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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

PROTECTION OF AC MACHINES
AGAINST INTERNAL FAULTS

Document By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com
More Papers and Presentations available on abov

INTERNAL & EXTERNAL FAULTS

TR 1

Why a normal O/C relay is inadequate ?

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

SHOULD TRIP INSTANTANEOUSLY


FOR AN INTERNAL FAULT

SHOULD NOT TRIP FOR


AN EXTERNAL FAULT

NORMAL SETTINGS FOR


DIFFERENTIAL PICK UP = 15%

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Differential Protection

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Differential Protection

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS


CIRCULATING CURRENT PRINCIPLE

G1

INTERNAL / EXTERNAL FAULTS


I1

I2

Id

100

100

NORMAL LOAD

500

500

THROUGH FAULT

(500%)

500

300

200

INTERNAL FAULT

(200%)

100

80

20

INTERNAL FAULT

(20%)

NOTE :
1.
THROUGH FAULT CONDITION HAS TO BE DETECTED BY
NORMAL O/C RELAY (SINCE FAULT CURRENT IS
HIGHER THAN 100%)
2.

INTERNAL FAULT HAS TO BE CLEARED BY DIFFERENTIAL


RELAY - SINCE FAULT CURRENT IS LESS THAN FULL LOAD,
NORMAL O/C RELAY WILL NOT PICK UP

MOTTO OF A DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

SHOULD OPARATE FOR


INTERNAL FAULT
SHOULD NOT OPERATE
FOR EXTERNAL FAULT

SATABILITY OF
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

TYPES OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

CIRCULATING CURRENT
(HIGH IMPEDANCE)
PERCENTAGE BIASED
(LOW IMPEDANCE)

CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

I1 - I2

RELAY OPERATING
CURRENT

TRIP
SETTING

IN TERMS OF
CT PRIMARY
(20% OF In)

RELAY WILL TRIP IF I1-I2 IS


GREATER THAN 20% 0F In
(In = RATING OF CT PRIMARY)

CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

Id

RELAY TRIP AREA

Is =20%

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Average current Ir /In


=((I1 +I2)/2)/In

CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

DISADVANTAGES :
DUE TO CT CHARACTERISTICS MISMATCH,
RELAY CAN DETECT A CONDITION WHERE
I1-I2 EXCEEDS SET VALUE
A)
B)
C)

UNDER NORMAL OPERATRING CONDITIONS


UNDER THROUGH FAULT CONDITIONS
WHENEVER THE TAPS ARE CHANGED IN
TRANSFORMERS

THIS IS MAINLY DUE TO :


DC OFFSET EFFECT AND
ASSYMMETRIC CT RESPONSE UNDER LARGE
THROUGH FAULT CURRENTS.

CIRCULATING CURRENT
(HIGH IMPEDENCE) DIFFERANTIAL RELAY

ADD A
STABILISING RESISTOR
TO IMPROVE
PERFORMANCE

CIRCULATING CURRENT
HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

STABILISING RESISTOR
WILL IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF RELAY
FOR CT CHARACTERISTICS MISMATCH
- TO CERTAIN LIMITS
BUT RELAY HAS BECOME INSENSITIVE
DUE TO ADDITION OF RESISTOR.
RELAY MAY NOT TRIP FOR A REAL
INTERNAL FAULT.

FOR TOTAL IMPROVEMENT


USE PERCENTAGE BIASED RELAY

BIASED DIFFERENTIAL
I1 - I2

RELAY OPERATING
CURRENT

(I1+I2)/2

RELAY RESTRAINING
CURRENT

TRIP SETTING =
(BIAS %)

(I1- I2)
(I1 +I2)/2

NORMALLY BIAS % = 20%


RELAY WILL TRIP WHEN
(2*(I1 - I2)/(I1+I2))*100
VALUE EXCEEDS TRIP SETTING

BIASED DIFFERENTIAL

Refer excel sheet

PERCENTAGE BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

INTERNAL FAULT
EXTERNAL FAULT
BIAS PERCENTAGE

PERCENTAGE BASED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY BIASE CHARECTERSTICS

( I1-I2)

DIFFERENCE
CURRENT

RELAY OPERATES

RELAY NOT TO OPERATE

%Id

MIN I1-I2
SLOPE

I1+I2
2

SUM CURRENT

DUAL SLOPE ?

DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

INTERPOSING CTs
IN TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS
FOLOWING COMPENSATIONS WILL BE
REQUIRED FOR:
A)

PROVIDING MAGNITUDE COMPENSATION

B)

PHASE ANGLE COMPENSATION DUE


TO VECTOR GROUP SHIFT BETWEEN
Py & Sy

DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

INTERPOSING CTs
INELECTROMECHANICAL / SOLIDSTATE RELAYS
INTERPOSING CTs ARE USED FOR PROVIDING
THE MAGNITUDE AND VECTOR COMPENSATION
IN NUMERICAL RELAYS THE SOFTWARE INSIDE
INSIDE THE RELAY TAKES CARE OF THESE
COMPENSATION

TRANSFORMER VECTOR GROUPS

1. YY0
B

2. YY6
B

Y
R

3. YD1

4. YD11

PHASE ANGLE COMPENSATION


THROUGH INTERPOSING CTS

CONNECTION DIAGRAM MD32-T RELAY

WHY REF ?

RESTRAINTS IN DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

2ND HARMONIC RESTRAINT


WHEN A TRANSFORMER IS SWITCHED ON,
THE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY MAY SENSE A
DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT AND INITIATE TRIP.
THIS IS DUE TO THE MAGNETISING CURRENT
INRUSH ON ONE SIDE OF THE TRANSFORMER.
THIS WILL RESULT IN A LARGE VALUE OF
I1-I2 FOR ABOUT 4 OR 5 CYCLES.
RELAY IS RESTRAINED FROM OPERATION
AT THE TIME OF SWTICH ON BY THE
2ND HARMONIC RESTRAINT FEATURE.

RESTRAINTS IN DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

5TH HARMONIC RESTRAINT


WHEN OVER FLUXING OCCURS IN A TRANSFORMER
THE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY MAY SENSE A
DIFFERENTIAL CURRENT AND INITIATE TRIP.
THIS IS DUE TO THE HIGH LEVEL OF FLUX
PRESENT IN THE CORE CAUSING AN ARTIFICIAL
I1-I2 FOR A SHORT TIME.
RELAY IS RESTRAINED FROM OPERATION
AT THE TIME OF OVER FLUXING BY THE
5TH HARMONIC RESTRAINT FEATURE.

SALIET FEATURES OF MD32 T

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

PERCENTAGE BIASED
DUAL SLOPE
DISPLAYS OF Id
VECTOR/AMPLITUDE
COMPENSATION
(W/O ICTs)
2ND HARMONIC RESTRAINT
5TH HARMONIC RESTRAINT
WAVE FORM CAPTURE
INBUILT REF