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SCIENCE

SUBJECTS

AND

RELATED RATE PROBLEMS:

Zainab Masroor _ Real Life

Zainab Tariq _ Mathematics

Madiha _ Computer science

Rabia _ Architecture

Liaba Akram _ Chemistry

Mahnoor _ Economics

Usma _ Physics

LIFE:

DERIVATIVES:

Derivatives are constantly used in everyday

life to help measure how much something is

changing.

stone.

It is used in geography, which is used to study the

gases present in the atmosphere.

COUNT

the pressure and the air.

It is use in Shipwrecks occurred because the ship

was not where the captain thought it should be.

Derivatives are met in many engineering and

science problems, especially modeling the

behavior of moving object.

EXAMPLE

A 20 m ladder leans against a wall. The top slides down at a

rate of 4m/s. how fast is the bottom of the ladder moving

when it is 16m from the wall?

Solution:

20m

4m / s dy / dt

y

x

COUNT.

Now the relation between x and y is:

x+y=20

Now differentiating throughout w.r.t time

That is

Now we know:

And we need to know the horizontal velocity (dx/dt) when

X=16

the only other unknown is y, which we obtain using Pythagoras

theorem

COUNT.

Y=

Y=

Y=12

So

(16)

+(12)(-4)

=3m/s

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES IN

MATHEMATICS:

DERIVATIVES:

In mathematics, the derivative is a way to

represent rate of change, that is - the

amount by which a function is changing at

one given point . The derivative is often

written using "dy over dx" (meaning the

difference in y divided by the difference in

x.

DEFINITION OF DERIVATIVES:

The instantaneous rate of change of a function, and the

instantaneous velocity of an object at

all required us

to compute the following limit.

could also be written as,

that we give it a name. We call it aderivative.

Hence thederivative off(x)with respect toxis the

function and is defined as,

Assume that oil spilled from a ruptured tanker spreads in a

circular pattern whose radius increases at a constant rate

of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the spill increasing when

the radius of the spill is 60 ft?

Solution:

Let

t = number of seconds elapsed from the time of the spill

r = radius of the spill in feet after t seconds

A = area of the spill in square feet after t seconds

We know the rate at which the radius is increasing, and we

want to find the rate at which the area is increasing at the

instant when r = 60; that is, we want to find

dA\dt at r=60

CONT

This suggests that we look for an equation relating A

and r that we can differentiate with respect to t to

produce a relationship between dA/dt and dr/dt.

But A is the area of a circle of radius r, so

A = r2

Differentiating both sides of (1) with respect to t

yields

dA/dt = 2rdr\dt

Thus, when r = 60 the area of the spill is increasing at

the rate of

dA\dt

at r=60

= 2(60)(2) = 240 ft2/s 754 ft2/s

APPLICATIONS OF

DERIVATIVES IN

ARCHITECTURE

BY

Rabia Yasin

THE ARCHITECTURE IS?

ARCHITECTURE IS DEFINED AS :

constructing building

The style in which a building is designed and

constructed, especially with regard to a

specific period, place or culture.

The complex or carefully designed structure

of something.

The conceptual structure and logical

organization of a computer or computer

based system.

EXAMPLE 1:

The bottom is initially 10 feet away from the

wall and is being pushed towards the wall at

a rate of 1/4 ft./sec. How fast is the top of

the ladder moving up the wall 12 seconds

after we start pushing

SOLUITON:

ladder from the wall to be x and the distance of the

top of the ladder from the floor to be y. Note as

well that these are changing with time and so we

really should write x(t) and y( . However, as is

often the case with related rates/implicit

differentiation problems we dont write the part

just try to remember this in our heads as we

proceed with the problem.

we want to find. We know that the rate at which

the bottom of the ladder is moving towards the

wall. This is

x = 1/4

Note as well that the rate is

negative since the distance from the wall, x, is

decreasing. We always need to be careful with

signs with these problems.

the ladder is moving away from the floor.

This is y . Note as well that this quantity

should be positive since y will be increasing.

As with the first example we first need a

relationship between x and y. We can get

this using Pythagorean Theorem

x + y = (15) = 225

differentiate both sides with respect to t,

remembering that x and y are really functions of

t and so well need to do implicit differentiation.

Doing this gives an equation that shows the

relationship between the derivatives

2xx + 2yy = 0

(1)

Next, lets see which of the various parts of this

equation that we know and what we need to find.

We know x and are being asked to determine y

so its okay that we dont know that. However,

we still need to determine x and y.

We know that initially x=10and the end is

being pushed in towards the wall at a rate of

1/4ft./sec and that we are interested in

what has happened after 12 seconds. We

know that

distance = rate time

=(1/4)(12)

=3

So, the end of the ladder has been pushed in 3 feet and so after 12

seconds we must have . Note that we could have computed this in

one step as follows

x = 10 (12)

To find y (after 12 seconds) all that we need to do is reuse the

Pythagorean Theorem with the values of x that we just found above

y=225 x = 225 -49 = 176

Now all that we need to do is plud into (1) and solve for y

2(7)(-1/4) + 2(176)y = 0

y = (7/4)/176 =7 / 4176=0.1319 ft/sec

wed a negative we would have known that

we had made a mistake and we could go

back and look for it

Application of derivates in

chemistry

Presented by Laiba Akram

derivates:

The properties of gases have been studied for

centuries, and it has been found that many gases satisfy

an approximate relationship called theIdeal Gas

Lawwhich states that

PV=nRT

Where

EXAMPLE # 1 :

Boyles law for confined gas states that if the

temperature is constant , PV = c, where P is pressure ,

V is volume and c is constant. At a certain instant the

volume is 75 in, the pressure is 30 lb/inch and

pressure is decreasing at a rate of 2 lb/in every

minute. At what rate is the volume changing at this

instant ?

DATA :

P = 30 lb/in

V = 75 in

dp/dt= -2lb/in per minute

(negative sign is because pressure is decreasing )

dV/ dt= ?

SOLUTION :

As PV = c

Taking derivative :dP/dt .V + P. dV/dt (1) = 0

dP/dt .V + P. dV/dt = 0

P. dV/dt = - dP/dt .P

r

e

t

u

p

Com

Science

Presented by:

Madiha Hafeez

Definition:

theory and methods of processing

information in digital computers,

the design of computer hardware

and software, and the applications

of computers

science:

Scientific computing

Graphs and visuals

Robotics

Motions

Controls

Machine learning

Human effort

Reliability

Program

example:

#include<stdio.h>

#include<maths.h>

#include <codecogs/maths/calculus/diff/taylor.h>

{

int x;

x=sin

// function to differentiate

return define(derivative);

}

Output:

function to differentiate=sin x

Sin x=cos x

Related rate

problem:

Example:

A circle grows at the rate of 8 in2 per

second, at what rate is the radius growing

when the radius is 2 inches?

Solution:

dr/dt=?

dA/dt=8,r=2

let A be the area of a circle

so A=r2

by differentiating, we get

dA/dt=2r. dr/dt

by putting values

8=22.dr/dt

dr/dt=2 in2 per second

so the radius is growing at the rate of 2 in2 per

second

Program example:

find a program in which a circle grows at the

rate of 8 in2 per second, at what rate is the

radius growing when the radius is 2 inches?

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<maths.h>

#include<derivative.h>

{

int Area,Radius;

Area=r2;

def derivate(Area):

Area=ans**derivate(Radius);

def derivative(Radius);

Growing rate of radius(int Area,Area,);

}

Output :

Area= r2

Derivative(Area):2r.

Derivate(Radius)

Insert values:8,22.

Growing rate of radius:2 in2 per

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES IN

ECONOMICS PRESENTED BY

MAHNOOR SIDDIQ

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES IN

ECEONOMICS.

Marginal cost function.

of total revenue function.

MR = del TR/ del Q

= d TR /d Q

defined as the derivative of total cost

function.

MC = del TC / del Q

= d TC / d Q

PROFIT FUNCTION

be :

Profit function = TR TC

(Profit ) = MR MC

= d TR / d Q d TC /d Q

EXAMPLE

digital television . The weekly total cost

incurred by pulsar for producing x sets is.

C (x) = 0.000002x^3 -0.02x^2 +120x + 60,000

The Revenue function is

R(x) = -0.006x^2 + 180x

Find the marginal cost function , marginal

revenue function and the profit function P ?

SOLUTION

Profit function = R (x) c(x)

=-0.006x^2 + 180x - 0.000002x^3

+0.02x^2 120x 60000

=0.000002x^3 + 0.014x^2 + 60x

-60000

SOLUTION

Marginal cost function = dC / dx

= .000006x^2

Marginal Revenue function =

dR /dx = -0.012x 0.04

Marginal profit function= dP /dx

= -0.000006x^2 +0.028x +60

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