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# Chapter 1: Introduction and

Basic Concepts

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Objectives

## Understand how thermodynamics and heat transfer are related to

each other,
Distinguish thermal energy from other forms of energy, and heat
transfer from other forms of energy transfer,
Perform general energy balances as well as surface energy
balances,
Understand the basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are
conduction, convection, and radiation, and Fourier's law of heat
conduction, Newton's law of cooling, and the StefanBoltzmann
Identify the mechanisms of heat transfer that occur simultaneously
in practice,
Understand Global Warming and its implications.

## Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

The science of thermodynamics deals with the
amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a
process from one equilibrium state to another,
and makes no reference to how long the process
will take.
The science of heat transfer deals
with the determination of the rates
of energy that can be transferred
from one system to another as a
result of temperature difference.

## Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer

Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states
and changes from one equilibrium state to
another. Heat transfer, on the other hand, deals
with systems that lack of thermal equilibrium,
and thus it is a non-equilibrium phenomenon.
Therefore, the study of heat transfer cannot be
based on the principles of thermodynamics
alone.
However, the laws of thermodynamics lay the
framework for the science of heat transfer.

Heat Transfer
The basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence
of a temperature difference.
The second law requires that heat
be transferred in the direction of
decreasing temperature.
The temperature difference is the driving force for heat
transfer.
The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends
on the magnitude of the temperature gradient in that
direction.
The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the rate
of heat transfer.

## Heat and Other Forms of Energy

Energy can exist in numerous forms such as:

thermal,
mechanical,
kinetic,
potential,
electrical,
magnetic,
chemical, and
nuclear.

## Their sum constitutes the total energy E (or e on a

unit mass basis) of a system.
The sum of all microscopic forms of energy is called
the internal energy of a system.

## Internal energy may be viewed as the sum of

the kinetic and potential energies of the
molecules.
The kinetic energy of the molecules is called
sensible heat.
The internal energy associated with the phase of
a system is called latent heat.
The internal energy associated with the atomic
bonds in a molecule is called chemical (or
bond) energy.
The internal energy associated with the bonds
within the nucleus of the atom itself is called
nuclear energy.

## Internal Energy and Enthalpy

In the analysis of systems
that involve fluid flow,
we frequently encounter
the combination of
properties u and Pv.
The combination is
defined as enthalpy
(h=u+Pv).
The term Pv represents
the flow energy of the
fluid (also called the flow
work).

## Specific Heats of Gases, Liquids, and

Solids
Specific heat is defined as the energy required to
raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by
one degree.
Two kinds of specific heats:
specific heat at constant volume cv, and
specific heat at constant pressure cp.

## The specific heats of a substance, in general, depend

on two independent properties such as temperature
and pressure.
For an ideal gas, however, they depend on
temperature only.

Specific Heats
At low pressures all real gases approach ideal gas
behavior, and therefore their specific heats depend on
temperature only.
A substance whose specific volume (or density) does
not change with temperature or pressure is called an
incompressible substance.
The constant-volume and constant-pressure specific
heats are identical for incompressible
substances.
The specific heats of incompressible
substances depend on temperature
only.

Energy Transfer
Energy can be transferred to or from a given mass by two
mechanisms:
heat transfer, and
work.

## The amount of heat transferred during a process is denoted by Q.

The amount of heat transferred per unit time is called heat
transfer rate, and is denoted by Q.
The total amount of heat transfer Q during a time interval t can
be determined from
t

&
Q Qdt

(J)

(1-6)

The rate of heat transfer per unit area normal to the direction of
heat transfer is called heat flux, and the average heat flux is
expressed as
Q&
q&
(W/m 2 ) (1-8)

## The First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy
can neither be created nor destroyed during a process;
it can only change forms.
Total energy
entering the
system

Total energy
leaving the
system

Change in the
total energy of
the system

(1-9)

## The energy balance for any system undergoing any

process can be expressed as (in the rate form)
E&in E&out
Rate of net energy transfer
by heat, work, and mass

dEsystem dt

(W)

## Rate of change in internal

kinetic, potential, etc., energies

(1-11)

## In heat transfer problems it is convenient to write

a heat balance and to treat the conversion of
nuclear, chemical, mechanical, and electrical
energies into thermal energy as heat generation.
The energy balance in that case can be expressed
as
Qin Qout Egen
Net heat
transfer

Heat
generation

Ethermal ,system
Change in
thermal energy
of the system

(J)

(1-13)

Energy Balance
Closed systems
Stationary closed
system, no work:

Q mcv T

For system with one inlet and
one exit:

(J)

(1-15)

## When kinetic and potential

energies are negligible, and
there is no work interaction

& p T
Q& m&h mc

(kJ/s)
(1-18)

## Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Heat can be transferred in three basic modes:
conduction,
convection,

## All modes of heat

transfer require the
existence of a temperature difference.
All modes are from the high-temperature
medium to a lower-temperature one.

Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more
energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less
energetic ones as a result of interactions between the
particles.
Conduction can take place in solids,
liquids, or gases
In gases and liquids conduction is due to
the collisions and diffusion of the
molecules during their random motion.
In solids conduction is due to the
combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and the energy
transport by free electrons.

Conduction
Rate of heat conduction
T1 T2
T
&
Qcond kA
kA
x
x

Thickness
(W)

(1-21)

## where the constant of proportionality k is the

thermal conductivity of the material.
In differential form
dT
Q&cond kA
(W)
dx

(1-22)

## which is called Fouriers law of heat conduction.

Thermal Conductivity,k
The thermal conductivity of a material is a
measure of the ability of the material to conduct
heat.
High value for thermal conductivity
good heat conductor
Low value
poor heat conductor or insulator.

## Thermal Conductivities of Materials

The thermal conductivities
of gases such as air vary by
a factor of 104 from those
of pure metals such as
copper.
Pure crystals and metals
have the highest thermal
conductivities, and gases
and insulating materials the
lowest.

Thermal diffusivity
Heat conducted
k

Heat stored
cp

( m2 s )

(1-23)

## The thermal diffusivity represents how fast heat

diffuses through a material.
Appears in the transient heat conduction analysis.
A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a
low heat capacity will have a large thermal diffusivity.
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the
propagation of heat into the medium.

Convection
(fluid motion)

## Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a

solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in
motion.
Convection is commonly classified into three submodes:
Forced convection,
Natural (or free) convection,
Change of phase (liquid/vapor,
solid/liquid, etc.)

Convection
The rate of convection heat transfer is expressed by
Newtons law of cooling as
Q&conv hAs (Ts T )

(W)

## h is the convection heat transfer coefficient in

W/m2C.
h depends on variables such as the
surface geometry, the nature of fluid
motion, the properties of the fluid,
and the bulk fluid velocity.

(1-24)

Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of
electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the
changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or
molecules.
Heat transfer by radiation does not require the presence of
an intervening medium.
In heat transfer studies we are interested in thermal
temperature).
is usually considered to be a surface phenomenon for
solids that are opaque to thermal radiation.

The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a
surface at a thermodynamic temperature Ts (in K or R) is given
by the StefanBoltzmann law as
(1-25)
Q&
A T 4 (W)
emit ,max

s s

## =5.670X108 W/m2K4 is the StefanBoltzmann constant.

The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate
is called a blackbody.
The radiation emitted by all real surfaces is less than the
radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature, and
is expressed as
4
&
(1-26)
Qemit ,max AsTs
(W)

0 1

## is the emissivity of the surface.

The fraction of the
on a surface that is
absorbed by the surface is
termed the absorptivity .

0 1
Both and of a surface depend on the temperature
and the wavelength of the radiation.

## ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

The conversion of energy from one form to another often affects the environment
and the air we breathe in many ways, and thus the study of energy is not complete
without considering its impact on the environment.
Pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog,
acid rain, and global warming.
The environmental pollution has reached such high levels that it became a serious
threat to vegetation, wild life, and human health.

## Motor vehicles are the largest source of air

pollution.
Energy conversion processes are often
accompanied by environmental pollution.

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The Greenhouse
Effect: Global
Warming

## Greenhouse effect: Glass allows the solar

radiation to enter freely but blocks the infrared
radiation emitted by the interior surfaces. This
causes a rise in the interior temperature as a
result of the thermal energy buildup in a space
(i.e., car).
The surface of the earth, which warms up
during the day as a result of the absorption of
solar energy, cools down at night by radiating
part of its energy into deep space as infrared
Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and trace
amounts of some other gases such as methane
and nitrogen oxides act like a blanket and keep
the earth warm at night by blocking the heat
radiated from the earth. The result is global
warming.
These gases are called greenhouse gases,
with CO2 being the primary component.
CO2 is produced by the burning of fossil fuels
such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
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A 1995 report: The earth has already warmed about 0.5C during the last century, and
they estimate that the earths temperature will rise another 2C by the year 2100.
A rise of this magnitude can cause severe changes in weather patterns with storms and
heavy rains and flooding at some parts and drought in others, major floods due to the
melting of ice at the poles, loss of wetlands and coastal areas due to rising sea levels,
and other negative results.
Improved energy efficiency, energy conservation, and using renewable energy
sources help minimize global warming.

## The average car produces several times its weight

in CO2 every year (it is driven 20,000 km a year,
consumes 2300 liters of gasoline, and produces 2.5
kg of CO2 per liter).

## Renewable energies such as wind are called

green energy since they emit no pollutants
or greenhouse gases.
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End