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Presentation On

Solar Cell Power Plant

Submitted By
AMIT KUMAR
RAJAT AGRAWAL
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Table Of Contents
History
Introduction

Working Principle
Global Scenario
Indian Scenario
Basic Structure of Solar Cell
Operation of Solar Cell
Types of solar cell
Block Diagram
Environmental Aspects
Advantage ,Disadvantage , Application
Future aspects
Emerging Technologies
Swansons Law
Conclusion

Introduction
Solar cell power plant converts solar
energy directly to DC electric energy.
It supplies a voltage and a current to a
resistive load (light, battery, motor).
Power = Current x Voltage=Current2 x R=
Voltage2/R

It supplies DC power.
The voltage supplied by the cell changes
with changes in the resistance of the load.
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Working Principle of Solar Cell


Power Plant
Photons in sunlight hit the solar
panel and are absorbed by
semiconductor material silicon.
Electrons (negatively charged) are
knocked loose from their atoms,
allowing them to flow through the
material to produce electricity. Due
to special composition of solar cell,
the electrons are only allowed to
move in a single direction.
An array of the solar cells
converts solar energy into a usable
amount of direct current (DC)
electricity.

GLOBAL SCENARIO

INDIAN SCENARIO
Most parts of India receive
good solar radiation 4- 7
kWh/sq. m/day
Possible to meet growing
energy demands and
cover deficit areas
Can substantially reduce
consumption of kerosene
and diesel for lighting and
power generation
Provide access and
empowerment at grass
root level

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Block Diagram of DC to AC Inverter


Block Diagram of Inverter
The whole DC to AC inverter consists of main power parts:

MPP Tracking for solar panel output software implemented


DC low voltage to DC high voltage converter
DC high voltage to AC sine output voltage inverter
Output filter
Isolated RS-485 line

Associated control and fault detection circuits


Both DC-DC converter and DC-AC inverter is controlled by one DSC MC56F8023.

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DC to DC Converter
Push-Pull type with bridge rectifier on the isolated secondary side
Advantage:
Simple transformer windings
Simple control
Good efficiency
MPPT algorithm integrated in the software control loop

T1

D1

+400V D C Bus
L1

PWM1
Q1

C 1
+

C 2

PWM2

Q2
0V D C Bus

0 V D C In

D2

+ 3 6 V D C In

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DC to AC Inverter
Full-bridge type inverter
Advantages:
Simple +400V DCBus used to generate 230V AC
Simple PWM control
Simple reconstruction filter for AC line output
Can be controlled by half-bridge drivers or isolated gate transformers
Power MOSFETs or IGBTs can be used
+400V D C Bus

A C L in e _ 1
Q3

Q5

L2
C3
A C L in e _ 2

PWM4

DRIVER

Q4

Q6

DRIVER

PWM3

0V D C Bus

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Battery connector
Solar Panel Battery
Connectors present
relay

Inverter view

Low power
DC-DC converters
For control circuitry
Push-Pull
Primary side

DSC MC56F8023
Control Board
RS-485 Line
Battery Charger HW

Full-Bridge Inverter
+ L-C Filter

DCBus +400V

Output Filter

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Power
Output

Maximum Power Point

In the technical parameters of the solar


cell panel are defined:
VMP voltage at MPP
IMP current at MPP
The Inverter for the solar cell panel must
achieve the operation on the MPP. This
method is called as MPPT maximum
power point tracking.
The presented inverter has implemented
the P&O (perturb & observe) algorithm for
MPPT.
To get maximum power from a PV panel
required operating at the optimum voltage.

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Advantage
1. It is clean and non-polluting.
2. It is a renewable energy.
3. Solar cells do not produce noise and they are totally silent.
4. They require very little maintenance.
5. They are long lasting sources of energy which can be used almost
anywhere.
6. They have long life time.
7. There are no fuel costs or fuel supply problems.

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Applications
1. Solar pumps are used for water supply.
2. Domestic power supply: for appliances include refrigeration,
washing machine, television and lighting.
3. Navigation aids: Number of lighthouses and most buoys are
powered by solar cells.
4. Telecommunication systems: radio transceivers on mountain
tops, or telephone boxes in the country can often be solar
powered.
5. Electric power generation in space: To providing electrical
power to satellites in an orbit around the earth.
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Future aspects
Research in mppt(maximum power point
Tracking) is going on recent times which will
further enhance its efficiency to new level.
In mppt, a close data is taken for V-curve and
I-curve which is then plotted to track the
coordinates for maximum power on I-V curve .
There are remote areas where traditional way
of generating electricity cant be practice
because of their geographies so it is very
helpful as a source of distribution generation .
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Swanson's law is an observation similar to Moore's Law that


states that solar cell prices fall 20% for every doubling of
industry capacity. It was featured in an article in the British
weekly newspaper The Economist.
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