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Breeds of dairy animals

Md. Elias Uddin


Lecturer, Dept. of Dairy Science

Breed

The term Breed is difficult to define precisely. Breeds might be defined


as a group of animals with similar physical characteristics like- horn,
color, body type etc within a species and which remains similar at least
up to seven generation. The dairy breeds are those in which artificial
selection has caused them to excel in milk production.

There are total 231 breeds of cattle in the world out of which 26 are in
India. Most indigenous cattle breeds in the tropics are multipurpose (milk,
meat, draught) and that only a few breeds have good milk potential.

Livestock breeds

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Overview

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Dairy Terms and Definitions
Parts of a Dairy Cow
Dairy Traits and Selection
Judging Contests

Classification of breed
According to purpose/use
Dairy breed/milch breed
Example-Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss,
Sindhi, Sahiwal, Guernsey, Dutch Belted, Ayshire, Red
Chittagang etc.

Beef breed
Example- Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Brangus, SatnaGartudis, Short horned, Polled Short Horned etc.

Draft breed
Example- Dhanni, Angole, Hallikar etc.

Duel purpose Example-Red Polled, Deveon, Milking Shorthorn,


Sahiwal, Hariana, Tharparker etc.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Origin and Distribution:


Netherlands specifically the two northern
provinces of North Holland and Friesland
Characteristics:
Black and white markings clearly defined.
Sometimes red instead of black may also found.
Head is clean-cut, broad muzzle, open nostrils,
strong jaw, broad and moderately dished
forehead, straight bridge of nose.
Large angular animal; should weigh 600-800 kg.
Birth weight is around 35-42 kg.
Utility:
Milk production is 25-35 kg/d with 3.3-4.1% butter fat.

Holstein
Black and White or Red and White color pattern
Large sized
Heavy milk producers

Jerssey Origin and Distribution:


Island of Jersey of Channel Island. Available in the most of the
country of Europe and America especially in England and east
and southern country of America.

Characteristics:

Vary greatly in color, but the characteristic color is some shade of


fawn, with or without white markings or varies from light gray to dark
fawn. A dark switch is common.

Forehead broad and moderately dished with large, bright eyes.

They are especially known for their well-shaped udders and strong
udder attachments.

More hardy than Holstein-Friesian.

Cows are small in stature and weigh 350-550 kg/d.

Birth weight is around 22-33 kg.


Utility:
Milk production is 19-25 kg/d with 4.1-4.9% butter fat.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Jersey

Color varies (light gray to a dark fawn being darker around the head and
hips)
Medium sized
Produces more pounds of milk per body weight than any other dairy breed.

Guernsey Origin and Distribution:


Isle of Guernsey of Channel Islands. There was interchange
between Jersey and Guernsey which may explain some of the
similarities between the breeds

Characteristics:
Fawn with white markings clearly
Preferably a clear (buff) muzzle or flesh colored muzzle.
Good length of head; horns incline forward, are refined and
medium in length and taper towards the tips.
Switch should be white.
The milk is especially yellow in color.
They are intermediate to Holstein and Jersey in size, weighing
400-650 kg.
Claves are relatively small at birth.
Utility:
The milk production is 18-26 kg/d with 4.2-4.8% butter fat.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Guernsey

Red (Fawn) and White in color


Medium sized
High milk production to feed intake ratio
Milk is high in betacarotene

Brown Swiss: Origin and Distribution:


In the cantons of Schwyz, Zug, St Gallen, Glarus, Lucerne and Zurich of
Switzerland.

Characteristics:
Solid brown varying from very light to dark. Frequently, the back
and areas around the muzzle are lighter in color than the rest of the
body. White markings are objectionable.
The nose and tongues are black. Hooves and switch should also be
black.
Characteristic light color band around the muzzle, medium length
horn.
Strong and rugged, with some tendency toward the heavy muscling
characteristic of the beef breeds.
Its a large cattle weighing 600-800 kg.
Birth weight is around 45-48 kg.
Calm and unexcitable.
Utility: The milk production is 21-29 kg/d with 3.6-4.4% butter fat.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Brown Swiss

Solid brown, varying from very light to dark


Large sized
Light colored band around the muzzle
One of the oldest Dairy breeds

Ayrshire: Origin and Distribution:


County of Ayr, in south-western Scotland.

Characteristics:
Light to deep cherry red, mahogany, brown, or a combination
of these colors with white or white alone, black or brindle is
objectionable.
Horns are widespread and tend to curve upward and outward.
Polled animal also present.
The udders are especially symmetrical and well attached to
the body.
The breed is noted for its style and animation, good feet and
legs and grazing ability.
Moderate size-weighing 550-700 kg.
Birth weight is around 35-40 kg.
Utility: The milk production is 19-27 kg/d with 3.5-4.1% butter
fat.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Ayrshire

Red and white in color (amount varies)


Medium sized
Purebred Ayrshires only produce red offspring
Average milk production

Milking Shorthorn
Origin and Distribution:
Valley of the river Tees in northern England. Also
known as Dairy Shorthorns.

Characteristics:
Color may be red, white or roan.
Moderate in size weighing 500-650 kg.

Utility:
The milk production is 17-25 kg/d with 3.2-3.9% butter
fat.

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Milking Shorthorn
Red and white or any combination of red and white
Dual purpose breed
Split from the American Shorthorn Assoc. in 1949

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle

Milking Devon
Red in color
Triple purpose (Draft, beef, milk)
Medium sized

Sahiwal
Origin and Distribution:
Central and southern dry areas of Punjab
particularly in Montgomery district in Pakistan.

Sahiwal
Characteristics:

Deep body, loose skin, short legs.

Broad head, horns are short, thick and stumpy. Loose horns are
common in females.

Various shades of red pale red and dark brown splashed with white.

Voluminous dewlap and pendulous sheath but not abnormally loose.

Long whip like tail reaching almost the ground, tapering with a black
switch.

Small animals weighing 300-400 kg.

Birth weight is around 22-28 kg.

Utility:

Milk production is 8-10 kg/d with 4.5-5% butter fat.

Sahiwal

Red Sindhi
Origin and Distribution:
Originated from Karachi and Hyderabad.
Characteristics:
Medium size and compact body.
Thick horns emerging laterally and end in blunt points.
Intelligent facial expression.
Deep dark red color varying from yellow in almost dark brown.
Capacious udder with tendency to become pendulous in heavy
milkers
Body weight 300-350 kg.
Birth weight is around 21-24 kg.
Utility:
Milk production is 8-10 kg/d with more than 5% butter fat.

Red Sindhi

Red Chittagong
Origin and Distribution:
Red Chittagong cattle have been originated from
greater Chittagong district of Bangladesh. These
cattle are found more or less everywhere in the
Chittagong district but with relatively higher
concentration at Raozan, Anowara, Potia,
Chandonaish and Bashkhali Upazila. Migratory
Red Chittagong cattle are also found in some
parts of Comilla and Noakhali but very scattered
in other regions of Bangladesh.

Red Chittagong
Characteristics:
Red coat color (light to deep)
Muzzle, horn, hoof, eyes and switch are with reddish
color
Narrow thin head with flat fore head
Physical strong and stout
Milk vein is not so prominent
Utility:
2-5 liters of milk with more than 4.0% milk fat
Calf in every year
Well adapted and more disease resistance.

Red Chittagong

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Jersey

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Milking Shorthorn

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Brown Swiss

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Guernsey

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Milking Devon

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Ayrshire

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Review

Holstein

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Quiz

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Quiz

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Quiz Answers

1. Brown Swiss
3. Milking Devon

2. Holstein
4. Guernsey

Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle


Quiz Answers

5. Ayrshire

6. Milking Shorthorn
7. Jersey

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Terms
bull
cow
heifer
calf
springer
breed characteristics - physical traits that
differentiate on breed from another

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Terms

dairy character - characteristics indicating the


animal will be useful in the dairy industry
butterfat - percent of fat in the milk
milk production - amount in pounds of milk that a
cow produces during a lactation period
lactation - span of time that a cow is giving milk
discrimination - defect that is undesirable
disqualification - statement that means an animal
cannot be registered, or, in the show ring, is not
eligible to win a prize

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Terms
dairy herd improvement records (DHI)
production records kept on producing dairy
cattle
mammary system - parts of the cow directly
responsible for producing and storing milk
disposition - manner in which an animal acts;
quiet, docile, vicious
pedigree - register of lines of ancestry

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Can you remember what youve studied?
1. What is a bull?
2. What is a heifer?
3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered what?
5. What is a cow?
6. What is the term for the span of time that a cow is giving milk?
7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of milk that a cow
produces during a lactation period?
8. What is the term for the manner in which an animal acts?
9. DHI is an acronym for what?
10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for producing and
storing milk is called what?
11. An undesirable defect is called a what?
12. What is the term used for register of lines of ancestry?
13. What is the term that means an animal cannot be registered or in
the show ring, is not eligible to win a prize?
14. Bonus: What is the term used for a castrated male dairy animal?

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Can you remember what youve studied?

1. What is a bull?
1. Mature male dairy animal
2. What is a heifer?
2. Female dairy animal that has not borne an offspring
3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
3. Butterfat
4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered what?
4. Springer
5. What is a cow?
5. Mature female dairy animal; shows evidence of having
produced one or more calves
6. What is the term for the span of time that a cow is giving milk?
6. Lactation period
7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of milk that a cow
produces during a lactation period?
7. Milk production

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Can you remember what youve studied?

8. What is the term for the manner in which an animal acts?


8. docile
9. DHI is an acronym for what?
9. Dairy Herd Improvement
10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for producing and
storing milk is called what?
10. mammary system
11. An undesirable defect is called a what?
11. discrimination
12. What is the term used for register of lines of ancestry?
12. pedigree
13. What is the term that means an animal cannot be registered or in
the show ring, is not eligible to win a prize?
13. disqualification
14. Bonus: What is the term used for a castrated male dairy animal?
14. steer

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Parts of a Dairy Cow

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Parts of a Dairy Cow Quiz

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Parts of a Dairy Cow Quiz Answers
1. heel
2. sole
3. knee
4. chest floor
5. brisket
6. point of
elbow
7. dewlap
8. point of
shoulder
9. throat
10. jaw
11. muzzle
12. bridge of
nose

Dairy Breeds and Selection


13. forehead
14. poll
15. horn
16. neck
17. heart girth
18. withers
19. crops
20. ribs
21. chine
22. loin
23. barrel
24. hip
25. rump
26. thurl
27. tailhead
28. pin bones

Parts of a Dairy Cow Quiz Answers

29. tail
30. rear udder
attachment
31. thigh
32. stifle
33. flank
34. rear udder
35. hock
36. switch
37. dewclaw
38. pastern
39. hoof
40. teats
41. fore udder
42. fore udder
attachment
43. mammary
veins
44. milk wells

Parts of a Dairy Cow Quiz Answers

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

1. Chest and body

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

3.
4.

Dairy character
Foot and shape (angle)

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

5. Rear legs (side view)


6. Pelvic angle

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

7. Rump width
8. Fore udder attachment

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

9. Rear udder width (at attachment)


10. Rear udder height (at attachment)

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

11. Teat placement (rear view)


12. Suspensory ligament (cleft)

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Traits and Selection (Dairy Evaluation System)

13. Udder depth (relative to point of hock)

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Use What you have learned

Which animal would be considered desirable?


What terms would you use to describe the differences?
Which animal shows the best general appearance?
Are these cows or heifers? Why?

Dairy Breeds and Selection


Use What you have learned

Which animal would be considered desirable?


What terms would you use to describe the differences?
Which shows more dairy character? What are the
indicators?
What about the udder?

Quiz Time!!!!!!!!!!

What is this breed?

What is this breed?

What is this breed?

What is this breed?

What is this breed?

What is this breed?

Answers

1.Holstein
2.Brown Swiss
3.Guernsey
4.Jersey
5. Ayrshire
6.Milking Shorthorn

THANK
YOU VERY
MUCH