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Fuel & Combustion


Engler Viscometer

Fahad Ali Rabbani (M07-


126)
Tanveer (M07-110)

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Viscosity
• Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a
fluid which is being deformed by either shear
stress or extensional stress.

• Viscosity coefficients
– Dynamic viscosity, also absolute viscosity, the
more usual one;
– Kinematic viscosity is the dynamic viscosity divided
by the density

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Need?
• Process engineers
• Design engineers
• Unit operations
• Storage
• Injection
• Transportation

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Newton's theory
• In general, in any flow, layers move
at different velocities and the fluid's
viscosity arises from the shear stress
between the layers that ultimately
opposes any applied force.
• Isaac Newton postulated that, for
straight, parallel and uniform flow, the
shear stress, τ, between layers is
proportional to the velocity gradient,
∂u /∂y, in the direction perpendicular
to the layers.
• Here, the constant μ is known as the
coefficient of viscosity, the viscosity,
the dynamic viscosity, or the
Newtonian viscosity.

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fluids

Newtonian Non-Newtonian

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Factors Affecting Viscosity

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Effect of viscosity on Fuel Oil


• Atomization
• Preheating
• Fluidity
• Pumping Cost
• Lubrication Cost
• Bearing friction
• Heat generation
• Rate of flow under particular conditions of load, speed and
design

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Types of Viscometer
• CAPILLARY VISCOMETERS
– OSTWALD VISCOMETER
– MODIFIED OSTWALD VISCOMETERS
– Cannon-Fenske Routine Viscometer
– Cannon-Manning Semi-micro Viscometer
– Pinkevich Viscometer
• SUSPENDED LEVEL VISCOMETERS FOR TRANSPARENT LIQUID
– Ubbelohde Viscometer 29
– Fitzsimons Viscometer 31
– Atlantic Viscometer 33
– Cannon - Ubbelohde Dilution Viscometer

REVERSE FLOW VISCOMETERS 40


• ORIFICE VISCOMETERS 46
– RED WOOD VISCOMETER 47
– ENGLER VISCOMETER 51
– SAYBOLT VISCOMETER 51
– FORD VISCOSITY CUP VISCOMETER 54

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APPARATUS DESCRIPTION
Engler Viscometer
• Mainly used in Germany
• It shows the viscosity in Degree Engler

◦E= Efflux time of oil for 200ml


Efflux time of water for 200ml

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ENGLER VISCOMETER
Engler viscometer is mainly used in former Eastern Europe for measuring viscosities of
lubricating oils. Engler recommended that all viscosities be compared with water. By
comparison with standards, lubricating oils may be rated as to its viscosity thus giving one
of the values required for a lubricant. A full description of the instrument is given by
Stillman19. It is also used for determination of specific viscosity of tars and their fluid
products according to ASTM D1665-98 standard. The constructional features of the
viscometer are shown in Fig. 2.23. The principle of operation is similar to that of Redwood
viscometer. The jet is made of platinum instead of agate. The oil cup of this type of
viscometer is made in such a manner that the time for the out flow of 200 mL of water at
20oC is 52 s. However for standardization and calibration of viscometer, the efflux time for
200 mL of distilled water at 20oC is first determined and then the factor representing the
efflux time for 50 mL of water at 25oC. The oil container is surrounded by a thermostat and
is closed with a lid through which a thermometer, a valve plug and a hand stirrer are
introduced. The height of the oil is noted by means of three inverted point gauges (which
also indicate the level of the apparatus). The measuring flask is graduated at 100 mL and
200 mL for checking purposes. Engler specific viscosity which is usually expressed as
Engler degrees is defined as the ratio of the time ofoutflow of 50 mL of sample at the
selected temperature to the time of out flow of the same volume of water at 25oC.

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Engler Viscometer

Basic Parts:
Thermostat
Thermometer
Cover
Valve pin
Level Gauge
Electric Heater
Leveling Screws

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Procedure
• Viscometer was cleaned
• Sample was taken in oil
cup
• Valve was throtled
• Time of efflux was noted
for 200ml sample
• Same procedure was
repeated for other
samples at room
temperature

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Observation & Calculation


S.No Temperature Time of Degree Engler Kinematic Kinematic
(F) Flow E Viscosity Viscosity
(sec) (Stokes) (Poise)

1 76 398 8.468 0.641 0.73074


2 140 124 2.638 0.1786 0.203262
3 180 95 2.021 0.1189 0.1355
4 210 78 1.660 0.0807 0.092055

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Company Graph Between Temperature and Kinematic Viscisity
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0.8

0.7

0.6
Kinematic Viscosity

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Temperature (F)

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Observations and Calculations for the Viscosity of Three


Different Lube oils
Room Temperature= 20C
Time for Water to flow= 60sec

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APPLICATIONS
• To find the Viscosity of
Petroleum Products
like “Tar”
• Used for finding the
viscosity of lube oils.
• Used to test the
viscosity of emulsible
asphlatum

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