapter 8, Callister 7e. (by Neil Boenzi, The
New York Times.)

Computer chip-cyclic
thermal loading.
Adapted from Fig. 22.30(b), Callister 7e. (Fig.
22.30(b) is courtesy of National
Semiconductor Corporation.)

Hip implant-cyclic
loading from walking.
Adapted from Fig. 22.26(b),
Callister 7e.

Fracture mechanisms
Ductile fracture
Occurs with plastic deformation

Brittle fracture
Occurs with Little or no plastic deformation
Thus they are Catastrophic meaning they
occur without warning!

Ductile vs Brittle Failure


Fracture
behavior:

Very
Ductile

Moderately
Ductile

Brittle

Large

Moderate

Small

Ductile fracture is
nearly always desirable!

%Ra or %El

Ductile:
warning before
fracture

Brittle:
No
warning

Example: Failure of a Pipe


Ductile failure:
--one piece
--large deformation

Brittle failure:
--many pieces
--small deformation
Figures from V.J. Colangelo and F.A. Heiser,
Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed.),
Fig. 4.1(a) and (b), p. 66 John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1987. Used with permission.

Moderately Ductile Failure


Evolution to failure:
void growth shearing
void
necking
nucleation and linkage at surface

Resulting
fracture
surfaces

fracture

50
50mm
mm

(steel)

Inclusion
From V.J. Colangelo and F.A. Heiser,
Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed.),
particles
Fig. 11.28, p. 294, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1987. (Orig. source: P. Thornton, J.
serve as void Mater. Sci., Vol. 6, 1971, pp. 347-56.)
Nucleation sites.

100 mm
Fracture surface of tire cord wire loaded
in tension. Courtesy of F. Roehrig, CC
Technologies, Dublin, OH. Used with
permission.

Ductile vs. Brittle Failure

cup-and-cone fracture
Adapted from Fig. 8.3, Callister 7e.

brittle fracture

Brittle Failure
Arrows indicate point at which failure originated

Adapted from Fig. 8.5(a), Callister 7e.

Brittle Fracture Surfaces: Useful to examine to


determine causes of failure
Intragranular

Intergranular
(between grains)

4 mm

304 S. Steel
(metal)

(within grains)

316 S. Steel
(metal)

Reprinted w/permission from


"Metals Handbook", 9th ed,
Reprinted w/ permission
Fig. 633, p. 650. Copyright
from "Metals Handbook",
1985, ASM International,
9th ed, Fig. 650, p. 357.
Materials Park, OH.
Copyright 1985, ASM
(Micrograph by J.R. Keiser International, Materials Park,
and A.R. Olsen, Oak Ridge
OH. (Micrograph by D.R.
National Lab.)
Diercks, Argonne National
Lab.)

Polypropyle
ne
(polymer)

160 mm

Al Oxide
(ceramic)

Reprinted w/ permission
from "Failure Analysis of
Reprinted w/ permission
Brittle Materials", p. 78.
from R.W. Hertzberg,
Copyright 1990, The
"Deformation and Fracture American Ceramic Society,
Westerville, OH.
Mechanics of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.) Fig. (Micrograph by R.M. Gruver
and H. Kirchner.)
7.35(d), p. 303, John
1 mm
Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
(Orig. source: K. Friedrick, Fracture 1977, Vol.
1996.
3, ICF4, Waterloo, CA, 1977, p. 1119.)

3 mm

Failure Analysis Failure Avoidance


Most failure occur due to the presence of defects in
materials
Cracks or Flaws (stress concentrators)
Voids or inclusions

Presence of defects is best found before hand and they


should be determined non-destructively
X-Ray analysis
Ultra-Sonic Inspection
Surface inspection
Magna-flux
Dye Penetrant

Impact (high strain rate) Testing


Impact loading (see ASTM E23 std.):
-- severe testing case
-- makes material act more brittle
-- decreases toughness
Useful to compare alternative materials
for severe applications

(Charpy Specimen)

Adapted from Fig. 8.12(b), Callister


7e. (Fig. 8.12(b) is adapted from
H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J.
Wulff, The Structure and Properties
of Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical
Behavior, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
(1965) p. 13.)

final height

initial height

Flaws are Stress Concentrators!


Results from crack propagation
Griffith Crack Model:

a
m 2o
t
t

1/ 2

K t o

where
t = radius of curvature of
crack tip
o = applied stress
m = stress at crack tip
Adapted from Fig. 8.8(a), Callister 7e.

Concentration of Stress at Crack Tip

Adapted from Fig. 8.8(b), Callister 7e.

Engineering Fracture Design


Avoid sharp corners!
o
Stress Conc. Factor,
w
max
r, h
fillet
radius
Adapted from G.H.
Neugebauer, Prod. Eng.
(NY), Vol. 14, pp. 82-87
1943.)

Kt = max
o

2.5

max is the concentrated stress


in the narrowed region

2.0

increasing w/h

1.5
1.0

0.5
1.0
sharper fillet radius

r/h

Crack Propagation
Cracks propagate due to sharpness of crack tip
A plastic material deforms at the tip, blunting the
crack.
brittle

Energy balance on the crack


Elastic strain energy-

Plastic
deformed
region

energy is stored in material as it is elastically deformed


this energy is released when the crack propagates
creation of new surfaces requires (this) energy

When Does a Crack Propagate?


Crack propagates if applied stress is above critical stress

i.e., m >c
orKt > Kc

2E s
c

1/ 2

where
E = modulus of elasticity
s = specific surface energy
a = one half length of internal crack
Kc = c/ 0

For ductile materials replace s by s + p


where p is plastic deformation energy

Fatigue behavior:
Fatigue = failure under cyclic stress
specimen compression on top
bearing

bearing

motor

counter

flex coupling
tension on bottom

Stress varies with time.


-- key parameters are S (stress
amplitude), m, and frequency

max
m
min

(Fig. 8.18 is from Materials


Science in Engineering, 4/E
by Carl. A. Keyser, Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, NJ.)

Key points when designing in Fatigue inducing situations:


-- fatigue can cause part failure, even though max < c.
-- fatigue causes ~ 90% of mechanical engineering failures.
Because of its importance, ASTM and ISO have developed many
special standards to assess Fatigue Strength of materials

time

Some important Calculations in


Fatigue Testing
A Material 6.4 mm in is subject to (fatiguing) loads:
5340 N - tensile then compressive

max 5340
min

6.4*10 2
5340
3
6.4*10

5340

3.22 105

5340

165.99 MPa

3.22 10

165.99 MPa

max min 165.99 165.99 MPa


m mean stress

0
2
2
r stress range Max min 331.99 MPa
a stress amplitude S r 2 165.99 MPa

Figure 8.8 Fatigue corresponds to the brittle


fracture of an alloy after a total of N cycles to
a stress below the tensile strength.

Fatigue Design Parameters


Fatigue limit, Sfat:
--no fatigue failure if
S < Sfat

S = stress amplitude
unsafe
Sfat

case for
steel (typ.)

safe

Adapted from Fig.


8.19(a), Callister 7e.

Fatigue Limit is defined


3
5
7
9
10 10
10
10
in: ASTM D671
N = Cycles to failure
However, Sometimes, the
fatigue limit is zero!
S = stress amplitude
case for
Al(typ.)
unsafe
safe
3

10

Adapted from Fig. 8.19(b),


Callister 7e.

10
10
10
N = Cycles to failure

Lets look at an Example


Given: 2014-T6 Alum. Alloy bar (6.4 mm )
find its fatigue life if a part is subject to loads:
5340 N - tensile then compressive
5340
max 5340
2
5 165.99 MPa
3
3.22

10
6.4*10 2
5340
min 5340
165.99MPa
2
3
3.22 105
6.4*10

max min 165.99 165.99 MPa

0
2
2
r Max min 331.99 MPa
a S r 2 165.99 MPa
Examining Fig (right) at S = 165.99
m

Fatigue Life = Cycles to Failure 7 106

For metals other than Ferrous alloys, F.S. is taken as


the stress that will cause failure after 108 cycles

Figure 8.21 Fatigue behavior for an acetal polymer at


various temperatures.
(From Design Handbook for Du
Pont Engineering Plastics, used by
permission.)

For polymers, we
consider fatigue life to
be (only) 106 cycles to
failure thus fatigue
strength is the stress
that will lead to failure
after 106 cycles

Fatigue Mechanism
Cracks in Material grows incrementally

da
m
K
dN

typ. 1 to 6

~ a

increase in crack length per loading cycle


crack origin

Failed rotating shaft

--crack grew even though


Kmax < Kc
--crack grows faster as
increases
crack gets longer
loading freq. increases.

Adapted from
from D.J. Wulpi,
Understanding How
Components Fail,
American Society for
Metals, Materials Park,
OH, 1985.

Figure 8.12 Illustration of crack growth with number of stress


cycles, N, at two different stress levels. Note that, at a given stress
level, the crack growth rate, da/dN, increases with increasing crack
length, and, for a given crack length such as a1, the rate of crack
growth is significantly increased with increasing magnitude of stress.

Improving Fatigue Life


1. Impose a compressive
surface stresses
(to suppress surface
crack growth)

S = stress amplitude
Adapted from
Fig. 8.24, Callister 7e.

Increasing

near zero or compressive


moderate tensile m
Larger tensile m
N = Cycles to failure

--Method
1: shot peening
shot

--Method 2: carburizing

put
surface
into
compression

2. Remove stress
concentrators.

bad

C-rich gas

better
Adapted from
Fig. 8.25, Callister 7e.

bad

better

Figure 8.17 Fatigue strength is increased by prior mechanical


deformation or reduction of structural discontinuities.

Other Issues in Failure Stress Corrosion


Cracking
Water can greatly accelerate crack
growth and shorten life
performance in metals, ceramics
and glasses
Other chemicals that can generate
(or provide H+ or O2-) ions also
effectively reduce fatigue life as
these ions react with the metal or
oxide in the material

Figure 8.18 The drop in strength of glasses with duration of load


(and without cyclic-load applications) is termed static fatigue.

(From W. D. Kingery, Introduction to


Ceramics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1960.)

Figure 8.19 The role of H2O in static fatigue depends on its


reaction with the silicate network. One H2O molecule and one
Si OSi segment generate two SiOH units, which is equivalent
to a break in the network.

Figure 8.20 Comparison of (a) cyclic fatigue in metals


and (b) static fatigue in ceramics.

SUMMARY
Why Failure?
All unanticipated mechanical failures
must have a cause:
Designed incorrectly
Manufactured incorrectly
Mis-maintained
Mis-operated

SUMMARY
Engineering materials don't reach theoretical strength.
Flaws produce stress concentrations that cause
premature failure.
Sharp corners produce large stress concentrations
and premature failure.
Failure type depends on T and stress:
- for noncyclic and T < 0.4Tm, failure stress decreases with:
- increased maximum flaw size,
- decreased T,
- increased rate of loading.

- for cyclic :

- cycles to fail decreases as increases.

- for higher T (T > 0.4Tm):


- time to fail decreases as or T increases.

Case Study
Conventional
tensile failure
mode that we
are all familiar
with.

Brittle Fracture

Ductile Fracture

Failure in Compression

Failure in Torsion

Failure in Bending

Failure in little bits!

Sneaky failure

Fatigue Failure

CORROSION AND
DEGRADATION

CORROSION AND DEGRADATION


ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
Why does corrosion occur?
What metals are most likely to corrode?
How do temperature and environment affect
corrosion rate?
How do we suppress corrosion?

What is Corrosion?
Corrosion is the oxidation of a metal due to an
ELECTROCHEMICAL reaction. The oxidizing agent is
most often O2 (atmospheric corrosion) or H+ (chemical
corrosion) or both.

Why is it a problem?
Financial - $350 Billion Dollar Annual Problem in U.S.
(4.25% of GNP) Department of Defense spends $6 8
Billion

CORROSION OF ZINC IN ACID


Two reactions are necessary:
-- oxidation reaction: Zn Zn2 2e
-- reduction reaction: 2H 2e H2(gas)
H+
oxidation reaction
Zn
Zn2+
H+

Zinc

flow of e2ein the metal

H+
H+

Acid
solution

H+
H+

H2(gas)
H+
reduction reaction

Other reduction reactions:


-- in an acid solution

O2 4H 4e 2H2O

-- in a neutral or base solution

O2 2H2O 4e 4(OH)
3

STANDARD HYDROGEN (EMF) TEST


Two outcomes:
e-

H2(gas) 2e
Mn+ H+
ions
H+

Platinum

metal, M

ne-

e-

25C

1M Mn+ soln 1M H+ soln

--Metal is the anode (-)


o
Vmetal
0 (relative to Pt)

e-

nemetal, M

e-

--Metal sample mass

Mn+
ions

H+ 2eH+

Platinum

--Metal sample mass

25C

1M Mn+soln 1M H+ soln

--Metal is the cathode (+)

o
Vmetal
0 (relative to Pt)

Standard Electrode Potential


4

m
o
r
e
a
n
o
d
i
c
m
o
r
e
c
a
t
h
o
d
i
c

STANDARD EMF SERIES

EMF series
metal
Au
Cu
Pb
Sn
Ni
Co
Cd
Fe
Cr
Zn
Al
Mg
Na
K

o
Vmetal

+1.420 V
+0.340
- 0.126
- 0.136
- 0.250
o
- 0.277 V =
- 0.403 0.153V
- 0.440
- 0.744
- 0.763
- 1.662
- 2.262
- 2.714
- 2.924

Metal with smaller


o

Vmetal corrodes.

Ex: Cd-Ni cell

Cd

25C

Ni

1.0 M
1.0 M
Cd 2+ solutionNi 2+solution

CORROSION IN A GRAPEFRUIT
Cathode
Cu +

Anode

H+
H+
Zn2+
2e-

reduction
2H 2e H2(gas)
O2 4H 4e 2H2O

H+
H+

Zn

oxidation
H+

Acid

H+

H+

EFFECT OF SOLUTION CONCENTRATION


Ex: Cd-Ni cell with
Ex: Cd-Ni cell with
standard 1M solutions
non-standard solutions
RT X
o
o
o
o
VNi
VCd
0.153
VNi VCd VNi VCd
ln
nF Y
-

Cd

25C

Ni

1.0 M
1.0 M
Cd2+ solution Ni2+solution

n = #eper unit
oxid/red
Cd
Ni
T
reaction
(=2 here)
F=
XM
YM
Faraday's
Cd2+ solution Ni2+solution constant
Reduce VNi - VCd by =96,500
C/mol.

--increasing X
--decreasing Y

m
o
r
e
a
n
o
d
i
c
m
o
r
e
c
a
t
h
o
d
i
c

GALVANIC SERIES

(
a
c
t
i
v
e
)

(
i
n
e
r
t
)

Ranks the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater


Platinum
Gold
Graphite
Titanium
Silver
316 Stainless Steel
Nickel (passive)
Copper
Nickel (active)
Tin
Lead
316 Stainless Steel
Iron/Steel
Aluminum Alloys
Cadmium
Zinc
Magnesium
8

FORMS OF CORROSION
Stress corrosion

Stress & corrosion


Uniform Attack work together
Erosion-corrosion
Oxidation & reduction at crack tips.
Break down of passivating
occur uniformly over
layer by erosion (pipe
surface.
elbows).

Selective Leaching

Preferred corrosion of
one element/constituent
(e.g., Zn from brass (Cu-Zn)).

Intergranular

Forms
of
corrosion

Pitting

Downward propagation
of small pits & holes.

Corrosion along
grain boundaries,
Galvanic
often where special Dissimilar metals are Crevice Between two
pieces of the same metal.
phases exist.
physically joined. The
Rivet holes
g.b.
more anodic one
prec.
corrodes.(see Table
17.2) Zn & Mg
attacked
very anodic.
zones
9

DETERIORATIVE
Stress & Saltwater... Heat treatment: slows
crack speed in salt water!

c r a c k s p e e d (m /s )

--causes cracks!

10-8

as-is
held at
160C for 1hr
before testing

10-10

Alloy 7178 tested in


saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23C

increasing load

--material:

4m

7150-T651 Al
"alloy"
(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)

10

Uniform Corrosion: Rust!

Prevention:

Paint

Plate

Sacrificial anode

Galvanic Corrosion
Causes:
Dissimilar metals
Electrolyte
Current Path
Described by Galvanic Series
Solutions:
Choose metals close in galvanic
series
Have large anode/cathode ratios
Insulate dissimilar metals
Use Cathodic protection

Pitting and Creviced


Corrosion

Causes:

concentration gradients in
electrolyte cause some areas high in ion
concentrations that accelerate oxidation

Prevention:
Weld dont rivet
Use non-absorbing gaskets
Polish surfaces
Add drains avoid stagnant water
Adjust composition; e.g., add Mo to SS

Intergranular Corrosion
Occurs in specific alloys precipitation of corrosive
specimens along grain boundaries and in particular
environments
e.g. : Chromium carbide forming in SS, leaving adjacent areas depleted in Cr

Solutions:

High temp heat treat to redissolve carbides


Lower carbon content (in SS) to minimize carbide
formation
Alloy with a material that has
formation (e.g., Ti or Nb)

stronger carbide

Erosion Corrosion
Causes: abrasive fluids impinging on
surfaces
Commonly found in piping, propellers,
turbine blades, valves and pumps

Solutions:
Change design to minimize or eliminate fluid
turbulence and impingement effects.
Use other materials that resist erosion
Remove particulates from fluids

Selective Leaching
Occurs in alloys in which one
element is preferentially removed
e.g., in Brass, Zinc is electrically
active and is removed, leaving
behind porous Copper
Occurs in other metals, such as Al,
Fe, Co, Cr

Solutions:
Use protective coating to protect surfaces
Use alternative materials

Stress Corrosion
Aka: stress corrosion cracking
Cracks grow along grain
boundaries as a result of residual or
applied stress or trapped gas or
solid corrosion products
e.g., brasses are sensitive to
ammonia
Stress levels may be very low
Solutions:

Reduce stress levels


Heat treatment
Atmosphere control

Hydrogen Embrittlement
Metals loose strength when Hydrogen is
absorbed through surface, especially along
grain boundaries and dislocations
Often occurs as a result of decorative
plating
High strength steels particularly susceptible
Can be removed by baking the alloy

CONTROLLING CORROSION
Metal oxide
Metal (e.g., Al,
stainless steel)

Self-protecting metals!

--Metal ions combine with O


to form a thin, adhering oxide layer that slows corrosion.

Reduce T (slows kinetics of oxidation and reduction)


Add inhibitors
--Slow oxidation/reduction reactions by removing reactants
(e.g., remove O2 gas by reacting it w/an inhibitor).
--Slow oxidation reaction by attaching species to
the surface (e.g., paint it!).

Cathodic (or sacrificial) protection

--Attach a more anodic material to the one to be protected.


Adapted
from Fig.
17.14,
Callister
6e.

e.g., zinc-coated nail


Zn2+

zinc

2e- 2esteel

zinc

e.g., Mg Anode

steel
pipe

e-

Cu wire
Mg Mg2+
anode
Earth

11

Corrosion prevention
Sacrificial Anode

Applied Voltage

Surface coatings & Passivation

Some materials, such as


Aluminum or Stainless
Steel, form oxide
barrier coatings that
prevent oxidation at
active surface this is
called passivation

Surface can be coated with protective layers:


painted, anodized, plated (Caution!!! Cracks in
plating or paint can lead to crevice corrosion!)

SUMMARY

Corrosion occurs due to:

--the natural tendency of metals to give up electrons.


--electrons are given up by an oxidation reaction.
--these electrons then are part of a reduction reaction.

Metals with a more negative Standard Electrode


Potential are more likely to corrode relative to
other metals.
The Galvanic Series ranks the reactivity of metals in
seawater.
Increasing T speeds up oxidation/reduction reactions.
Corrosion may be controlled by:
-- using metals which form -- adding inhibitors
a protective oxide layer -- painting
-- reducing T
--using cathodic protection.
12