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Application of Water Pinch

Technology for Water and


Wastewater Management

By:
Donita Rose P.
Aguisanda
Danna Mae D.
Corpuz
French Sarah R.

Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

The major concern in most production industries is


the efficient use of resources. This is due to increasing
costs and stringent environmental regulations.
Process integration is a technique initially developed for
energy integration have been modified to be applicable to
water reuse-recycle systems with major developments
being in the past decade.

1.2. Statement of the Problem


1. What are the minimum wastewater-generation target
of the process?
2. How would a new water-using network be designed to
meet the target?
3.How should a piping system be designed to make water
reuse possible and minimize wastewater generation?

1.3. Objectives of the Study


1. Identify the minimum freshwater consumption and wastewater
generation in water-using operations (water-pinch analysis).
2. Design a water-using network that achieves the identified flow
rate targets for freshwater and wastewater through water reuse
(water-pinch synthesis).
3. Design a piping system for water reuse and minimize wastewater
generation through effective process changes (water-pinch retrofit).

1.4. Significance of the Study


The drive in industry is towards environmental
sustainability and rising costs of fresh water and effluent
treatment.
These have encouraged the process industry to find new
ways to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater
generation.
The advent of water pinch analysis (WPA) as a tool for
the design of optimal water recovery network has been one of
the most significant advances in the area of water minimization.

1.4. Significance of the Study


Maximizing water reuse and recycling can minimize freshwater
consumption and wastewater generation

Pinch Technology - a graphical approach which is


developed to locate the minimum fresh water and wastewater
flow rate prior to any network design in which savings can be
achieved in both capital investment and operating cost.

1.5. Scope and Limitation


1.The process flow data, particularly the water flow data,
the contaminant concentrations of the process water and the
allowable contaminant concentration to a process unit.
2. The maximum water-reuse target and the minimum wastewatergeneration target of the process.
3. The design of a water-using network that achieves the identified
flow rate targets for freshwater and wastewater through water
reuse that encompasses a single contaminant only .

1.6. Locale of the Study

Data gathering and conduct of the was done in DOST02


Food Innovation Center at Cagayan State University, Carig
Campus and the data analyses and simulations was
conducted in Tuguegarao City, Cagayan.

2.8 Theoretical Framework of the Study


Input

Process

Output

2.9 Conceptual Framework

METHODOLOGY

3.1. Materials

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)


operating data conditions (BOD concentration)
Microsoft Office Excel.

3.2. Water Network Analysis

Process Flow Diagram Water source and Water sink

3.3.

Data

The process flow data, particularly the water flow data, the
Extraction
contaminant concentrations of the process water and the allowable
contaminant concentration to a process unit are to be considered
prior to developing or modifying configurations.
In wastewater minimization with pinch technology there are
two purposes:
1. Wastewater minimization with considering single contaminant;
2. Wastewater minimization with considering multiple contaminants

For the sources

Eq. 3.1

mi -the impurity load of each streams


fi- product of the flowrate; kg/s
Ci- the impurity concentration ; ppm
For the sinks

Eq. 3.2

mi -the impurity load of each streams


fi- product of the flowrate; kg/s
Ci- the impurity concentration ; ppm

Limiting Water Data

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Water Sinks

Flowrate

Concentration

Stream

Fi(L/s)

Ci(ppm)

0.21
0.23
0.15
0.17

1.0
2.0
2.0
10.0

Water Source

Flowrate

Concentration

Stream

Fj(L/s)

Cj(ppm)

0.20
0.22
0.17
0.17

2.0
2.0
5.0
25.0

Water Retort Feed Water


Vacuum Fryer Feed Water
Raw Materials washing Feed water
Spray Dryer Feed Water

Water retort Wastewater


Vacuum Fryer Wastewater
Cleaning/washing Wastewater
Spray Dryer Wastewater

3.4 Minimum Water Targeting

In targeting the minimum utility requirements and in


locating the pinch points, the graphical technique such as the
composite curves have been used in mass and water recovery
problems that are based on pinch analysis.

Construction of Source and Sink Composite Curve

3.5.Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves

From the Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves,


Network Allocation Diagram or NAD is constructed which
translates the Source and Sink Allocation Composite Curves
into a network diagram for easy visualization. From these, the
percent reduction of freshwater and wastewater is obtained.

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION

4.1. Analysis of Water Network

Figure 4.1. Input and Output Streams of the Process

4.2.Data Extraction
4.2.1Water Source and Water Sink Data
One way to debottleneck the overall process is via
water reuse and recycling. However, any proposed solution
must comply with the flowrate and concentration constraints
imposed on the water demands and sources which are likely
shown in Table 4.1

SKi
SK1
SK2
SK3
SK4

SRj
SR1
SR2
SR3
SR4

Sinks
Water Retort Feed Water
Vacuum Fryer Feed Water
Raw Matls washing Feed water
Spray Dryer Feed Water

Sources
Water retort Wastewater
Vacuum Fryer Wastewater
Wastewater from washing
Spray Dryer Wastewater

Fi (L/s) Ci (ppm) m (mg/s)


0.21
0.23
0.15
0.17

1.0
2.0
2.0
10.0

0.21
0.46
0.30
1.7

Fj (L/s) Cj (ppm)
0.20
0.22
0.17
0.17

Table 4.1 Limiting Water Data

2.0
2.0
5.0
25.0

0.4
0.44
0.85
4.25

4.3.Targeting Minimum Utility


4.3.1. Source and Sink Composite Curves

The mass load is obtained by the equation stated in


section 3.3 from which it is plotted versus the flowrate.

Source
1
Source
2
Source
3
Source
4
Sink1
Sink2
Sink3
Sink4

Figure 4.2 Source/Sink Composite Curve before shifting


Source Composite

Sink1
Sink2
Sink3
Sink4
Source
1
Source
2
Source
3
Source
4

Figure 4.3 Source/Sink Composite Curve after shifting


Source Composite

FWW = 0.17 kg/s

Sink1
Sink2
Sink3
Sink4
Source1
Source2
Source3
Source4

FFW =
0.16 kg/s
SK1
SK2
SK3

0.16 L/s
FW

SR
1
SR
2
SR
3
SR4

0.05 L/s

0.15 L/s
0.08 L/s

SK
4
W
W
F
W
SR1

0.14 L/s

SR2

0.01 L/sSR3

0.17 L/s

SR4

0.17 L/s

4.4.2. Water- Using Networks

Figure 4.5 Water Using Network for the Process after Recovery

The Source/Sink Allocation Curve together with the NAD


represents a significant flow reduction of 78.95% and 77.63% for
freshwater and wastewater respectively.
Applying the mass load deficit case and flowrate deficit case,
both wastewater from washing of raw materials and spray dryer
will have a flowrate of 0.17 L/s. Fresh water being fed into the fourth
sink will be directly disposed since it does not satisfy the mass load
listed. Hence, the flow reduction for freshwater and wastewater were
56.58% and 55.26% correspondingly.

Figure 4.6. Water Using Network with Mass Load and Flowrate
Deficit Case

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion
The bench-mark data collected is used to arrive on a mass
load versus flowrate graph which is called Source/Sink Composite
Curves. After shifting the source composite curve, the minimum
flowrate is then obtained. Based on the Source/Sink Allocation
Composite Curves, the minimum flowrates are 0.16 L/s and 0.17 L/s
for feed water and wastewater respectively. The two water using
Networks showed significant difference when it comes to the
percentage of flow reduction as well as the mass load being satisfied.

The second water using network/design shown in Figure 4.6 is


then chosen. In this figure, the water sources that have the
potentials for water reuse are the water coming from the water
retort and vacuum fryer. Hence, the significant flow reduction
for freshwater and wastewater are 56.58% and 55.26%
respectively.

5.2. Recommendation
It is recommended in this study that an economic
evaluation can be performed for imminent studies. A
mathematical programming approach can also be done
encompassing multiple contaminant operation. In connection
to this, another technique can also be applied in targeting the
minimum utility requirement such as LCC, Water Cascade
Analysis, Water Surplus Diagram and algebraic targeting
approach. Aside from the NAD, water network retrofitting
can also be done using Source-Sink Mapping Diagram.

Since there is still unused water sources from the


spray dryer and raw material washing, it is also
recommended that these can be utilized in other processes
outside the system if possible. It also suggested the
implementation of wastewater treatment for greater water
reuse/recycling.

THANK YOU

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