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APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING

AND G.I.S. IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

PRESENTED BY
DHIRAJ K.PATIL

Under The Guidance Of:


Mr. S. S. Varur

ABOUT REMOTE
SENSING

WHAT IS REMOTE SENSING?


Remote sensing can be
defined

as

obtaining

information about an object


by

observing

distance

it

from

without

coming

into actual contact with it.


In fact when we see an
object

and

understanding

what it is, our eye is sensing


that object remotely.

Advantages of Remote Sensing:

It enables easy regional survey for a variety of themes


and for the identification of large features.

Repetitivity allows the monitoring of dynamic changes


like water body, agriculture etc.

Easy data acquisition for inaccessible areas.

Data acquisition at different altitudes allows to analyze


different scales and different resolution data.

Sometimes raw remote sensing data is also used for


analysis for interpretation to different purposes and
applications.

ABOUT G.I.S --

WHAT IS G.I.S.?

Geographic information system consists of


a computerized tools and procedures that
can be used to effetely

encode, store

,retrieve, overlay, correlate, manipulate,


analyze, query, display(both graphic and
numerically)

A GIS..

Is a subset of information science that deals with spatially or


geographically referenced data.

Is a collection of hardware, software, methods, and


instructions, to capture, manage, manipulate, analyze &
display.

Is a decision support system.

Is different from CAD programs because it performs spatial


operations.

WHAT DOES G.I.S DO ?

GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and


visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns,
and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.

GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by


looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and
easily shared.

GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise


information system framework.

A GIS is a computer-based system that provides


the following four sets of capabilities to hand georeferenced data:

Input

Data management, Data storage and retrieval

Manipulation and analysis

Output

SOME IMPORTANT
APPLICATIONS

GIS and Remote Sensing in Disaster


Management

A. Land slides:
Remote sensing and GIS techniques play a significant
role in land slide zone mapping since land slide identification
is a crucial parameter for any land slide hazard assessment
This land slide prone area map is generated by
overlaying certain toposheet maps on satellite stereo pair
maps.

B. Find Earthquake zone

C. Flood control:

GIS AND REMOTE SENSING IN URBAN


PLANNING:
Urbanization is a process of evolution. Today a
civil engineer is expected to imagine the future of
the city and design the city for future needs.
GIS and remote sensing play a important role in
helping civil engineers in tracking the rate of
development of the city by generating land use
maps and land use along road maps.

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT:

APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING


AND GIS LANDSLIDE DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

CASE STUDY IN NILGIRI


DISTRICT,

Introduction:In hilly regions, landslides constitute one of the major


hazards that cause losses to lives and property. Landslide
analysis is a complex analysis, involving multitude of
factors and it needs to be studied systematically in order to
locate the areas prone for landslides. Computer-based tool
namely Geographical Information System (GIS) is found to
be more useful in the hazard mapping of landslides.
One of the main advantages of the use of this
technology is the possibility of improving hazard
occurrence models, by evaluating their results and
adjusting the input variables. Another aspect is the
possibilities to store, treat, and analyze spatiotemporal data

Objectives:

To develop spatial database for landslide


analysis

To delineate a Landslide zonation map using


remote sensing and GIS

To provide a decision support tool hazard


managers and planners

Data used:

Ortho photos (scale


1:2500):

Contour maps(2 m
interval):

Institute of Remote
Sensing

Institute of Remote
Sensing

Agricultural
Engineering
Department

Soil map:

The Flowchart:
AERIAL PHOTOS

CONTOUR MAP - KOTHAGIRI

3D VIEW - KOTHAGIRI

GIS Analysis:
In order to generate the landslide prone areas a model has been developed
in a GIS environment. Data in the form of toposheet such as slope, soil and
land use were input into GIS. Slope map has been derived from TIN
(Triangular Irregular Network) model and land use map was delineated from
orthophoto. The overlay analysis has been done

Slope:
The entire slope map is divided into four categories as follows

> 54 deg

- very steeply sloping

36 - 54 deg

- steeply sloping

18-36 deg

- moderately sloping

0.-18 deg

- gently sloping

SLOPE MAP KOTHAGIRI

SOIL MAP - KOTHAGIRI

Land use: LAND USE MAP KOTHAGIRI

Results:
Land slide susceptibility zonation:

Management of the landslides disasters can be successful only when detailed


knowledge is obtained about the expected frequency, character and magnitude of the
mass movement in an area. The zonation of landslide hazard must be the basis for any
landslide mitigation strategy and should supply planners and decision-makers with
adequate and understandable information.
While dealing with landslide-hazard mitigation, the hazard planner is concerned
mainly about the final outcome i.e., the zonation map. In preparing the landslide zonation
map, synthesized and weighed the data pertaining to geology, slope morphometry,
distribution of soils and land use pattern have been analyzed. The role of geology and
structure is limited in the formation of landslides. The geology of the region has a bearing
on the origin and types of soils and has little to do with landslides.

THEME

Land use

RANK1

RANK2

RANK3

RANK4

(4 * weight)

(3 *
weight)

(2 *
weight)

(1 *
weight)

Grass land,
Agriculture

Tea,Tree
plantation

Forest

Settlement
KG9
0-18 deg

Soil

KG4, KG5

KG3, KG6

KG2,
KG7,KG8

Slope

36-54 deg

18-36 deg

> 54 deg

KG3
KG4
KG5
KG6
KG7
KG8
KG9

- sandy clay
- sandy loam. sandy clay loam
- sandy loam. sandy clay loam
- sandy clay loam
- sandy clay. Sandy clay loam.
- sandy clay loam. sandy loam
- sandy loam

Landslide Susceptibility Values (LSV):


To achieve the landslide zonation, the different factors were grouped
according to their relative importance and land susceptibility values
(LSV). Landslides are being essentially gravity-type hence; the degree of
slope was accorded the prime importance. Taking all the factors into
consideration and with an intimate knowledge of the Nilgiri landslides,
an LSV of 40 was assigned to slope. The thickness of the soil was
considered next in importance, as all the slides were soil slides of
varying thickness. An LSV of 35 was assigned to this factor. Under
similar topographic conditions with similar thickness of soil and type of
drainage, the susceptibility to landslides is accelerated by human
environment. Hence the land use practices adopted was also considered
and an LSV of 25 was assigned to this.

Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping:


Different Categories

Zone of low susceptibility to


landslides
Zone of moderate susceptibility
to landslides

Zone of high susceptibility to


landslides

Zone of very high susceptibility


to landslides

Percentage of Area

21%

28%

34%

17%

LANDSLIDE ZONAL MAP KOTHAGIRI

LANDSLIDE HAZARD ZONATION MAP ON


PERSPECTIVE VIEW

Conclusion
GIS is very useful tool in civil engineering, which is
used in varies application such as Disaster Management,
Watershed management, Urban planning etc.
In this study, relationship between the photogrammetry
and GIS techniques, which play a significant role in
landslide zonation mapping. Take aerial photographs of
landslide identification and by using GIS tool to display
spatial distribution of landslides.

THANK YOU