You are on page 1of 74

CNG

Base training

Summary (I)

1. CNG: physical and chemical properties.


2. CNG and environment.
3. CNG equipment.
1. Equipment structure.
2. The mechanical components.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Cylinder.
Cylinder valve.
Filling unit.
High pressure pipes and fittings.
Pressure gauge.
Pressure reducer.
Petrol solenoid valve.
Mixer.
Power screw.

Summary (II)

3.

The electronic components.


1.
2.
3.
4.

4.

Sunny ECU.
Change over switch.
Injector emulators.
Spark advancers.

System tuning.

CNG Chemical and physical properties

CNG = Compressed Natural Gas.


Composition depends from the CNG origin.
CNG gas mixture:
methane (CH4)
nitrogen (N2)
carbon dioxide (CO2)

Mercaptanes added to give smell

CNG Chemical and physical properties

Volumic mass @ n.c.:


air)
CNG in the car tank:
temperature

0,7 kg/m3 (<


ambient

200 bar pressure


gaseous phase
Octane number (RON):
140
Self-ignition temperature: > of petrol
Inflammability lower threshold: 5,3% by
volume
Inflammability upper threshold: 15% by
volume

CNG and environment

CNG pollution VS. petrol pollution.

Less carbon monoxide (CO)


poisonous

Less 22% carbon dioxide (CO2)

global warming

No lead presence
poisonous
Less poisonous unburned hydrocarbons (HC)

Equipment structure

Cylinder

Cylinder

Cylinder valve

Cylinder valve Manual valve closed

Cylinder valve Manual valve open

Cylinder valve Excess flow valve closed

Cylinder valve Venting holes

Cylinder valve Safety devices

Cylinder valve Burst disc

Cylinder valve Fuse plug

Filling unit

Filling unit Charge phase

Filling unit Non return valve close

High pressure pipes and fittings

Steel pipes (burst pressure > 800 bar).


M12 fittings for BRC components.
Dedicated BRC ferrules.
Periodical leakage test on fittings (water &
soap).
Ferrule has to be correctly fixed on the
pipe.

Pressure gauge

Pressure gauge

CNG 3 stage reducer

CNG reducer First stage

CNG reducer First stage closed

CNG reducer First stage open

CNG reducer Pressure relief valve closed

CNG reducer Pressure relief valve open

CNG reducer From the first to the second


stage

CNG reducer Second stage

From the second to the third stage


solenoid valve closed

From the second to the third stage


solenoid valve closed

From the second to the third stage


solenoid valve open

From the second to the third stage


solenoid valve open

CNG reducer Third stage

CNG reducer Third stage

Third stage Idle +close

Third stage Idle +open

Third stage Sensibility +close

Third stage Sensibility +open

CNG reducer - Water circuit

Petrol solenoid valve

Petrol solenoid valve

Mixer and power screw engine in low load

Mixer and power screw engine in full load


and power screw +open

Mixer and power screw engine in full load


and power screw +closed

Sunny ECU - Functions

Switch over.
Safety.
Pressure gauge
reading.

Sunny ECU Electrical connections scheme

Micro switch - Functions

Drive the main ECU for


the switch over.
Fuel kind indication
(bicolour led).
Pressure indication (4
led).

Micro switch Switch over function

Petrol mode.
Switch pushed in the petrol
pump position.
Rectangular LED's colour:
red

Switch from petrol to CNG.


Push the switch in the middle position.
Rectangular LED's colour: switched of
Wait the empty of the carburettor.
Push the switch in the BRC position.
Rectangular LED's colour: green

Micro switch Switch over function

CNG mode.
Switch pushed in the BRC
position.
Rectangular LED's colour:
green

Switch from CNG to petrol.


Push the switch in the middle position.
Rectangular LED's colour: yellow
Wait the filling of the carburettor.
Push the switch in the petrol pump position.
Rectangular LED's colour: red

Injector emulator Modular HI MM - Function

Petrol mode.
The petrol ECU continue to
drive the petrol injector.
The rel in the injector
emulator is in the normally
closed position.
CNG mode.
The petrol ECU drive the coil
in the injector emulator.
The petrol injector stay close.
The rel in the injector
emulator is in the open
position.

Injector emulator Modular HI MM


Electrical connections scheme

Green wire to the white/green from the ECU.


Black wire with the black of the ECU.
Red wire to the battery 12 V, under 7,5 A fuse.

Injector emulator Modular HI MM


Electrical connections scheme

Cut the
negative
wire of the
petrol
injectors.
Connect the
orange wire
to the
injector side.
Connect the
violet wire to
the petrol
ECU side.

Spark advancer Basic features

Change, increasing, the spark advances in


CNG mode.
Hold the original spark advances in petrol
mode.
Increase the torque and the power in CNG
mode.
Reduce the exhaust temperature in CNG
mode.

Agena - Antares

Agena & Antares work as


spark
advancers in CNG mode.
They advance the negative
coil
signal.
Ignition module signal (white wire)

615
t
Ignition coil negative signal (grey wire)

Agena - Antares

Led on = advance
connected.
Spark advance setting
by micro-switches.
Emergency red
connector in case of
spark advancer failure.

Agena - Antares

Micro-switches setting
Cylinder number: set switches 1 & 2
Advance degree: set switches 3 & 4
Advance operating conditions: set switches
5&6

Aries - Acroux - Santro

Aries, Acroux & Santro work


as
spark advancer in CNG
mode.
It advance the crankshaft
signal
in input
to the petrol ECU.
Crankshaft signal from the sensor (schemati
615
t
Crankshaft signal to the petrol ECU

Aries Acroux - Santro

Led on = advance connected.


Advance intervention in idle and cut-of
conditions adjustable by operating on a screw.
Spark advance setting by micro-switches.
Emergency connector in case of spark advance
failure

Pegaso

Pegaso works as spark


retarder
in petrol mode.
The correct spark advance in
CNG is obtained adjusting
the
distributor position.
In petrol mode Pegaso works
retarding the spark to obtain
the
original value.

Pegaso

Register to set the


spark advance on
petrol
to
the
original value.
Emergency
connector in case
of spark advance
failure

System tuning Engine in idle load and idle


screw +close

System tuning Engine in idle load and idle


screw +close

System tuning Engine in idle load and idle


screw +open

System tuning Engine in idle load and idle


screw +open

System tuning Engine in partial load and


sensibility screw +closed

System tuning Engine in partial load and


sensibility screw +closed

System tuning Engine in partial load and


sensibility screw +open

System tuning Engine in partial load and


sensibility screw +open

System tuning Engine in full load and


power screw +closed

System tuning Engine in full load and


power screw +open

Mixer + Power screw + Reducer

Theorical flow characteristic


CNG mass flow

Full load & Max RPM

Power screw setting area


Sensibility screw setting area
Idle screw setting area

idle

CNG (A/F)stoichiometric = 17,2

Air mass flow