You are on page 1of 93

FOODSAFE Level 1

Unit 1 Introduction to FOODSAFE


Unit 2 Food Service Illness and Injury
Unit 3 Receiving and Storing Food
Unit 4 Preparing Food
Unit 5 Serving
Unit 6 Cleaning

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

1 FOODSAFE Level 1
Program Goals

■ Train individuals to become


responsible food handlers by using
safe food handling methods and
preparation techniques
■ Promote worker health and safety

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

2 FOODSAFE Level 1
Program Objectives

■ Emphasize food safety in fast-paced industry


■ Encourage prevention of foodborne illness
■ Protect the public
■ Apply safe procedures for receiving, storing,
preparing and presenting food
■ Reduce common errors in handling potentially
hazardous food
■ Create awareness of job hazards and techniques
for reducing risk of injury and illness
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

3 FOODSAFE Level 1
Benefits

■ Program
– FOODSAFE standards and certification

■ Workers
– upgraded skills; safe practices; less injury

■ Employers
– properly trained and knowledgeable staff
– reduced job related injury and illness

■ Customers
– food safety; reduced contamination; trust
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

4 FOODSAFE Level 1
Introduction to FOODSAFE

Key Learning Points


■ Top ten improper food handling practices
■ Top six job hazards
■ Risks and consequences
■ Responsibilities
■ Food safety plan

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

5 FOODSAFE Level 1
Top Ten Improper Food Handling Practices

30% 1. Improper cooling


17% 2. Advance preparation
13% 3. Infected person
11% 4. Inadequate reheating for hot holding
9% 5. Improper hot holding
5% 6. Contaminated raw food or ingredient
% Foodborne Illness
4% 7. Unsafe source
Outbreaks
3% 8. Use of leftovers
3% 9. Cross-contamination
2% 10. Inadequate cooking

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

6 FOODSAFE Level 1
Top Six Job Hazards

Chemicals, Injuries from


biohazards and equipment,
others knives, etc.
21% 27%

Injuries from
lifting,
carrying, etc.
12%

Burns and
scalds
Slips and falls
21%
19%

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

7 FOODSAFE Level 1
Risks and Consequences

■ Risks
– workers, employers, customers

■ Consequences
– legal, physical, emotional, professional,
financial

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

8 FOODSAFE Level 1
Worker Responsibilities

■ Practice safe food handling


■ Follow safe work procedures
■ Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
■ Report hazards, accidents and injuries
■ Refrain from dangerous conduct
■ Ensure ability to work is not impaired
■ Refuse any job with “undue” risk
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

9 FOODSAFE Level 1
Employer Responsibilities

■ Develop food safety plan


■ Provide training and orientation
■ Supervise and inspect workplace
■ Provide adequate PPE
■ Establish health and safety program
■ Establish safe work procedures

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

10 FOODSAFE Level 1
Food Safety Plan

■ Review steps in recipe


■ Assess hazards
■ Identify critical steps
■ State critical limits
■ Monitor
■ Correct problems

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

11 FOODSAFE Level 1
Foodservice Illness and Injury

Key Learning Points


■ Microbiology
■ Cycle of transmission
■ Methods of transmission
■ Causes of foodborne illness
■ Breaking the links

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

12 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cycle of Transmission

FOOD ENVIRONMENT
HANDLER • Work Surfaces
• Skin • Utensils
• Nose • Insects
• Hair • Air
• Hands
• Clothes

FOOD

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

13 FOODSAFE Level 1
Direct Transmission

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

14 FOODSAFE Level 1
Contamination

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

15 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cross-contamination

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

16 FOODSAFE Level 1
Causes of Foodborne Illness

Biological Chemical Physical


 Bacteria • Cleaning Agents • Glass
 Viruses • Pesticides • Wood Splinters
 Parasites • Dissolved Metals • Toothpicks
 Protozoa • Hair
 Fungi (Yeasts • Bandages
and Moulds) • Insect Parts
• Metal Particles

Foodborne Foodborne
Intoxication Infection
• Staphylococcus • Salmonella spp
aureus • Campylobacter
• Bacillus cereus jejuni
• Clostridium • E. coli O157:H7
botulinum

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

17 FOODSAFE Level 1
Multiplying Bacteria
Bacterial Growth within Two Hours
70

60

50

No. of Bacteria
0
40
Bacteria multiply by
30
dividing in two. When
20
conditions are right, 10
20 min bacteria will divide in 0
two every 20 minutes.

1 hr

2 hrs
20 min

40 min

1 hr 20 min

1 hr 40 min
Starting with just one
40 min
bacterium and letting it Bacterial Growth from 2 hrs to 8 hrs 20 min
multiply at this rate for 35,000,000
eight hours, it would 30,000,000
produce more new 25,000,000
bacteria than there are
No. of Bacteria
1 hr 20,000,000
people in Canada. 15,000,000

10,000,000

5,000,000
2 hrs
0

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

18 FOODSAFE Level 1
Danger Zone

Boiling
212°F
212° 100°C
100°
Bacteria die; spores Cooking and
and toxins may reheating food
survive
165°F
165° 74°C
74°
Holding hot food for
service
140°F
140° 60°C
60°

98.6°F
98.6° 37°C
37°

Bacteria multiply Keep food out of this


rapidly temperature range

40°F
40° 4°C
Most bacteria will Chilled food
survive but will not Thawing food
multiply quickly
32°F
32° 0°C
Most bacteria will Freezes water
survive but not grow
0°F -18°C
-18°
Frozen food
storage

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

19 FOODSAFE Level 1
pH Scale

Acid Neutral Alkaline

0 4.5 7.0 14

Potentially
Hazardous Foods
whole eggs
raspberries poultry
vinegar milk egg whites
apples fresh meat (albumen)
lemons fish/seafood
melon
tofu

Disease-causing bacteria do not grow well at a pH below 4.5

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

20 FOODSAFE Level 1
Food Intoxication – Staphylococcus

■ Bacteria grows in food


■ Toxin (poison) is produced
■ Symptoms
– nausea and vomiting
■ Sources
– people: cuts, boils, scrapes, burns, pimples

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

21 FOODSAFE Level 1
Food Infection – Salmonella

■ Bacteria grows in stomach


■ Symptoms
– cramps and diarrhea
■ Sources
– chicken, turkey, eggs, shellfish, milk

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

22 FOODSAFE Level 1
Chemical Causes

Chemical
 Cleaning agents
 Pesticides
 Dissolved metals

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

23 FOODSAFE Level 1
Chemical Causes

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

24 FOODSAFE Level 1
Improper Storage

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

25 FOODSAFE Level 1
Physical Causes

Physical
 Glass
 Wood splinters
 Toothpicks
 Hair
 Bandages
 Insect parts or
droppings
 Metal particles

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

26 FOODSAFE Level 1
Breaking the Links

FOOD ENVIRONMENT
HANDLER

FOOD

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

27 FOODSAFE Level 1
Avoid Contamination

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

28 FOODSAFE Level 1
Receiving and Storing Food

Key Learning Points


■ Receiving and storing procedures
■ Food and chemical storage
■ Manual handling and safe storage

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

29 FOODSAFE Level 1
Spoiled Foods

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

30 FOODSAFE Level 1
Proper Storage

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

31 FOODSAFE Level 1
Shelving

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

32 FOODSAFE Level 1
Recommended Storage Times

■ Refrigerated food (0°- 4° C)


– between 1-7 days depending on food
■ Frozen food (-18° C)
– between 1-6 months depending on food
■ Dry food (room temperature)
– between 4-24 months depending on food

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

33 FOODSAFE Level 1
Freezer Temperature

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

34 FOODSAFE Level 1
Damaged Dry Goods

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

35 FOODSAFE Level 1
Vacuum-Packaged

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

36 FOODSAFE Level 1
Damaged Glass, Cans

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

37 FOODSAFE Level 1
Selection of Equipment

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

38 FOODSAFE Level 1
Safe Lifting Techniques

■ Use equipment
■ Keep the load close to body
■ Avoid stooped, twisted or obstructed lifts
■ Face the direction of the lift
■ Bend knees and lift with legs, not your back
■ Limit lifts to the range between knuckle and shoulder
height
■ Use secure handles
■ Wear closed-toe, sturdy shoes with non-slip soles
■ Share heavy loads with partner
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

39 FOODSAFE Level 1
Preparing Food

Key Learning Points


■ Classification of foods
■ Effects of temperature and time
■ Control sources of contamination
■ Tools and equipment
■ Hot materials and surfaces

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

40 FOODSAFE Level 1
Potentially Hazardous Foods: Meats

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

41 FOODSAFE Level 1
Bacteria Colony

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

42 FOODSAFE Level 1
Types of Hazardous Foods: Dairy Products

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

43 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hazardous Foods: Egg Products

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

44 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hazardous Foods: Fish and Shellfish

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

45 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hazardous Foods: Cooked Vegetables
and Cereals

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

46 FOODSAFE Level 1
Less Hazardous Foods

■ Dry
■ Sour (Acidic)
■ Sweet or salty

Note: Effects of moisture can cause foods to


become potentially hazardous

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

47 FOODSAFE Level 1
Safer Foods: Dry

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

48 FOODSAFE Level 1
Safer Foods: Sweet or Salty

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

49 FOODSAFE Level 1
DANGER ZONE

Boiling
212°F
212° 100°C
100°
Bacteria die; spores Cooking and
and toxins may reheating food
survive
165°F
165° 74°C
74°
Holding hot food for
service
140°F
140° 60°C
60°

98.6°F
98.6° 37°C
37°

Bacteria multiply Keep food out of this


rapidly temperature range

40°F
40° 4°C
Most bacteria will Chilled food
survive but will not Thawing food
multiply quickly
32°F
32° 0°C
Most bacteria will Freezes water
survive but not grow
0°F -18°C
-18°
Frozen food
storage

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

50 FOODSAFE Level 1
Recommended Temperatures

°C °F
Cooking 74 165
Hot holding 60 140
Freezing -18 0
Thawing 4 40
Reheating 74 165
Cooling 4 40

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

51 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hot Holding

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

52 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cooling

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

53 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cooling Temperatures

Cool: Temperature Temperature


°C °F
Within 2 hours 60 - 21 140 – 70

Next 4 hours 21 – 4 70 - 40

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

54 FOODSAFE Level 1
Bacterial Growth: Time

10°C 5°C 0°C


1 Billion

100 Million
SLIME
10 Million
NUMBER OF ORGANISMS BAD ODOUR
1 Million

100 Thousand

10 Thousand

0 5 10 15 20
DAYS

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

55 FOODSAFE Level 1
Sources of Contamination

■ Water - Potable
- Backflow preventers

■ Micro-organisms - Wash
- Avoid cross-contamination
- Prevent growth (cool/freeze/cook)

■ Utensils/equipment - Proper handling


- Wash hands

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

56 FOODSAFE Level 1
Backflow Preventer

Potable water
system

Typical cross
connection

Hose bib

Public water
system

A hose-bib vacuum breaker must


be installed on a hose-bib

Mawle, Rick, Piping Trades, Cross Prevention System, Ministry of Advanced Education, BC, 2001

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

57 FOODSAFE Level 1
Tools and Equipment

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

58 FOODSAFE Level 1
Equipment Safety Tips

■ Equipment ■ Remember:
– fryers – get training
– steamers – use guards
– stoves/ovens – lockout
– slicers – wear PPE
– processors – follow safe work
– mixers procedures
– knives

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

59 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hot Materials and Surfaces

■ Use dry oven mitts or pads


■ Lift lids away from body
■ Wear long sleeved, cotton shirts/pants
■ Use non-combustible or oil proof apron
■ Use tongs or frying basket
■ Do not put wet items into hot oil
■ Open hot water or liquid faucets slowly
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

60 FOODSAFE Level 1
Critical Thinking: Recognizing Hazards

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

61 FOODSAFE Level 1
Critical Thinking: Recognizing Hazards

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

62 FOODSAFE Level 1
Quiz Danger Zone

°F °C

°F °C

°F °C

°F °C

°F °C

°F °C

°F °C

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

63 FOODSAFE Level 1
Serving Food

Key Learning Points


■ Personal habits and hygiene
■ Setting tables and serving food
■ Food protection and transportation
■ Carrying and serving techniques
■ Preventing slips and trips
■ Food allergies and foodborne illness complaints
■ When not to work

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

64 FOODSAFE Level 1
Personal Habits and Hygiene: Cough

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

65 FOODSAFE Level 1
When to Wash Hands

■ After
– sneezing or coughing
– toilet use
– smoking or using toothpicks
– handling raw foods
– clearing and wiping tables
– handling soiled objects

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

66 FOODSAFE Level 1
Bacteria

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

67 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hand Washing Steps

■ Use warm water to dissolve


natural oils and bacteria
■ Use soap, lather beyond the
wrist for at least 30 seconds
■ Apply a rotary method to get
friction
■ Use a fingernail brush
■ Rinse thoroughly under
running water with water
running downward from the
wrist to fingertips
■ Dry with a single-service
towel or use a hot air dryer
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

68 FOODSAFE Level 1
Table Setting

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

69 FOODSAFE Level 1
Handling

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

70 FOODSAFE Level 1
Serving Food

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

71 FOODSAFE Level 1
Single-service Item

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

72 FOODSAFE Level 1
Self Service

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

73 FOODSAFE Level 1
Sneeze Guard

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

74 FOODSAFE Level 1
Carrying and Serving Techniques

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

75 FOODSAFE Level 1
Serving Food

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

76 FOODSAFE Level 1
Preventing Slips and Trips

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

77 FOODSAFE Level 1
Food Allergies

 Food handler
- know ingredients
 peanuts and by-products
 milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, wheat and soy
- avoid use of latex gloves
- call ambulance

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

78 FOODSAFE Level 1
When Not To Work

Food handlers and customers


carrying disease organisms

From respiratory tract through From open sores, From intestinal tract through
coughing and sneezing cuts and boils hands soiled with feces

Food prepared and served

Food eaten

Illness occurs

Reprinted with permission from Applied Foodservice Sanitation, Fourth Edition, copyright
1992 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation.
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

79 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cleaning

Key Learning Points


■ Clearing and cleaning
■ Types of dishwashing
■ Steps for proper ware washing
■ Sanitizing or disinfecting methods
■ Other cleaning

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

80 FOODSAFE Level 1
Manual Dishwashing

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

81 FOODSAFE Level 1
Mechanical Dishwashing

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

82 FOODSAFE Level 1
Glass Washing

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

83 FOODSAFE Level 1
Procedures for Ware Washing

1. Organization
2. Scraping and pre-soaking
3. Sorting and racking
4. Washing
5. Rinsing
6. Sanitizing
7. Air drying
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

84 FOODSAFE Level 1
Sorting and Racking

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

85 FOODSAFE Level 1
Hot Water Temperature

82°C

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

86 FOODSAFE Level 1
Chemical Sanitizers

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

87 FOODSAFE Level 1
Air Drying

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

88 FOODSAFE Level 1
Workplace Hazardous Materials
Information Systems (WHMIS)
■ For each chemical, you must know
– the hazards of the chemical
– how to protect yourself
– what to do in an emergency
– where to get more information

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

89 FOODSAFE Level 1
Cleaning Equipment in Place

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

90 FOODSAFE Level 1
Wet Floors

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

91 FOODSAFE Level 1
Collecting Waste

 2002 Province of
British Columbia

92 FOODSAFE Level 1
Discarding Waste

■ Proper foot and


body wear
■ Puncture and
liquid resistant
gloves
■ Waterproof bag
■ Leave space at
the top
 2002 Province of
British Columbia

93 FOODSAFE Level 1