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# Operations Research Models

## OR Dated back to World War II.

Mathematical modeling, feasible solutions,
optimization, and iterative search.
Defining the problem correctly is the most
important thing.
Solution to a decision-making problem

## What are the decision alternatives?

Under what restrictions is the decision made?
What is an appropriate objective criterion for
evaluating the alternatives?

Examples

## Discussion of two important

examples in class..

Operations Research
Models

## solution of a model is feasible if it

satisfies all the constraints.
It is optimal if it yields to the best
value of the objectives.
OR models are designed to
Optimize a specific objective
criterion.
Suboptimal solution: in case we can
not determine all the alternatives.

## In OR, we do not have a single general

technique to solve all mathematical models.
The type and complexity of the mathematical
models dictate the nature of the solution
method (e.g. the previous examples).
The most prominent OR technique is linear
programming.
Integer programming.
Dynamic programming.
Network programming.
Nonlinear programming.

Cont ..

## Solution to OR model may be determined by

algorithms.
The algorithm provides fixed computational
rules that are applied repetitively to the
problem.
Each repetition moves the solution closer to
the optimum.
Some mathematical models may be so
complex.
In the above case we may use some other
methods to find a good solution.

## Queuing and Simulation

Models deal with the
Queuing and simulation

## study of waiting lines.

They are not optimization technique.
They determine measures of
performance of the waiting lines, such
as:

## Average waiting time in queue.

Average waiting time for service.
Utilization of service facilities

Art of Modeling

## The previous examples are true

representation of a real situation.
That is a rare situation in OR.
Majority of applications usually involve
approximation.
The assumed real world is derived using
the dominant variables in the real system.
In order to design a model we should
consider the main variables in the real
system.
Example: A manufacturing company that
produce a variety of plastic containers.

Phases of an OR Study

## As a decision-making tool, OR is both a

science and an art.
The principal phases for implementing OR
in practice includes:

## Definition of the problem.

Construction of the model.
Solution of the model.
Validation of the model.
Implementation of the solution.