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Measuring Results and Behaviors:

Overview
Measuring Results
Measuring Behaviors

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Measuring Results: Overview


Accountabilities
Objectives
Performance Standards

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Key questions
Where should each individual focus efforts?
What are the expected objectives?
How do we know how well the results were
achieved?

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Accountabilities
Broad areas of a job for which employee
is responsible for producing results

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Objectives
Statements of important and
measurable outcomes

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Performance Standards
Yardstick used to evaluate how well
employees have achieved objectives

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Determining Accountabilities
Collect information about job (Job Description)
Determine importance of task or cluster of
tasks
% of employees time spent performing task
Impact on units mission if performed inadequately
Consequences of error

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Determining Objectives
Purpose: to identify
Outcomes
Limited number
Highly important

When achieved
dramatic impact on overall organization success

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Characteristics of Good Objectives

Specific and Clear


Challenging
Agreed Upon
Significant
Prioritized

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Bound by Time
Achievable
Fully Communicated
Flexible
Limited in Number

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Determining Performance Standards


Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives ,
such as:
Quality

How well the objective is achieved

Quantity
How much, how many, how often, at what cost

Time
Due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Standards must include:

A verb
The desired result
A due date
Some type of indicator
Quality and/or
Quantity

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Characteristics of
Good Performance Standards

Related to Position
Concrete, Specific, Measurable
Practical to Measure
Meaningful
Realistic and Achievable
Reviewed Regularly

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Measuring Behaviors: Overview


Identify competencies
Identify indicators
Choose measurement system

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Identify Competencies
Measurable clusters of KSAs
Knowledges
Skills
Abilities

That are critical in determining how results will


be achieved

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Types of Competencies
Differentiating
Distinguish between superior and average
performance

Threshold
Needed to perform to minimum standard

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Identify Indicators
Observable behaviors
Used to measure extent to which
competencies are present or not

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Necessary Components for


Describing Competencies
Definition
Description of specific behaviors
When competency demonstrated
When competency not demonstrated

Suggestions for developing the competency

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Choose Measurement System


Comparative system
Compares employees with each other

Absolute system
Compares employees with pre-specified
performance standard

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Comparative Systems

Simple rank order


Alternation rank order
Paired comparisons
Forced distribution

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Advantages of Comparative Systems


Easy to explain
Straightforward
Better control for biases and errors found in
absolute systems
Leniency
Severity
Central tendency

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Disadvantages of Comparative Systems


Rankings may not be specific enough for
Useful feedback
Protection from legal challenge

No information on relative distance between


employees
Specific issues with forced distribution method

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Absolute Systems

Essays
Behavior checklists
Critical incidents
Graphic rating scales

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Essays
Advantage:
Potential to provide detailed feedback

Disadvantages:
Unstructured and may lack detail
Depends on supervisor writing skill
Lack of quantitative information; difficult to use in
personnel decisions

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Behavior checklists
Advantage:
Easy to use and understand

Disadvantage:
Scale points used are often arbitrary
Difficult to get detailed and useful feedback

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Critical incidents
Two kinds of measurement
Report of specific employee behavior
Allows focus on specific behavior
Very time-consuming

Examples of behavior illustrative of core


competencies
Easier to use
Describes behavior desired

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Graphic rating scales


Clear meaning for each response
category
Consistent interpretation by outside
readers
Supervisor and employee should
have same understanding of rating

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Graphic rating scales:


BARS improvement
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Use critical incidents as anchors
Involves multiple groups of employees in
development
Identify important job elements
Describe critical incidents at various levels of performance
Check for inter-rater reliability

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Measuring Performance
Several types of methods
Differ in terms of:
Practicality (time and effort)
Usefulness (quantifiable)

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Summary
Measuring Results
Identify accountabilities
Set objectives
Determine standards of performance

Measuring Behaviors
Identify competencies
Identify indicators
Choose measurement system

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver