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Applied Engineering

Mechanic
Truss

Aniendhita Rizki A,

Definition of Truss
A truss is a structure that consist only two types
force member only, it can be compression or
tension.
Planar truss : 2D truss

The Little Belt Bridge (1935)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Little_Belt_Bridge_(193
5).jpeg

Below Auckland Harbour Bridge

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Below_Auckland_Harbour_Bridge_H
ossen27.jpg

Planar roof trusses

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truss#mediaviewer/File:Trusses_008.jp
g

Hookes law
P

P
A

Matrix Analysis
P

1
Sebagai vector (memperhatikan
arah)

P2 = P

Matrix Analysis
L
P

u1 1

2 u2

1
Sebagai vector (memperhatikan
arah)

So, the matrix equation will be

Problem - 1
Determine the displacement
of nodal 2, if :
Node 1 is fixed, Node 2 is
free
Element 1 is D16 bar with
500 mm in length and E =
200.000 MPa
P force = 100000 Nmm

P
1
1

Problem - 2
Determine the displacement of
nodal 3, if :

Node 1 is fixed, Node 2 and 3 are


free
Element 1 is D25 bar with 750
mm in length and E = 200.000
MPa
Element 2 is D16 bar with 500
mm in length and E = 200.000
Mpa
P force = 100000 Nmm

1
1

Problem 3 (Homework)
Determine the displacement of
nodal 2, if :
Node 1 and 3 are fixed, Node 2 is
free
Element 1 is D16 bar with 500 mm
in length and E = 200.000 MPa
Element 2 is D32 bar with 500 mm
in length and E = 200.000 Mpa
P force in node 2 = 3 angka
terakhir NRP x 100000 Nmm

P
1
1

2
2

Inclined TrussPy,
2
P
2
2
Py,
1

P
1
1

Px,
1

Px,
2

Px ,1
cos
P
sin
y ,1


0
Px , 2

Py , 2
0

0
0
cos

sin

P1

P2

Inclined Trussuy,
2
u2
2
2
uy,
1

u1
1

ux,
1

u1
cos

0
u2

ux,
2

sin
0

0
cos

0
sin

u x ,1
v
y ,1

u
x,2
v y , 2

Px ,1
cos
P
sin
y ,1


0
Px , 2

Py , 2
0
Px ,1
P
y ,1

cos 2

EA cos sin


P
L cos 2
x,2

Py , 2
cos sin

0
0
cos

sin

u1
cos

0
u2

P1

P2

cos

P1
EA 1 1 u1

1 1 u
P
L

2
2

cos sin

cos 2

sin 2
cos sin

cos sin
cos 2

sin

cos sin

sin

u x ,1

0 v y ,1

u
sin x , 2
v y , 2

cos sin

sin 2

cos sin

sin 2

u x ,1
v y ,1

u x,2
v y , 2

cos
sin

Px ,1
P
y ,1

Px , 2
Py , 2

P1
EA 1 1 cos


1 1 0
P
L
2

0
0 EA 1 1
cos L 1 1

sin

cos
0

sin

cos

sin

cos

u x ,1

0 v y ,1

sin u x , 2
v y , 2
u x ,1

0 v y ,1

sin u x , 2
v y , 2

Applied Engineering
Mechanic
Truss Direct Stifness Method

Aniendhita Rizki A,

Direct Stiffness
Method Flowchart (Truss)
Find Structural DOF and Define Size of
Global Stiffness Matrix (n DOF = Ks
nxn)
Find Element DOF, Define member Stiffness
Matrices / local (kn) and its aim global Matrices
(kn)
Find Global Structural Stiffness Matrix
(Ks)
Find Structural Deformation ({Us} =
{Ks}-1 {Ps})
Find Element Nodal Deformation {Un}

Find Nodal Force ({Pn} = {kn} {Un})


Find Element Displacement and its
Force

Problem - 4
Determine the displacement of
nodal 2 and 3, and their nodal
force, if :

Node 1 is fixed, Node 2 and 3 are


free
Element 1 is D25 bar with 750 mm
in length and E = 200.000 MPa

1
1

Element 2 is D16 bar with 500 mm


in length and E = 200.000 Mpa
P force = 100000 N
Use Direct Stiffness Method

#1 Find Structural DOF and Define Size of Global Stiffness Matrix


(n DOF = Ks nxn)
3

0
1
1

DOF = 4
Ks = 4 x 4

#2 Find Element DOF, Define member Stiffness


Matrices / local (kn) and its aim global Matrices (kn)
4

0
1
1

Elemen 1 EA/L = 130.899 ; = 0


0 1 0
0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

k1' 130.899

1
0

0
130.899
0
130.899
0

1
0
0 130.899
0
0
0 130.899
0
0

2
0
0
0

0
0
1
2

1 2
130.899 0

0
0
k1

0
0

0
0

3
0
0
0
0

4
0
0
0

1
2
3
4

#2 Find Element DOF, Define member Stiffness


Matrices / local (kn) and its aim global Matrices (kn)
4

0
1

Elemen 2 EA/L = 80.424 ; = 0


0 1 0
0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

k 2' 80.424

1
0

1
80.424
0
80.424
0

0 80.424 0
0
0
0
0 80.424 0

0
0
0

4
1
2
3
4

80.424

0
k2
80.424

0

0 80.424 0

0
0
0
0 80.424 0

0
0
0

1
2
3
4

#3 Find Global Structural Stiffness Matrix (Ks)


130.899 0 0 0 80.424


0
0
0
0
0

ks k1 k 2

0
0 0 0 80.424


0
0
0
0
0

0 80.424 0 211.324
0
0
0
0

0 80.424 0 80.424

0
0
0
0

0 80.424 0
0
0
0
0 80.424 0

0
0
0

#4 Find Structural Deformation ({Us} = {Ks} -1 {Ps})

u x,2
0

inv

u x ,3
0

0 80.424 0
0
0
0
0
0

80.424 0 80.424 0 100.000

0
0
0
0
0

211.324

So, it can be converted to 2 x 2


matrix

#5 Find NodalElement Deformation {Un}

Elemen 1

Elemen 2

Find Nodal Force ({Pn} = {kn}


{Un})
Elemen 1
Px ,1
130.899
P

0
y ,1


P
130.899
x,2

Py , 2
0

0 130.899 0
0 100.000

0
0
0
0
0

0 130.899 0 0,7639 100.000

0
0
0
0
0

Elemen 2

Px , 2
P
y,2

Px ,3
Py ,3

0 80.424 0 0,7639 100.000

0
0
0
0
0

80.424 0 80.424 0 2,007 100.000

0
0
0
0
0
0

80.424

So:
P1 = -100.000 N
P2 = +100.000100.000 = 0 N
P3 = +100.0000

Find Element Displacement and its Force


u1
cos

0
u2

Elemen 1

Elemen 2

sin

cos

u x ,1

0 v y ,1

sin u x , 2
v y , 2

Fn EA / L{u 2 u1} EA / L u1

1
u 2

0
0
u1
1 0 0 0


0 0 1 0 0,7639 0,7639

u2

0
0,7639

0 0,7639
u2
1 0 0 0

2,007 2,007
u
0
0
1
0

F 1 130.899 0

F 2 80.424 0,7639

1
100000
1

0,7639

1
100000
1

2,007

So:
F1 = 100.000 N (tension)
F2 = 100.000 N (tension)

Problem 5
Determine the displacement of
nodal 1 and 3, and their nodal
force, if :
Node 1 is rol, Node 2 is rol and
3 is free
Element 1 (1500 mm), 2 (2000
mm) and 3 (2500 mm) are
D32 bar with E = 200.000 MPa

P
2

1
3
1

P force in node 3 = 100000 N


Excel Truss Problem 5

Py

Problem 6 -Homework
Determine the displacement of
nodal 2 and every nodal force,
include their element
deformations and frame forces
1500 mm

Px
22

Node 1 and 3 are hinges, node 2


is free

Element 1 and 2 are D25 bar,


Element 3 is D16 bar
with E = 200.000 MPa
P force in node 2:

Px is your semester x 100.000 N


Py is your NRP x 10.000 N

2000 mm

1500 mm