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Ant Colony

Optimization
for
TERM PAPER
ON Routing in MANETs in Urban
Environments

Mohd.Sharique Khan
Faculty Advisor: Mr.S.P.S.Chauhan
School of Computing Science
Engineering
Galgotias University

Introduction

Routing

Routing is the task of finding and using paths

to direct data flows through a network while


optimizing one or more performance
measures.
Hence the problem of routing can be solved
using Ant Colony Optimization(ACO)[1,2],
which is inspired by the ability of certain types
of ants in nature to find the shortest path
between their nest and a food source through
a distributed process based on stigmergic
communication .

An important aspect of routing is that a

distributed and dynamic problem, which


means that the description of the problem
changes over time and decentralized solutions
must be adopted.
As a consequence, the optimization algorithm
for routing needs to adapt continuously.
Here, we focus on routing in a specific type of
communication networks, namely mobile ad
hoc networks

Routing In MANETs
MANETs are a collection of mobile devices that

communicate with each other without an


access point.
The topology of the network is not fixed. It is
somewhat dynamic.
Each device/node plays dual role of router as
well as host.
These
kind of networks are gaining
importance in various fields like military
services, disaster relief, etc.
Due to ever changing topologies and

absence of infrastructure, communication

Types of Routing in MANETs

There are three types of routing for MANETs:


1. Proactive Routing: This routing is also called
Table-Driven approach. Each node maintains a
routing table for broadcast of data packets. It
wants to connect to every other node. Effective
for small number of nodes. Ex: Destination
Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)
2. Reactive routing: This type of routing is also
called On-demand approach.
Routes are
determined on demand basis. It implements
flooding approach. Route discovery process is
used in on demand routing by flooding the route
request (RREQ) packets throughout the
network. Ex: Ad hoc On
Demand Distance

3. Hybrid Routing:-Finally, hybrid

algorithms use both proactive and


reactive elements, trying to combine the
best of both worlds.
.An example is the Sharp Hybrid Adaptive
Routing Protocol (SHARP)[8].

Ant Colony Optimization for


Routing
InCOMPUTER SCIENCE andOPERATION RESEARCH, theant

colony optimizationalgorithm(ACO)is aprobabilistictechnique


for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding
good paths throughgraphs.
This algorithm is a member of the ant colony algorithms family, in

swarm intelligence methods, and it constitutes some metaheuristic


optimizations.
There are various algorithms, that are member of theant colony

optimizations algorithms, aiming to search for an optimal path in


a graph, based on the behavior ofantsseeking a path between
theircolonyand a source of food.
The original idea has since diversified to solve a wider class of

numerical problems, and as a result, several problems have


emerged, drawing on various aspects of the behavior of ants.

Introduction Cont..

In the next generation of wireless communication systems,


there will be need of networks that can establish
themselves without any requirement of preexisting
infrastructure.

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETS) - Mobile implies that


the interconnecting nodes are not fixed to be remain at
one place, rather they can move from one place to the
other. Ad-Hoc implies that the network does not depend on
any pre-existing infrastructure such as routers.

One of the most important performance parameter in adhoc networks is minimizing the total transmission energy
in the path and extending the battery life of the nodes.

Introduction Cont
There exists a protocol Minimum Transmission Power

Routing (MTPR) which tries to minimize the total


transmission power .

THE WHOLE CONCEPT OF


ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION
IS TO MINIMIZE THE PATH
AND POWER CONSUMPTION.

Overview
Ant

Colony Optimization (ACO)


studies artificial systems that
take inspiration from the
behavior of real ant colonies and
which are used to solve discrete
optimization problems.
-Source: ACO website, http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/~mdorigo/ACO/about.html

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

PRACTICALLY
Ants go through the food while laying down

pheromone trails
Shortest path is discovered via pheromone
trails
each ant moves at random (first)
pheromone is deposited on path

Shorter path, more pheromone rails (positive

feedback sys)
ants follow the intense pheromone trails

A Practical Scenario

All is well in the world of the


ant.
Ant Colony Optimization (AC)

Naturally Observed Ant


Behavior

Oh no! An obstacle has blocked our


path!

Naturally Observed Ant


Behavior

Where do we go? Everybody, flip a


coin.
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

Naturally Observed Ant


Behavior

Shorter path reinforced.

ACTUAL SCENARIO

Actual Scenario
Swarm Intelligence
Stigmergy
Autocatalyzation
Ant System

ACTUAL SCENARIO !!!


Almost blind.
Incapable of achieving complex tasks alone.
Rely on the phenomena of swarm intelligence
for survival.
Capable of establishing shortest-route paths
from their colony to feeding sources and back.
Use stigmergic communication via pheromone
trails.

Actual Scenario!!! (cont..)


Follow existing pheromone trails with high
probability.
What emerges is a form of autocatalytic behavior:
the more ants follow a trail, the more attractive
that trail becomes for being followed.
The process is thus characterized by a positive
feedback loop, where the probability of a discrete
path choice increases with the number of times the
same path was chosen before.

Swarm Intelligence
Collective system capable of accomplishing

difficult tasks in dynamic and varied


environments without any external guidance or
control and with no central coordination

Achieving a collective performance which could

not normally be achieved by an individual


acting alone

Constituting a natural model particularly suited

to distributed problem solving

Stigmergic
Two individuals interact indirectly when one of

them modifies the environment and the other


responds to the new environment at a later
time. This is stigmergy.
Real ants use stigmergy. How again?
PHEROMONES!!!

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

Auto-catalyzation
Auto-catalysis is a positive
feedback loop that drives the
ants to explore promising
aspects of the search space
over less promising areas.

Initial state:
no ants

t=0

t=1
30 ants

D
d=1

15 ants

d = 0.5

d = 0.5

d=1

15 ants

15 ants

15 ants

30 ants

10 ants

D
=
30

=
15

=
15
10 ants

20 ants

=
30

30 ants

C
20 ants

30 ants

(a)

(b)

(c)

Autocatalyzation
This is why ACO algorithms
are called autocatalytic
positive feedback
algorithms!

THE ANTHOCNET ROUTING


ALGORITHM
In this section we describe AntHocNet, an ACO

routing algorithm for MANETs.


AntHocNet can be considered a hybrid algorithm,
since it contains both reactive and proactive
elements.
It is reactive in the sense that it only gathers routing
information about destinations that are involved in
communication sessions.
It is proactive in the sense that it tries to maintain,
improve and extend routes while the communication
session is going on.
This hybrid architecture improves the efficiency by
focusing efforts on ongoing sessions.

Ant System
First introduced by Marco Dorigo in 1992
Progenitor to Ant Colony System, later

discussed
Result of research on computational
intelligence approaches to combinatorial
optimization
Originally applied to Traveling Salesman
Problem
Applied later to various hard optimization
problems

WORKING IN AN URBAN
ENVIRONMENT
Given N cities, and a distance function d between cities,
find a tour that:
1. Goes through every city once and
only once
2. Minimizes the total distance.

Classical combinatorial
optimization problem to test.

Problem is NPhard

In this report, we are particularly interested in

the evaluation of our AntHoc-Net routing


algorithm in MANETs that support interactive
communicaton in an urban environment.
The use of this specific type of scenarios has
a strong influence on important aspects of the
working of the MANET.
First of all, the structure of the urban
environment defines possible movement
patterns for the nodes of the network.
Second, the presence of buildings and other
obstacles has a strong impact on the way
radio waves can propagate and hence
influences the connectivity between the nodes

WORKING IN AN URBAN
ENVIRONMENT
Finally, the interactive communication defines

the data load and data traffic patterns.


These properties set these scenarios apart
from the kind of settings applied in most
MANET evaluation studies, which rely on open
space scenarios, random movement patterns
and random communication patterns.
We believe that the study of urban scenarios
is important as this will become an important
application area for MANET technology in the
near future.

Recent projects with wireless mesh networks,

which are static ad hoc networks, in large


cities such as Taipei [2] and Philadelphia [3]
also point in this direction.
In what follows, we discuss the mentioned
aspects of node mobility, radio wave
propagation and data communication patterns
in turn.
We describe their effects and explain how we
modeled them in the simulation study that will
be presented in the next section.
After that, we also give a short overview of
other studies that focus on the use of MANETs
in urban settings.

Let see with this small example:


Iteration 1

[B]

[A]

B
[C]

[E]

[D]

Iteration 2
[E,A]

[C,B]

B
[B,C]

[A,D]
[D,E]
1

Iteration 4
[B,C,D,A]

[D,E,A,B]

B
[E,A,B,C]

[C,B,E,D]

[A,D,C,E]

Iteration 5
[C,B,E,D,A]

[A,D,C,E,B]

B
[D,E,A,B,C]

[E,A,B,C,D]
[B,C,D,A,E]

Iteration 6
[B,C,D,A,E,B]

[A,D,C,E,B,A]

B
[C,B,E,D,A,C]

[D,E,A,B,C,D]

[E,A,B,C,D,E]

CALCULATION
1. Path and
Pheromone
Evaluation
2. End of First Run

3. Save Best Tour (Sequence and length


4. All ants die

5. New ants are born

ACO Applications
Scheduling Problem
Job-shop scheduling problem (JSP)
Open-shop scheduling problem (OSP)
Resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP)
Group-shop scheduling problem (GSP)

Vehicle routing problem


Multi-depot vehicle routing problem (MDVRP)
Period vehicle routing problem (PVRP)
Split delivery vehicle routing problem (SDVRP)
Stochastic vehicle routing problem (SVRP)
Vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)

Applications (cont.. )
Assignment problem
Quadratic assignment problem(QAP)
Generalized assignment problem(GAP)
Frequency assignment problem(FAP)
Redundancy allocation problem

Set problem
Set covering problem(SCP)
Set partition problem (SPP)
Multiple knapsack problem (MKP)
Maximum independent set problem (MIS)

Applications(cont..)
Others
Connection-oriented network routing
Connectionless network routing
Data mining
Discounted cash flows in project scheduling
Distributed Information Retrieval
Grid Workflow Scheduling Problem
Image processing
Intelligent testing system
System identification
Protein Folding
Power Electronic Circuit Design

ACO Algorithms : An Overview


Problem name

Authors

Algorithm name

Year

Traveling salesman

Dorigo, Maniezzo & Colorni

AS

1991

Gamberdella & Dorigo

Ant-Q

1995

Dorigo & Gamberdella

ACS &ACS 3 opt

1996

Stutzle & Hoos

MMAS

1997

Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss

ASrank

1997

Cordon, et al.

BWAS

2000

Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo

AS-QAP

1994

Gamberdella, Taillard & Dorigo

HAS-QAP

1997

Stutzle & Hoos

MMAS-QAP

1998

Maniezzo

ANTS-QAP

1999

Maniezzo & Colorni

AS-QAP

1994

Colorni, Dorigo & Maniezzo

AS-JSP

1997

Stutzle

AS-SMTTP

1999

Barker et al

ACS-SMTTP

1999

den Besten, Stutzle & Dorigo

ACS-SMTWTP

2000

Merkle, Middenderf & Schmeck

ACO-RCPS

1997

Quadratic assignment

Scheduling problems

ACO Algorithms : An Overview cont


Problem name

Authors

Algorithm name

Year

Connection-oriented

Schoonderwood et al.

ABC

1996

Network routing

White, Pagurek & Oppacher

ASGA

1998

Di Caro & Dorigo

AntNet-FS

1998

Bonabeau et al.

ABC-smart ants

1998

Connection-less

Di Caro & Dorigo

AntNet & AntNet-FA

1997

Network routing

Subramanian, Druschel & Chen

Regular ants

1997

Heusse et al.

CAF

1998

van der Put & Rethkrantz

ABC-backward

1998

Sequential ordering

Gamberdella& Dorigo

HAS-SOP

1997

Graph coloring

Costa & Hertz

ANTCOL

1997

Shortest common super sequence

Michel & Middendorf

AS_SCS

1998

Frequency assignment

Maniezzo & Carbonaro

ANTS-FAP

1998

Generalized assignment

Ramalhinho Lourenco & Serra

MMAS-GAP

1998

Multiple knapsack

Leguizamon & Michalewicz

AS-MKP

1999

Optical networks routing

Navarro Varela & Sinclair

ACO-VWP

1999

Redundancy allocation

Liang & Smith

ACO-RAP

1999

Constraint satisfaction

Solnon

Ant-P-solver

2000

Conclusion
ACO is a recently proposed metaheuristic approach

for solving hard combinatorial optimization


problems(NP HARD Problems).
Artificial ants implement a randomized construction
heuristic which makes probabilistic decisions.
The a cumulated search experience is taken into
account by the adaptation of the pheromone trail.
ACO Shows great performance with the illstructured problems like network routing.
In ACO Local search is extremely important to
obtain good results.

REFERENCES
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1999.
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Thank
You!!!