You are on page 1of 46

We have experienced the

growth
and development

GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT
by
Drs. EDI SABADILLA S.

07/12/2010

Standard of Competence
1. To understand the various system in
human life
Basic of Competence
1.1 Analyzing the importance of growth and
development of organism

07/12/2010

Objectives
The students are able to:
1. Distinguish between growth and
development
2. Give the examples of growth and
development

07/12/2010

Science Words:
1. Growth
2. Development
3. Internal factors
4. External factors
5. Environment
6. Response
7. Communication
07/12/2010

Growth and Development


Every organism experiences the changes
during its life. The changes include changes
in size, a small one becoming large, a short
one becoming long, a light one becoming
heavy etc.
The changes in the organism life can be divided
become two kinds of changes. Those are Growth
and Development
07/12/2010

Growth
Grow is increasing size that happens to an
organism during its life.
The characteristic of growth are :
1. Ireversible process
2. Quantitative changes
3. Caused by : a. an increase in the number
of cell
b. an increase in size of cell which
compose the organisms body
07/12/2010

Development
Development is the change leading to the
organism maturity. Development is
combination process between growth and
differentiation of cell which compose the
organism body.

07/12/2010

Characteristic of Development are :


1. Qualitative changes
2. There is no size changes but only form/
function changes
3. Caused by differentiation of cell.

07/12/2010

The example of Plant Growth and Development:

07/12/2010

Phase of Plant Growth and Development


Germination
Seedling
Juvenile
Reproductive

07/12/2010

Aging

10

The examples of Animal Growth and


Development

07/12/2010

11

07/12/2010

12

Phase of Human Development :


1. Embryonic development
2. After embryonic development

07/12/2010

13

Phase of Embryonic development are :

07/12/2010

14

07/12/2010

15

07/12/2010

16

Phase of after embryonic development

Development of Human
Based on the age

07/12/2010

17

Several kinds of others organisms


development
1. Metamorphosis
2. Metagenesis

07/12/2010

18

Metamorphosis

07/12/2010

19

Some factors that influence Growth and


development
1. External factors :
a. Oxygen
b. Sun light
c. Food and water
d. Temperature
e. Humidity

2. Internal Factors :
a. Gen
b. Hormone
07/12/2010

20

Lets think together !

07/12/2010

21

Task 1
1. Make a group of four
2. Make the explanation for each of factor
that influence growth and development
3. Write down on your HVS paper / CD

07/12/2010

22

Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan


pada tumbuhan
Pertumbuhan pada tumbuhan terjadi pada
jaringan meristem/ titik tumbuh dan
mengalami pembelahan mitosis
Pertumbuhan dibedakan jadi 2 macam;
1. Pertumbuhan primer
2. Pertumbuhan skunder
07/12/2010

23

1. Pertumbuhan Primer
a. Terjadi pada ujung akar, ujung batang
b. Meyebabkan bertambah panjang dan
tinggi
c. Hasil pertumbuhan meristem adanya
tunas/ batang apikal atau terminal

07/12/2010

24

2. Petumbuhan Skunder
a. Terjadi pada jaringan kambium
b. Menyebabkan pertumbuhan membesar
( Dikotil )
c. Hasil pertumbuhan adanya xilem dan
floem skunder

07/12/2010

25

Macam macam type perkecambahan


berdasarkan letak kutiledon
1. Hypogeal
Yaitu kutiledon/ endosperm tetap berada di
dalam tanah
Contoh : kelapa, jagung, padi
2. Epygeal
Yaitu kutiledon/ endosperm berada di
atas tanah
Contoh : kacang hijau
Note : Plumula tumbuh menjadi batang
Radikula tumbuh menjadi akar
07/12/2010

26

Macam-macam Type Kecambah


1. Epigeal

07/12/2010

27

2. Hypogeal

07/12/2010

28

Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan Tumbuhan


Hormon
Perkembangan
Cahaya
Hormon :
Auksin
Giberelin
Sitokinin
Asam absisat (ABA)
Etilen
Kalin
Asam Traumatin
Cahaya :
Lama dan warna
07/12/2010

29

Hormon dan Fungsinya

07/12/2010

30

Auksin
Tempat sintesis :
daun muda
tunas muda
meristem apikal
Fungsi :
mengontrol differensiasi
mengontrol pemanjangan sel batang
mengontrol dominansi apikal
bersama dengan giberelin mengontrol aktivitas cambium
dalam pembentukan jaringan vaskuler sekunder
bersama dengan sitokinin dalam kultur jaringan
mengontrol pembentukan tunas atau akar
07/12/2010

31

Dominansi Apikal

07/12/2010

32

Giberelin
Tempat sintesis
Daun muda
tunas muda
embrio (terutama monokotil)
akar
Fungsi
Mengontrol pembelahan sel pada meristem subapikal
Memanjangkan internode tanaman yang
bermorfologi roset atau kate genetik
Memacu aktivitas amilase
07/12/2010

33

Giberelin

07/12/2010

34

Giberelin

07/12/2010

35

Sitokinin
Tempat sintesis
Ujung akar
Buah muda

Fungsi:
Menjaga keseimbangan pertumbuhan tunas dan akar
Untuk pertumbuhan buah
Menunda senesensi
Bersama dg auksin dalam kultur jaringan:
Auksin tinggi, sitokinin rendah => akar
Auksin rendah, sitokinin tinggi => tunas
Auksindan sitokinin berimbang => kalus

07/12/2010

36

Sitokinin
Penghambat Penuaan

- Sitokinin

07/12/2010

+ sitokinin

37

07/12/2010

38

07/12/2010

39

07/12/2010

40

07/12/2010

41

07/12/2010

42

07/12/2010

43

07/12/2010

44

07/12/2010

45

07/12/2010

46