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Water Quality Assessment for Routine Parameters,

Trace Level Metals and Organics,


April 18-22, 2011

Speaker:
Dr. Nalini
Sankararamakrishnan
Centre for Environmental
Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Worldwide Arsenic
Contamination
of Groundwater

Distribution of Arsenic
Contamination of Groundwater in
South Asia

Few Facts About Arsenic


West Bengal $
Parameters
Calamity.

Bangladesh*

18

64

89,193

148,393

Total Population (Million)

68

125

WHO Arsenic Drinking Water Standard (mg/l)

0.01

0.01

Number of Districts Surveyed for Arsenic


Contamination

64

59

38,865

126,134

42.7

75

13,137

78,500

Total Number of Districts


Total Area (sq.m)

Number of Districts Having Arsenic above 0.05 mg/l in


Ground water
Area of Affected Districts
Population at Risk Potentially Exposed
Population Number of Patients Suffering from
Arsenicosis

Remediation
Options
Existing wells

Alternative sources

New wells

As removal

Well switching

Safi filter @$18


3-kolshi filter @$5
ube well sand filter
Maintenance Spatial variability
Monitoring Social resistance
Bacterial growth

Shallow wells

Surface wate

Deep wells

Pond water

Dug wells

$50 for 150 ftPond sand filterRainwater harverster


50 families @$161 ea.
family @ $160/$40 ea.

Seasonality
Pathogens

Installation Bacteria 1/100 Storage-seasonality


Distribution
Aquaculture
Boiling

20th century Western engineering


design was comparatively simple
Technical Criteria
Economic/Financial

Criteria (Cost-Benefit
Analysis)

Technica
l

Financia
l

Environmental Awareness Added


another Dimension
Technical
Economic/Financial

Criteria (Cost-Benefit
Analysis)
Environmental

Technica
l

Financia
l

Environmen
tal

Engineering design for


sustainable development
framework

Financial /Economic
* Low cost
* Supports local economies
* Self-sustaining

Technical
Water quality evaluations
WHO Guidelines
National Standards
Flow rate
Use local materials

Social
Socially acceptable
Simple/user friendly
Convenient
Durable

Co-Designing/Co-evolving for
Development
(an iterative process)
10.
Reiteration

1. Problem Awareness
Co(m)-passion, and
Partnership
2. Problem CoDefinition

9 Scale-up

8.

Co-designing/
co-evolving
equitable and
Implementation
sustainable
development

7. Pilot studies

6. Refined Design
(Field and lab
testing, multiple
sites, multiple
countries)

3. Idea CoGeneration
4. Concept
Co-Evaluation

5. Field Experience,
Fabrication,
Experiment, Lab
Work, Analysis

Problem Co-Definition
To design a household drinking water treatment unit to
remove arsenic and pathogens;
Technical Performance: Remove arsenic, bacteria and
parasites to National Standards or WHO Guidelines;
Water Quantity: The flow rate should be > 10 L/hour;
Cost: The cost/unit should be < Rs. 1500. Yearly
replacement parts < Rs. 200, designed for use by
individuals in rural areas and urban slums who earn <Rs.
200/day;
Socially acceptable: ease of use and maintenance by
women

Alternative Water Supply Options


Surface Water Treatment

This involves the treatment


of surface water from ponds
exclusively
reserved
for
drinking purposes
Use of slow sand filtration
system to make it safe for
drinking and cooking

Taste
may
not
acceptable to many users

be

Coliforms may be present,


if maintenance is poor

Pond sand filter


(PSF)

Construction
relatively high

cost

is

Alternative Water Supply Options

Small-scale Conventional Surface Water Treatment


Plant

Alternative Water Supply Options


Requirements
Availability of deep aquifers
separated from shallow
contaminated aquifers by
relatively impermeable layers.
The annular space of bore holes
of the deep tubewells is required
to be sealed at the level of
impermeable strata to avoid
percolation of arsenic
contaminated water.

Alternative Water Supply Options


Dug/Ring Wells

Dug wells can be a cost-effective


option
for
arsenic-free
groundwater.
An indigenous technology with
very high social acceptance
Properly designed and protected
wells (ring wells) ie. lifting water
by a hand tube wells and by
covering the top, they may be able
to provide water of acceptable
bacteriological quality.
Existing dug well waters may be
used after sterilization with solarassisted disinfection

Alternative Water Supply Options


Rainwater
Harvesting

Basic Requirements
Adequate Rainfall
-Intensity of Rainfall
-Reliability of
Rainfall
Distribution of Rainfall
Suitable Catchment area
Storage Tank
Operation and
Maintenance

Alternative Water Supply Options


Rainwater
Harvesting

Treatment Of Arsenic
Contaminated Water
Major Treatment Processes
Oxidation and Sedimentation
Coagulation and Filtration
Aluminium Alum
Iron salts
Naturally Occurring Iron
Sorptive Filtration
Activated Alumina
Granulated Ferric Hydroxide/Oxide
Metallic Iron/ Iron Ore
Synthetic Composite Active Materials
Ion Exchange
Membrane Filtration
Nano Filtration
Reverse Osmosis

Arsenic Removal Processes Based On


Oxidation
Arsenite[As(III) ]
Arsenate [As(V)]
Oxidizing Agents
Oxygen (Air), Ozone, Free chlorine,
Hypochlorite, Permanganate, Hydrogen
Peroxide and Fulton's
Reagent(H2O2/Fe2+)

Oxidizing Reactions
H3AsO3 + O2 = H2AsO4-+ 2 H+
H3AsO3+ HClO = HAsO4--+ Cl-+ 3H+
3H3AsO3 + 2KMnO4 = 3HAsO4--+ 2MnO2++ 2K++ 4H++
H2O

Arsenic Removal Processes


Based On Oxidation
In situ remediation
Iron oxide for In situ remediation
Altering Geochemical conditions which favour the reduction
of arsenic
concentration in groundwaters
Iron oxide is the most important phase for arsenic removal in
groundwater
Approach involves withdrawing iron-rich groundwater,
oxidizing Fe2+ to
Fe3+ by introducing oxygen (or KMnO4) followed by injection
Above process converts As(III) to As(V) and sorption of As(V)
on ferric
oxyhydroxide removes arsenic from groundwater

Arsenic Removal Processes


Based On Oxidation

In situ remediation

Nitrate for In-situ remediation


Nitrate suppresses iron oxyhydroxide reduction by bacteria
Nitrate can oxidise Fe(II) to Fe (III) under anoxic conditions
Presence of nitrate (in groundwaters) this can lead to low arsenic
concentrations.
Field studies have shown that nitrate injection into groundwaters,
leads to the decrease in arsenic concentration
Guidelines/Standards (WHO: 45 mg/L, BIS: 50 mg/L) for nitrate in
potable water is health based. Hence concentration should be within
permissible limits, when used for in situ remediation.

Arsenic Removal Processes


Based On Oxidation

In situ remediation

Sulphate for In-situ remediation


Presence of sulphate in groundwater could stimulate sulphatereducing
bacteria, leading to the formation of sulphide
Sulphide combines with dissolved iron and arsenic, promoting
iron/arsenic-sulphide precipitation
It is generally observed that arsenic-rich groundwaters have low
sulphate concentration
It is proposed that this sulfate limitation is the reason for high
dissolved
arsenic.
It has been suggested that addition of sulfate is a low-cost treatment
approach for low sulfate groundwater

Arsenic Removal Processes


Based On Oxidation
SORAS Filter

Method uses irradiation of water


with
sunlight in PET or other UV-A
transparent bottles to reduce
arsenic
levels in drinking water.
Method
is
based
on
photochemical
oxidation of As (III) followed by
precipitation or filtration of As (V)
adsorbed on Fe(III) oxides .

The goals of the SORAS


To work without addition of Fe
To increase the efficiency of the(II,III)
As (III)
oxidation
pH 7.0
8.0
salts
whenat the
naturally
with locally available materials
present iron is above 5 mg/L.
To conduct the treatment in closed and easily available PET bottles.

Arsenic Removal Based On


Coagulation -Filtration
Principles
Precipitation:
compounds.
Coprecipitation:
arsenic species

Formation of insoluble
Incorporation of soluble
into a growing metal hydroxide

phase;
Adsorption:
arsenic to
insoluble metal

Electrostatic binding of soluble


external surfaces of the
hydroxide

Filtration:
filtration

Separation of precipitates by
through a medium.

Arsenic Removal Based On


Coagulation -Filtration
Aluminum Sulfate ( Alum)
Al2(SO4)3.18H2O = 2Al+++ + 3SO4++ + 18H2O
Al+++ + 6H2O = 2Al(OH)3+ 6H+
H2AsO4-+ Al(OH)3= Al-As (complex) + Others

Relative Affinity
PO4> SeO3> AsO4> AsO3>> SiO4> SO2> F >
B(OH)3

Arsenic Removal Based On


Coagulation -Filtration
Bucket Treatment Unit
Developed by the DPHE-Danida Project and
improved
by the Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology (BUET)
Based on coagulation, coprecipitation, and
adsorption
processes
Chemicals are mixed manually with arsenic
contaminated
water in the upper red bucket by vigorous stirring
with a
wooden stick and then flocculated by gentle
stirring for
about 90 seconds.
The mixed water is allowed to settle and then flow
into the
lower green bucket and water is collected through

Arsenic Removal Based On


Coagulation -Filtration
The Stevens Institute
Stevens Institute Technology technology also uses two
Filter
buckets,
one
to
mix
chemicals (iron coagulant
and hypochloride) supplied
in packets and the other to
separate flocs using the
processes of sedimentation

The
second bucket has an
and
filtration
inner bucket with slits on
the
sides
to
help
sedimentation and keep the
filter sand bed in place.
The chemicals form visible large flocs when mixed (by stirring
with a stick).
Clean water is collected through a plastic pipe fitted with an
outlet covered with a cloth filter to prevent the entry of sand.

Arsenic Removal Based On


Coagulation -Filtration
Arsenic Removal Unit
Attached to Tubewell

Designed and installed by the


All India Institute of Hygiene
and Public Health (AIIH&PH)
Principles of arsenic removal
by
alum
coagulation,
sedimentation, and filtration
have been employed in this
compact unit

Effective in removing 90% of


the arsenic from tubewell
Treatment process involveswater.
the addition of sodium
hypochloride and aluminium alum in diluted form, mixing,
flocculation, sedimentation, and upflow filtration in a
compact unit.

Aresenic Removal By Sorptive


Filtration

Activated Alumina

BUET Activated Alumina, [Bangladesh]

Alcan Enhanced Activated Alumina [Bangladesh


& India]
Apyron Arsenic Treatment Unit [Bangladesh &
India]
Oxides India (Catalyst) Pvt. [India]
RPM Marketing Pvt. [India]
Granular Ferric Hydroxide, [Bangladesh & India]
Iron Coated Sand/Brick Chips, [ Bangladesh ]
Iron Fillings (Metallic Iron), [ Bangladesh, Nepal ]
Red Hematite, Fe2O3( Public Health Eng. Dept), [ India ]
Ion-Exchange, & Bucket of Resins [ Bangladesh & India ]

Aresenic Removal By Sorptive


Filtration
Developed by Bangladesh University of

BUET Activated Alumina


[ Activated Alumina ]

Engineering and Technology.


Based on the oxidation of As (III) to
As (V) removal of iron and subsequent
adsorption of arsenic onto activated
alumina.
Chemicals are added to raw water in 25
L plastic bowl for oxidation of As (III) to As
(V) and from precipitation.
Co-precipitation and adsorption of
arsenic occur during these operations

Filtration unit consists of 20 cm deep


sand layer in 22 L plastic bucket.
Adsorption unit is a plastic pipe of 37 cm diameter having activated
alumina depth of 22 cm.

Arsenic Removal By Sorptive Filtration


Million Dollar Prize!!!!!
It is based on passive
coagulation with iron filings and/or
adsorption onto sand matrix.
Developed in 1999
designed modified in 2001.

and

Consists of three 18 L clay or 3


buckets (called SONO filters)
contains 2 Kg of coarse sand and
3 Kg of iron filing on the top.
The middle chamber contents 2
Kg of coarse sand and 1 Kg of
wood charcoal.

Sono3-Kalshi
[ Iron Fillings]

Top and second pitcher have


small holes in the bottom to
facilate draining of water from one
pitcher to other.

Aresenic Removal By Sorptive


Filtration
SAFI Filter

Based on adsorption of arsenic


onto the candle material.
Candle is made from chemical
mixture of lateral soil, ferric
oxide,
manganese
dioxide,
aluminium
hydroxide
and
mesoporous silica.

Comprises of two concrete


buckets of different sizes placed
one above the other.
The permissible candle removes bacteria also plot sock studies
showed the arsenic removal was not very satisfactory

Work Carried out at IIT


Kanpur Novel Bio Sorbents

Flakes

Granules

Fibers

Obtained as a waste from Marine Industry


Bio degradable, Bio compatible, Antimicrobial Properties For

water treatment applications


Could be functionalized with various groups for selective
applications
Presence of amino and carboxyl groups excellent
complexation with heavy metals
Could be used in various forms like flakes, granules, fibres
etc.

Domestic Filter Units to remove Arsenic


Advantages:
Able to Remove Both As(III) and
As(V)
Could be operated at neutral pH
Ideal for Rural Setting
A very High absorption capacity (20
times more than AA)
Able to remove arsenic down to
WHO standards of 0.01 mg/l!!!

Advantages and
Disadvantages

Actions for Arsenic Mitigation


Stage 1: All Sources are safe, arsenic is below 10 ppb

Stage 3: Water source marginally contaminated (10 25 ppb)

Actions:

Actions:

To create awareness about the arsenic among the community and


benefits of safe water and its consumption

To carry out health survey with trained doctors and proper


assessment of population at risk.

To develop faith on the drinking water taken from hand pumps /


habitations and advice not to cross the village for collecting water
from other village as there may be arsenic in excess in water
source

To stop drinking contaminated water and try to use alternate


source of
water.

Stage 2: Safe and unsafe water sources co-exist

Stage 4: Water sources highly contaminated

Actions:

Actions:

As per ATF (Arsenic Task Force, Uttar Pradesh), an initial


measure arsenic-safe hand pumps will be marked blue and arsenic
contaminated hand pump will be marked red (work completed in
district Ballia, UP)

To compile information of hydro-geochemical aspects, rainfall,


terrain and population.

To use Safe source for water consumption


To use unsafe source for other purpose

Nutritious and protein rich foods may help people with


arsenicosis.

Digging tube well deeper meaningful if the deeper aquifer has


safe water.
Harvesting rain water to consider if rain fall is adequate.
Bringing safe water from a distance to consider if economically
viable.
If arsenic filters is the choice, community installation, hand
pump attachment and /or domestic filter may be adopted.

Thanks