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THE EAR

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY| BASIC AUDIOLOGY


JOVEL GANGCUANGCO
POST-GRADUATE INTERN

EXTERNAL EAR

AURICLE & EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL


AURICLE

ELASTIC CARTILAGE & SKIN

EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL & MUSCLES INNERVATED


BY THE FACIAL NERVE

EXTERNAL
AUDITORY
CANAL
CARTILAGINOUS LATERAL
1/3

HAIR FOLLICLES,
SEBACEOUS GLANDS, &
CERUMEN GLANDS

FISSURES OF SANTORINI

BONY INNER 2/3

THIN SKIN CONTINUOUS


WITH THE EXTERNAL
EPITHELIAL LAYER OF THE
TM

EXTERNAL
AUDITORY
CANAL
CARTILAGINOUS LATERAL
1/3

HAIR FOLLICLES,
SEBACEOUS GLANDS, &
CERUMEN GLANDS

FISSURES OF SANTORINI

BONY INNER 2/3

THIN SKIN CONTINUOUS


WITH THE EXTERNAL
EPITHELIAL LAYER OF THE
TM

EXTERNAL
AUDITORY
CANAL
BORDERS
SUPERIOR: TEMPORAL
LOBE OF THE BRAIN
POSTERIOR: MASTOID
ANTERIOR: TMJ & PAROTID
GLAND
MEDIAL: TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE

EXTERNAL
AUDITORY
CANAL

BLOOD SUPPLY
SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL &
POSTERIOR AURICULAR
BRANCHES OF THE
EXTERNAL CAROTID
ARTERY

MIDDLE EAR
AIR-CONTAINING SPACE
WITH BONY WALLS

EXCEPT TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE

ANTERIOR
EUSTACHIAN TUBE
LEADS DOWNWARD &
MEDIALLY TO THE
NASOPHARNYX

POSTEROSUPERIOR
ADITUS AD ANTRUM
MASTOID ANTRUM LARGEST OF THE AIR
CELLS

OSSICLES
SOUND: TM OVAL
WINDOW
MALLEUS

LARGEST

MANUBRIUM (HANDLE)
UPPER HALF OF THE TM

HEAD ROOF OF THE


MIDDLE EAR;
ARTICULATES WITH THE
BODY OF THE INCUS

INCUS

LONG PROCESS HEAD


OF THE STAPES

STAPES

FOOTPLATE FITS SNUGLY


IN THE OVAL WINDOWV

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

THREE LAYERS

EXTERNAL SQUAMOUS
EPITH.

MIDDLE FIBROUS LAYER

INNER MUCOSAL LAYER

MIDDLE EAR

BLOOD SUPPLY
BRANCHES OF THE INT.
MAXILLARY ARTERY
NERVE SUPPY
TYMPANIC PLEXUS
CN V, VII, IX, X

EUSTACHIAN TUBE
CONNECTS MIDDLE EAR
SPACE WITH THE
NASOPHARYNX
2/3 CARTILAGINOUS
(NEAR NASOPHARYNX)
1/3 BONY (NEAR MIDDLE
EAR)
RESPIRATORY
EPITHELIUM
FUNCTION:
AIR PASSAGE
(NASOPHARYNX MIDDLE
EAR)
EQUALIZE PRESSURE ON
BOTH SIDES

EUSTACHIAN TUBE
PASSIVELY CLOSED AT
REST
OPENED BY TENSOR VELI
PALATINI MUSCLE (CN V)
BRIEFLY DURING
SWALLOWING

VALSALVA MANEUVER
DYSFUNCTION:
NEGATIVE PRESSURE
SEROUS FLUID
ACCUMULATION IN THE
MIDDLE EAR SPACE

INNER EAR

COCHLEA & LABYRINTH


OTIC CAPSULE

COCHLEA 2 TURNS
BONY LABYRINTH
VESTIBULE
3 SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
VESTIBULAR AQUEDUCT

INNER EAR
ENDOLYMPH
RESEMBLES ICF
CONTAINED IN A CLOSED
SYSTEM WITHIN THE
COCHLEA & MEM. LABYRINTH

PERILYMPH
RESEMBLES ECF
SURROUNDS ENDOLYMPH
CONTAINING MEMBRANES
DOES NOT COMMUNICATE
WITH THE ENDOLYMPH
EXCEPT UNDER PATHOLOGIC
CONDITIONS (E.G.,
ENDOLYMPHATIC HYDROPS)

MEMBRANOUS
COCHLEA
THREE COMPARTMENTS:
S. VESTIBULI OVAL
WINDOW
S. TYMPANI ROUND
WINDOW
COCHLEAR DUCT

ENDOLYMPH

BORDERED BY BASILAR
MEMBRANE

BS: TERMINAL BRANCHES


OF THE BASILAR ARTERY

Perilymp
h

MEMBRANOUS
COCHLEA
COCHLEAR DUCT
ORGAN OF CORTI HEARING
REISSNERS MEMBRANE
HAIR CELLS

CONVERTING MECHANICAL
FORCE INTO
ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPULSE
INTERPRETED AS SOUND

BASILAR MEMBRANE
(FREQUENCY-RESPONSIVE
DISTRIBUTION)

MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
UTRICLE & SACCULE
(LINEAR ACCELERATION)
3 SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
(ANGULAR
ACCELERATION)

HORIZONTAL, SUPERIOR,
POSTERIOR

AMPULLA - LOCATION
OF THE SPECIALIZED
NEUROEPITHELIUM
WITHIN THE CRISTA OF
EACH SC
BS: TERMINAL
BRANCHES OF THE
BASILAR ARTERY

CRANIAL NERVES
CN VIII
COCHLEAR PORTION
AXONS FROM THE HAIR
CELLS OF THE COCHLEA
VESTIBULAR PORTION
AXONS FROM THE
SPECIALIZED
EPITHELIUM WITHIN
THE LABYRINTH
BOTH ENTER THE
INTERNAL ACOUSTIC
MEATUS WITH CN VII

CRANIAL NERVES
CN VII
BRAINSTEM INT.
AUDITORY MEATUS BET.
LABYRINTH & COCHLEA
MEDIAL WALL OF THE
MIDDLE EAR
STYLOMASTOID
FORAMEN
MIDDLE EAR

BRANCH TO THE
STAPEDIUS M.

2ND BRANCH TO CHORDA


TYMPANI COURSES BET.
INCUS & MALLEUS AND
EXITS ANTERIORLY NEAR
THE TMJ

CRANIAL NERVES

JACOBSENS NERVE
BRANCH OF THE CN IX
SECRETORY
STIMULATION TO THE
PAROTID GLAND

PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING

FUNCTION TRANSFORM MECHANICAL SOUND ENERGY TO BIOELECTRIC


SIGNALS
LOCALIZATION OF SOUNDS
SOUND WAVES TM OSSICULAR CHAIN OVAL WINDOW PERILYMPH
(COCHLEA) BASILAR MEMBRANE HAIR CELLS

PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING

TM & OSSICLES
HYDRAULIC ACTION & LEVER SYSTEM COMPENSATE FOR THE NET LOSS OF
ENERGY FROM TRANSFER OF SOUND FROM GASEOUS MEDIUM (AIR) TO A
LIQUID MEDIUM (ENDOLYMPH)
AIR TO LIQUID (-30 DB); MIDDLE EAR (+27 DB)

PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING
NYSTAGMUS
RHYTHMIC, SLOW, CONJUGATE MOVEMENT OF THE EYES IN ONE
DIRECTION FOLLOWED BY RAPID COMPENSATORY CONJUGATE
MOVEMENT IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION
VERTIGO
SENSATION OF MOTION; MAY OCCUR AFTER ARTIFICIAL STIMULATION OF
THE LABYRINTH OR FROM A PATHOLOGIC CONDITION THAT CAUSES AN
IMBALANCE BETWEEN THE TWO LABYRINTHS