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Week 1:

(1) Introduction to Pedagogy:


Pedagogy and andragogy
(2) Teaching and learning
(3) Learning styles

Definitions of Pedagogy
Pedagogue = a teacher, educator, a strict one
Old French; Latin: paedaggus, slave who
supervised children and took them to and from
school, from Greek paidaggos : paido-, boy; +
aggos, leader or guide.
Pedagogy is the art and science of helping
children learn
Androgogy = the art and science of helping
adults learn

pedagogy

The art or science of teaching


The study of methods and application of
educational theory to create learning
contexts and environments
Pedagogical issues are related to teaching
and learning

pedagogy

5 core principles:
1. Commitment to students and learning
2. Teachers know their subjects
3. Teachers know how to teach those
subjects
4. Teachers are responsible to managing
and monitoring student learning
5. Teachers think systematicaly about
their practices and learn from
experiences
pedagogy

Quality pedagogy:
a. Democratic classroom
b. Assurance of quality learning opportunities
c. Utilization of strong model of information
processing
d. Assurance of content standards being met
e. Students at the centre of their own
learning

pedagogy

Pedagogy
the art and science of helping
children learn.

VS
Andragogy
the art and science of helping adults learn

Pedagogy-andragogy

Concept of Learner
Pedagogy
Dependent.
Teacher expected to
determine what is
learned, when, and if it
has been

Andragogy
Moves from dependency
to increasing selfdirectedness. Teachers
encourage and nurture
movement

Pedagogy-andragogy

Learners Experience
Pedagogy
Of little value, learners
will gain the most from
teachers lecture, text
related mediums.
(Deductive)

Andragogy
People attach more
meaning to learning
gained from experience.
Labs problem solving,
discussions. (Inductive)

Pedagogy-andragogy

Readiness to Learn
Pedagogy
With pressure, people
are ready to learn what
society says they ought
to, step-by-step style

Andragogy
Experience a need to
learn.
Educator provides tools,
should be organizrd
around life-application.

Pedagogy-andragogy

Orientation to Learning
Pedagogy
Process for acquiring
subject matter, content
to be used later.
Basic subjects.

Andragogy
Need to be able to apply
whatever knowledge
and skill they gain soon.
Performance-centered

Pedagogy-andragogy

Dimensions Of Matirotu
1)Dependence

Autonomy

2) Passivity

Activity

3) Subjectivity

Objectivity

4) Ignorance

Enlightenment

5) Small Abilities

Large Abilities

6) Few
Responsibilities

Many
Responsibilities

7) Narrow Interests

Broad Interest

8) Selfishness

Altruism
Pedagogy-andragogy

Dimensions Of Maturity
9) Self-rejection

Self- acceptance

10) Amorphous
Self-identity

Integrated selfidentity

11) Focus on
Particulars

12) Superficial
Concerns
13) Imitation
14) Need for
Certainty

c
c

Focus on Principles
Deep Concerns
Originality
Tolerance of
ambiguity

Definitions of teaching
Creation of environment for the best learning to
take place
Helping students acquire information, ideas,
skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of
expressing themselves (Joyce, Weil, & Calhaun, 2011).
Long-term outcome: students increased capabilities to learn
more easily and effectively in the future
Thus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners

teaching

Teaching is a combination of both artistry and science


(Henderson, 2001).
-- teaching as in art, we call this ability
creativity
Helping students acquire information, ideas, skills, values,
ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves
(Joyce & Weil, 1996).
Long-term outcome: students increased capabilities to learn
more easily and effectively in the future
Thus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners

teaching

Reflective Teaching
Traditional teacher-training programs have been directive
in nature
Teacher educators have to prepare prospective teachers to
be self-monitoring individuals
Effective teachers must inquire into students experiences,
understand their learners, and have the capacity to analyze
what occurs in classrooms and in the lives of their students
Self-monitoring: self-analysis of teaching episodes,
reflection and focusing on events rather than personalities,
systematic observation for patterns and trends of T and L
behavior
teaching

Reflective Teaching
o Donald Cruickshank (1987) suggests that reflective
teachers want to learn about teaching from both theory and
practice - teach and reflect on their teaching, and through
the process, become more thoughtful and wiser teachers
o Schon (1987): Reflective T requires careful planning and
continual reflecting-in-practice and reflecting-on-practice
o Reflective T (self-monitoring):
-- ask basic questions about the appropriateness and
success of your T
-- how to change your T and classroom behaviors to
improve their success
-- ask self-evaluative questions and conclude whether you
are satisfied or dissatified

teaching

A Passion for Teaching


What is passionate about teaching?
1. A passion for the subject teaching in your
discipline
2. A passion for the teaching life to have
opportunities to see students become excited
about learning
3. A passion for the teaching-learning process
helping students learn; quickly and gracefully act
on the stituation seen
teaching

What is it like to be a teacher?


Reality 1: Unpredictable outcomes
Outcomes of teaching are often unpredictable and
inconsistent
Reality 2: Assessing students learning
It is difficult to assess what students learn as a
result of being taught
It is difficult, perhaps imposssible, to determine precisely
what another human being does or does not understand.
Teachers must become aware of the latest approaches to
assessing students learning
Parkay, F. W. & Stanford, B. H. (2007). Becoming a teacher.Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., pg. 22-28

What is it like to be a teacher?


Reality 3: Limited influence on students behavior
The teachers ability to influence student behavior
is actually quite limited.
Reality 4: The importance of teachers attitudes
With the role of a teacher also comes the power to
influence others by example.
Educational psychologist, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod
(2003, 342): as teachers, we teach not only by
what we say but also by what we do.

What is it like to be a teacher?


Reality 5: The unpredictability and immediacy of
teaching
Interactive teaching is characterized by events that
are rapid-changing, multidimensional, and
fragmented.
The face-to-face interaction (interactive teaching) are
themselves rapid-changing, multidimensional, and irregular.
Gmelch and Parkay (1995, 47): Day in and day out,
teachers spend much of their lives on stage before
audiences that are not always receptive....Teachers must
orchestrate a daunting array of interpersonal interactions
and build a cohesive, positivie climate for learning.

What is it like to be a teacher?


Reality 6: The uniquesness of teaching
Teaching involves a unique mode of being between
teacher and student a mode of being that can be
experienced but not fully defined or described.
On your journey to become a teacher, you will
gradually develop your capacity to listen to
students and to convey an authentic sense of
concern for their learning

What are the roles of a teacher?


1. As a counselor
2. As a manager
3. As an instructional expert

teaching

The professional teacher

teaching

Definitions of learning
Process of progressive change:
ignorance
knowledge
inability
competence
indifference
understanding
Learning is a social process: occurs through interpersonal
interaction within a cooperative context (David, Johnson,
Johnson, R., & Smith,1992).
relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality and
as a result of reinforced practice

teaching

Woolfolk (2010):
Learning occurs when experience causes
relatively permanent change in an individuals
knowledge or behaviour.
ODonnell (2011)
Learning is a relevantly permanent change in
behaviour or knowledge that occurs as a result of
experiece
Ciccarelli, S.K. & Meyer, G.E. (2006):
Learning is any relevantly permanent change in behaviour
brought about by experiece or practice.
Learning

Quotations on teaching, learning,


education
The task of the excellent teacher is to
stimulate "apparently ordinary" people to
unusual effort. The tough problem is not in
identifying winners: it is in making winners
out of ordinary people.
K. Patricia Cross

teaching

Teaching is the highest form of understanding


Aristotle

Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and


three-fourths theatre.
Gail Godwin

The educator must above all understand how


to wait; to reckon all effects in the light of the
future, not of the present.
Ellen Key, 1911

teaching

No man can be a good teacher unless he


has feelings of warm affection toward his
pupils and a genuine desire to impart to
them what he himself believes to be of
value.
Bertrand Russell

Teaching = helping someone else learn


L. Dee Fink

teaching

On learning:
Memorization is what we resort to
when what we are learning makes no
sense.
Anonymous

It is what we think we know already


that often prevents us from learning.
Claude Bernard
teaching

On education:
The main hope of a nation lies in the proper education of
its youth.
Erasmus
All education springs from some image of the future. If the
image of the future held by a society is grossly
inaccurate, its education system will betray its youth.
Alvin Toffler
Education's purpose is to replace an empty mind with an
open one.
Malcom S. Forbes
teaching

Every act of conscious learning requires the


willingness to suffer an injury to one's selfesteem. That is why young children, before they
are aware of their own self-importance learn so
easily; and why older persons, especially if vain or
important, cannot learn at all.

Thomas Szasz, 1973

teaching

Learning Styles
Learning styles are important because they
are the educational-relevant expressions of
the uniqueness of the individual (Joyce & Weil,2010)
Learning styles, also called cognitive styles
are students preferred ways of learning or
processing information (Messick, 1994; Sternbert &
Crignorenko, 1997)

Learning styles

Examples of learning styles

a. Dunn & Dunn


b. Kolbs theory
c. McCarthys 4MAT
d. Howard Gardners Multiple intelligences

Learning styles

Learning by Dunn & Dunn (1987)

Students differed in terms of their response to


three key dimensions of learning:
a. Environment (e.g. Sound, light, temperature)
b. Physical stimuli (oral versus written)
c. Structure and support (working alone or in
groups)

Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn

Learning Style Dimensions


Dimension

Learning Style Differences

Environment
Sound

Is a quiet or nosy environment best for learning?

Light

Do students prefer bright or subdued light?

Temperature

Is a warm or cool room preferred?

Seating

Are individual desks or clusters of desks best for learning?

Physical Stimuli
Duration

How does attention span influence the optimal length of


activity?

Modality

Does the student prefer to read or hear new information?

Activity

Do students learn best when actively involved, or do they


prefer more passive roles?

Structure / Support
Motivation

Do students need external rewards, or are they internally


motivated?

Monitoring

Do students need constant support and monitoring, or are


they independent learners?

Individual / Group

Do students prefer to work alone or in a group?

Implications for teaching :


Teachers should treat each student as an
inividual human being and not just another
face in a class of 30.
Help our students understand themselves as
learners.
Self-awareness can be developed through
self-instruction training.
Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn

Kolbs theory : classification of


learners
a. Activitists
b. Reflectors
c. Theorists
d. Pragmatists

Learning styles: Kolb

Activisists
Like practical work such as labs, field work, observation
exercises and using visual source material for
information, etc.
Reflectors
Like to learn by watcing others, by taking time to
consider observations of their own experiences, etc
Theorists
Like lectures, reading papers on topics, considering
analogies, etc.
Pragmatists
Like simulations, case studies, homework, etc.
Learning styles: Kolb

Implications :
Activists might just start using it and feel their
way into it
Reflectors might have a go at using it and then
take time to think about what they have
just done
Theorists might begin by reading the manual
Pragmatists might start using the programme,
but make frequent references to the Help files
Learning styles: Kolb

McCarthys 4MAT analysis


This learning style developed the notion of cycle through which
leearners progress in a classroom topic or block of work. It made use of
the left / right brain science.
Learners are classified as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Innovative
Analytical
Common sense
Dynamic

Learning styles: 4MAT

G a r d n e rs T h e o ry o f M u ltip le In te llig e n c e s
D im e n s io n

E x a m p le

L in g u is tic / v e rb a l in te llig e n c e :
S e n s itivity to th e m e a n in g a n d o rd e r o f w o rd s a n d th e
va rie d u s e s o f la n g ua g e

P o e t, jo u rn a lis t

L o g ic a l-m a th e m a tic a l in te llig e n c e :


T h e a b ility to h a n d le lo n g c h a in s o f re a s o n in g a n d to
R e c o g n ize p a tte rn s a n d o rd e r in th e w o rld

S c ie n tis t, m a th e m a tic ia n

M u s ic a l in te llig e n c e :
S e n s itivity to p itc h , m e lo d y, a n d to n e
S p a tia l in te llig e n c e :
T h e a b ility to p e rc e iv e th e v is u a l w o rld a c c u ra te ly, a n d
T o re -c re a te , tra n s fo rm , o r m o d ify a s p e c ts o f th e w o rld
B a s e d o n o n e s p e rc e p tio n s
B o d ily -kin e s th e tic in te llig e n c e :
A fin e -tu n e d a b ility to u s e th e b o d y a n d to h a n d le o b je c ts

C o m p o s e r, vio lin is t

S c u lp to r, n av ig a to r

D a n c e r, a th le te

In te rp e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :
T h e a b ility to n o tic e a n d m a k e dis tin c tio n s a m o n g o th e rs

T h e ra p is t, s a le s p e rs o n

In tra p e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :
A c c e s s to o n e s o w n fe e lin g life

s e lf-a w are in d ivid u a l

N a tu ra lis tic in te llig e n c e :


M a k e d is tin c tio n s a nd re c o g n ize p a tte rn s in th e n a tu ra l
W orld : a re c u rio u s a b o u t p la n ts a n d a n im a ls ; a re c o n c e rn e d
th e e c o lo g y / e n v iro n m e nt

B io lo g is t, b o ta n is t

S o u rc e : A d a p te d fro m G a rdn e r, 1 9 9 9 ; G a rd n e r & H a tc h , 1 9 8 9 a n d w w w . h ig h lan d s c h o o lvirtu a lib .o rg .u k

Global-analytical
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