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The Use of Radar in the

Field of Automotive as an
Effort to Increase Human
safety
Moh. Ali Fauzi
Atika Jihan Sadida

By:
(14050514061)
(14050514062)

AUTOMOTIVE RADA R

Material Discussion
Automotive Radar
A. In a Car (Four Wheels)
History
Automotive Radar Equipment
How measuring the distance of object
Automotive Radar Application
Autopilot Fiture
Conclusion
B. In a Motorcycle (Two
Wheels)
Motorcycle Radar Detector
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A Brief History
Early 1970s become the beginning of the creation of
radar in the field of automotive. One of them, in 1970 a
company called VDO introduce a radar 10 GHz installed at
car. They introduce a radar in the rooftop of the car. 4 years
later AEG-Telefunken company introduce radar 35 GHz,
and the next year SEL company (Standard Electric Lorenz)
introduce radar with the frequency of the 16 GHz.

Application
s

10 GHz
automotive radar
system built by
VDO in the early
1970s

16 GHz
automotive radar
system built by
Standard Electric
Lorenz (SEL) in
1975

35 GHz
automotive radar
system built by
AEG-Telefunken in
1974

Year

Car-Company

Radar-Manufacturer

1970

VDO

1974

Telefunken

1975

SEL

1996

Frightliner

VORAD

1997

Chrysler

VORAD

1998

Mercedes-Benz

Millitech

1998/99

BW

VDO/HIT

1998/99

Volvo

Celcius/Philips

1998/99

Opel (GM)

1998/99

Volkswagen

VDO/HIT/Rockwell

At the first time, radar used to detect the objects


(car, truck, motorcycle, pedestrians) at a relatively
close. But with technology development, radar can
also used to detect objects on a great distance .

Configuration
schematic
of
DISTRONIC PLUS, where orange is a
77 GHz LRR-sensor and green is a 24
GHz SRR-sensor (Source: Daimler AG,
Stuttgart, Germany).
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Automotive Radar
Equipments
Antenna

To catch signals and give the results on radio


and television.
Camera
To monitor traffic at a distance and as an aid
to vision when parking.
Radar
With monostatic radar (radar that could emit
and receive the signals). Used to detect
objects around the car.
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Pr : The Received Power.


Pt : The Transmitted Power.
Lsys : System Losses.
R : Distance to the target.
:
Gr,Gt : Gain from receiver and transmitter.
: Related to wavelength.

RADAR CROSS SECTION


- Single RCS
- Typically characterized as
multiple
separate
scattering centers
- Radar
cross-section
(RCS) is a measure of how
detectable an object is
with a radar. A larger RCS
indicates that an object is
more easily detected.

Mazda 6 Mono-static
RCS

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Distance Measurement Method


Direct Propagation (Doppler Effect)

There are two primary methods of measuring


distance using radar. The first is known as the
direct propagation method and measures the
delay associated with reception of the reflected
signal which can be correlated to the distance
of the reflecting object as a function of the
speed of light and the period or rather, the time
delay in the transmission and receiving of the
waves.

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FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continous Wave)

The second method is known as the indirect propagation


method or the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave
(FMCW) method. For indirect propagation, a modulated
frequency is sent and received, the difference in the
frequency can be used to directly determine the distance as
well as the relative speed of the object.

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Radar Application in a
Car

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Based on the distance of its scope, the detection


radar on an object are classified into two, namely in
SRR and LRR.

SSR (Short Range Radar) ().


LRR (Long Range Radar) ().

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SRR and LRR Sensors

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Long Range Radar LRR


55 dBm transmit power
10 250 m Range
Range Resolution: 0.25 m
Narrow Beam Looking
Ahead: ACC
Short Range Radar SRR
-9 dBm/Hz transmit power
15cm 30m Range
Range Resolution: 3.75 cm
Parking Aid, Close
Proximity to Vehicle

Medium Range Radar MRR


-9

dBm/Hz transmit power

77-81

GHz Band with 600


MHz BW

1-100

m Range

Range

Resolution: 0.25 m

Medium

Distance: CTA

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Automotive Radar
Application

Radar Cruise Control


Side Impact
Blind Spot Detection
Parking Assist
Lane Departure Alert
Lane Keeping Assist
Pre-Collision / Pre-Crash
Collision Warning
Notify Pedestrian

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RADAR CRUISE CONTROL

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RADAR CRUISE CONTROL

(Making long highway drives easier and less tiring by maintaining a


distance with the vehicle ahead).

While staying within a preset speed range, the system


maintains an appropriate distance between vehicles, helping
make long highway drives less tiring. The system operates at all
speeds, enabling to follow the vehicle ahead in low speed. This,
in turn, helps reduce driver fatigue even in traffic congestion.
This system has three conditions:

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[1] Cruise control at preset speeds


The vehicle will drive at a constant preset speed.

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[2] Control of deceleration cruising and follow-up


cruising
Millimeter-wave radar determines the distance
between vehicles. By adjusting speed within a preset
range depending on the speed of the preceding vehicle,
the system maintains a safe distance while ensuring
follow-up and deceleration cruising.

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[3] Acceleration speed control


Sensors (a camera and millimeter-wave radar) detect
vehicles moving in and out of the lane ahead. This helps
ensure smooth acceleration.

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[4] Stop maintenance control (when all-speed cruise control is


available in system)
The system slows or stops your vehicle when the
preceding vehicle slows or stops. When the preceding
vehicle speeds up, the system makes your vehicle
accelerate accordingly, until it resumes the preset speed.
Stop Sensor

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Go Sensor

[When all-speed cruise control is unavailable:]


The system slows your vehicle to 30 km/h or above
when the preceding vehicle slows down. The driver
must manually control deceleration below 30km/h.
Video by Toyota-Global.com:

Dynamic Radar Cruise Control


Youtube search:
Dynamic Radar Cruise Control (DRCC) Toyota Safety Sense
Select 2016 Models Toyota

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Blind Spot Detection

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(Car tech that watches where you cant see with your eyes)

You were taught to look over your shoulder before


changing lanes because side view mirrors dont see
everything. What you may miss in a quick glance is
what blind spot detection picks up. This driver
assistance technology senses cars coming up in your
blind spot behind or alongside you, and if your turn
signal is on, it alerts you not to change lanes. With
ultrasonic to detect nearby objects and also some data from the
video camera are combined by the central processing unit .

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Youre warned by a flashing light on the side


view mirror and then a beep or steering wheel
vibration. If youre not planning to change lanes
(there is no turn signal on), the warning light
glows steadily but doesnt flash and theres no
audible alert.
Blind spot detection is a key technology among
driver aids that provide 360 degrees of electronic
coverage around your car, whether you are at
speed or moving slowly.
Youtube search:
(RAV4 How-To Blind Spot Monitor with Rear CrossTraffic Alert 2013 RAV4 Toyota)
to Blind
Spot
Monitor 1
(Know Your ToyotaHow
Blind
Spot
Monitoring
System )
How to Blind Spot Monitor 2
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Lane Departure Alert

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Lane Departure Alert (LDA)


(Warning the driver when the vehicle deviates from its lane.).

This system alerts the alerts the driver if their vehicle


deviates from its lane. The onboard single lens camera
detects the vehicles position relative to the white or yellow
lane markings, and when the car begins to leave its lane
without turn signal activation, the driver is warned with an
audible and visual alert.

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[1] Lane Detection


As the car is driving, the onboard camera detects
the white or yellow lane markings and its own
relative position.

[2] Alert
As the vehicle begins to leave its lane without
activating the turn signal, the system generates an
audible and visual alert to get the drivers attention.
Youtube search:

Lane Departure Alert (LDA)


Toyota Safety Sense Select
2016 Models Toyota

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Lane Keeping Assist

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Lane Keeping Assist


Lane Keeping Assist technology is designed to alert
the driver when the system detects that the vehicle is
about to deviate from a traffic lane. The system can
also work in conjunction with the Radar Cruise Control
system to help the driver steer and keep the vehicle on
course. The camera can recognize the lines on certain
types of roads and helps keep within the lines.
The camera will recognize the road structure (white
lines/yellow lines) and control the Electronic Power
Steering (EPS) based on the car's driving situation. This
will aid the driver's steering to stay within their lane.
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1. The Lane Departure Warning


Alerts the driver when the vehicle starts to
deviate from its lane with a warning buzzer, alert
lamp and the application of a small counter-steering
force to the steering wheel.
2. Lane Keeping Assist
When the Rader Cruise Control is activated and
the system senses the vehicle deviating from its
lane, the system helps the car stay on course near
Lane
the center of the lane by continuously applying
a
keeping
small amount of counter-steering force.
assist
Lane
departure
warning

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Pre-Collision / Pre-Crash

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PRE-COLLISION
(Warning the driver about potential collisions)

Based on the vehicles position, speed and predicted


course relative to an object ahead, the vehicle uses
audible and visual alerts to warn the driver when
necessary.
Youtube search:
Pre-Collision System (PCS) Toyota Safety Sense
Select 2016 Models Toyota
Pre-Collision System
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Collision Warning
Front Collision Warning
Have the same principle as Radar Cruise Control.
Cut-in Collision Warning / Side Impact Detection
Have the principle to detect objects on the side of the car
Rear-End Collision Warning
A radar sensor in the rear bumper monitors the traffic
behind the vehicle. If the risk of an impact from the rear
is detected, the rear hazard warning lights are activated
to alert the driver of the vehicle behind the object.
Rear-end Collision Avoidance System
(RCAS) High-tech car intelligent and safe
driving

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Notify Pedestrian

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Notifies pedestrians of your vehicle


EV-operated (Electric Vehicle) hybrid cars run very
quietly. In the case in Japan, every time the vehicle is
driven at 25km/h or reversing, the system can notify
pedestrians with an automated alert sound. To be
courtesy, the sound can be turned off.

Pedestrian Detection (PD) Toyota


Safety Sense Select 2016 Models
Toyota

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Parking Assist

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Parking Assist

Measure position of object very close to the vehicle such as

curbs and other vehicles when parking with ultrasonic


sensor. This system has 3 conditions:
Park Assist
Backing Assist Rear View Monitor System
Intelligent Parking Assist (IPA)
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Park Assist
Toyota Safety
Technology
Parking Assist

The ultrasonic wave sensor is bulit into the corners of the


bumper, it detects the disance to objects and notifies the
driver with sound and display lamp alerts. There alse is
steering sensor can uses the steering maneuver and angle.

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Back Guide Monitor


Toyota Safety
Technology
Back Guide
Rear View
Monitor System

When backing up the vehicle, please check


your surroundings and confirm your safety. The
camera instaalled on the rear side of the vehicle
displays the view when backing into a garage.

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Intelligent Park Assist

This system assists with the steering wheel


operation while parallel parking or parking in garages.
When the driver sets the designed parking position on
the monitor, the system assists the steering wheel
operation even if the driver is not good aat parking,
the will be able to park their car more smoothly.
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Toyota How-To
Intelligent Park
Assist (IPA)
2016 Toyota
Prius Toyota

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Autopilot Fiture

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Autopilot on Car
An autonomous car (driverless car,\self-driving car, robotic
car) is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and
navigating without human input.
Autonomous cars can detect surroundings using a variety of
techniques such as radar, lidar, GPS, odometry, and computer
vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information
to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and
relevant signage.Autonomous cars have control systems that are
capable of analyzing sensory data to distinguish between
different cars on the road, which is very useful in planning a path
to the desired destination..
Go for a Ride in
Ubers
Autonomous Car

Toyotas Highway
Teammate Autonomous
Driving Technology
demo-ed in a modified
Lexus GS

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RADAR APPLICATION IN A
MOTORCYCLE

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Motorcycle Radar Detector


A radar detector is an electronic device used by motorists to
detect if their speed is being monitored by police or law
enforcement using a radar gun. Most radar detectors are used so
the driver can reduce the car's speed before being ticketed for
speeding. Only doppler radar-based devices can be detected
other speed measuring devices including those using ANPR,
piezo sensors, and VASCAR technology cannot be detected.
LIDAR devices require a different type of sensor, although many
modern detectors include LIDAR sensors. Most of today's radar
detectors detect signals across a variety of wavelength bands:
usually X, K, and Ka. In Europe the Ku band is common as well.

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Applications
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Conclusion

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The difference of 24 GHz radar and 77


GHz is located on a range of areas. If the 24
GHz radar ( 30 m) operate on SRR, then 77
GHz radar can operate up to LRR ( 200
metres).

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Freescale 77 GHz Technology Advantages


Multi-mode, multi-application capability (long- and mid-range)
1.Allows one radar to be used for multiple safety systems:
-Adaptive cruise control -Headway alert
-Collision warning -Mitigation and brake support

Solid-state technology
1.Highest level integration
Most advanced SiGe technology with multi-channel transmitter and receiver chips

2.No moving parts.


The main advantages of the 77 GHz to 81 GHz frequency range (79 GHz band) are that
radar devices can be much smaller, a single technology can be used for all applications,
and the risk of mutual interference is low because of the smaller emission power
required.
3.Higher frequency radar systems tend to perform better because they are more reliable and
more accurate
Class-leading performance and durability
1.Resistant to vibration and extremely robust
2.Innovative design provides excellent multi-target discrimination
Including precise range, approach speed and angle data

3.High speed FMCW waveform combined with 2D-FFT algorithm


Provides independent measurements of range and range rate
Provides superior detection of clustered stationary objects

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A high-resolution system can determine whether a vehicle


will crash into an object or there will be a near miss. A lowresolution system will have a higher rate of false alarms and will
miss a small object that is in front of a big one (see figure below).

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Automotive Radar Applications


Application
Detection Range
Safety Aspect
Adaptive Cruise
Normal driving;
200 meters
Control
accident avoidance
Pre-Crash
Blind Spot
Detection
Lane Departure
Warning
Stop and Go

30 meters
20 meters
60 meters
30 meters

Technology
77 GHz Radar

77 GHz Radar / 24
Accident; mitigation
GHz Radar 76 / 81
of impact
GHz Radar
Normal driving;
24 GHz Radar/
accident avoidance
Vision sensor
Normal driving;
Vision sensor
accident avoidance
77 GHz + 24 GHz
Normal driving;
Radar 76/81 GHz
accident avoidance
Radar

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THANK YOU

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