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Homeostasis

Balanced internal condition


of cells
Also called equilibrium
Maintained
by
plasma
membrane controlling what
enters & leaves the cell.

DEFINITION
Process that regulates the chemical
and
physical
parameters
in
the
internal environment so that the
conditions are always suitable to meet
the needs of the cell

3 components of homeostatic control


system:
a receptor (detects signal),
a control centre (receives info and
processes it)
an effector (carries out appropriate
response)

Body Processes that need


Homeostasis
1. Thermoregulation
2. Osmoregulation

Thermoregulation
Regulation of temperature
Stability of the optimal body
temperature is very essential for
the normal functioning of all
biological reactions
Two types of animals: ectotherms
and endotherms

Ectotherms
Ectotherms
use
the
external
environment
and
behavioral
mechanisms to maintain a thermal
balance
Ectotherms
show
behavioral
and
structural adaptations, which help them
to adjust to temperature changes.
For example,
hibernation and aestivation.
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Endotherms
Have a constant body temperature and
use
a
variety
of
physiological
mechanisms to maintain a constant
internal temperature.
EXAMPLES
Shivering
Sweating

Osmoregulation
Water in an animals body is distributed between
the intracellular and extracellular compartments.
In order to maintain osmotic balance, the
extracellular compartment of an animals body
(including its blood plasma) must be able to take
water from its environment or to excrete excess
water into its environment.
It keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too
diluted or too concentrated
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Transport through cell


membranes

The phospholipid bilayer is a good barrier around cells,


especially to water soluble molecules. However, for the
cell to survive some materials need to be able to enter
and leave the cell.
There are 3 basic mechanisms:

1.

PASSIVE TRANSPORTDIFFUSION

2.

OSMOSIS

3.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

DIFFUSION

and

FACILITATED

Osmosis
Diffusion of water
across a membrane
Moves from
water
concentration
solute)
to
water
concentration
solute)

HIGH
(low
LOW

Diffusion across a membrane

Semipermeable
membrane

(high
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Osmosis: Diffusion of H2O


Across A Membrane

High H2O concentration


Low solute concentration

Low H2O concentration


High solute concentration
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Water moves from areas of low solute concentration to areas of high solute
concentration.
Water molecules will cross membranes until the concentrations of water &
solutes is equal on both sides of the membrane; called equilibrium
At equilibrium, molecules continue to move across membranes evenly so
there is no net movement

copyright cmassengale

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Simple Diffusion
Requires NO
energy
Molecules
move
from
area of HIGH
to
LOW
concentration
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DIFFUSION
Diffusion
is
a
PASSIVE process
which means no
energy is used
to
make
the
molecules
move,
they
have a natural
KINETIC ENERGY

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Diffusion of Liquids

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Facilitated diffusion
Doesnt require energy
Uses
transport
proteins to move from
high to low concentration
Examples: Glucose or
amino acids moving from
blood into a cell.
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Facilitated Diffusion
Molecules will randomly move through
the pores in Channel Proteins.

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Types of Transport
Proteins
Channel
proteins
are
embedded in the cell membrane
& have a pore for materials to
cross
Carrier proteins can change
shape to move material from one
side of the membrane to the
other
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Facilitated Diffusion
Some
Carrier/Chaperone
proteins do not
extend through
the membrane.
They bond and
drag molecules
through the lipid
bilayer and
release them on
the opposite side.

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Carrier Proteins
Other carrier
proteins
change shape
to
move
materials
across the cell
membrane
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Active Transport
Requires energy or ATP
Moves materials from
LOW
to
HIGH
concentration
AGAINST
gradient

concentration

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