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London, December 1952

Source: Lancet 1953


Pollution is the
introduction of
contaminants into a
natural environment that
causes instability,
disorder, harm or
discomfort to the
ecosystem i.e. physical
systems or living
organisms
The 2007 rise in global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is tied with
2005 as the third highest since atmospheric measurements began in
1958. The red line shows the trend together with seasonal variations.
The black line indicates the trend that emerges when the seasonal
cycle has been removed. (Credit: NOAA)
Nitrogen Dioxide (1015 StockholmMoscow
molecules/cm
Nitrogen 2
) (1015
Dioxide London
Berli
0 2 molecules/cm
4 6 2) 8 Paris n
Kiev
Budapest
10 Barcelona Rome
Harbin
Madrid Istanbul
Beijing
Seoul Tokyo
Osaka
Chengdu
Shanghai
Chongqin
g Hong
Kong

Seattle
Portlan
d Montrea
Minneapoli
Torontol
s Boston
San Denver Chicago New York
Francisco Tehran
Los Angeles Kansas Washingto Bagdad
City n Lahore
Phoenix Memphis Charlott
Dallas Atlanta e Riyadh KarachiDelhi Dhaka
Houston Kolkata
Tampa
Mumbai
Madras
Bangalore

These maps show the amount of nitrogen dioxide (NO2)


pollution detected in the troposphere globally in 2006. As
is evident here, regions of large population, heavily
industrialized areas, and power plants are the largest
sources of NO2 production. The deepest reds indicate
regions with the highest concentration of NO2, while blues
indicate areas with the lowest concentration 6
400

350

NEW! USEPA adopts stringent


300 new PM2.5 Standard 2.5
standard (35g/m3) a 40%
reduction from previous
250 standard

200

150

100

50

0
Hong Kong

Seoul
Beijing

Colombo

Dhaka

Ho Chi Minh

Jakarta

Kathmandu

Kolkata

Manila

Osaka

Singapore

Surabaya
Hanoi

Karachi

New Delhi

Shanghai
Busan

Mumbai
Bangkok

Yogyakarta
Tokyo
Taipei,China
SPM Limit = 60-90 g/m3 (WHO, 1979) SO2 Limit = 50 g/m3 (WHO,
SPM SO2
1999) Source: CAI-Asia network
PM10 Limit = 20 g/m3 (WHO, 2005) PM10 NO2 Limit = 40 g/m3 (WHO, NO2 (annual averages)
1999)
Ozone Hole
September 17,
1979

October 6,
1986
September 20,
1993
September 10,
2000

September 24,
Total Ozone (Dobson Units) 2006

110 220 330 440


550

Examples of the largest yearly ozone hole area over


Antarctica are shown here for selected years between 1979
and 2006. Minimum stratospheric ozone content in this
region occurs in late September and early October, during
the Southern Hemisphere spring. Cold stratospheric
conditions over Antarctica make this region especially
susceptible to ozone loss from chlorine. Over 80% of the
stratospheric chlorine is from human-made chemicals, for
example, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In addition, bromine
compoundsover 40% of which are human-madeplay an
12
important role in the chemistry of polar ozone depletion.
Global Warming
Global warming is the increase in the average measured
temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans
since the mid-20th century, and its projected
continuation.

The average global air temperature near the Earth's


surface increased 0.74 0.18 C (1.33 0.32 F) during
the 100 years ending in 2005.

Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


103 Watt per m3

343 Watt per m3


240 Watt per m3

Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


1) Solar radiation
5 2
2) Reflected back to space

3) Absorbed by atmosphere
6
1 4) Infra-red radiations
emitted from Earth

5) Some of the IR passes


4 through the atmosphere
3
6) Some is absorbed and
re-emitted by greenhouse
gas molecules

The effect is increasing temperatures on Earth

15
Sun

Greenhouse Effect
Earths Atmospheric
Gases
Nitrogen (N )2
Non-
Oxygen (O2) Greenhou
se
Argon (Ar) Gases
>99%
Water (H2O)
Greenhouse
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gases
<1%
Methane (CH4)
Greenhouse gases

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Natural


Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Manmade
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Source: Kyoto Protocol- Annexure A


Introduction to Climate Change

Visual impact at the


polar ice cap

22
DAY After tomorrow
Climate Change Impact
in IndiaDrought
Rajasthan-
Rann of Kutch sea level rise
Mumbai-Salt water intrusion
Kerala loss Productivity of Forest
Tamil Nadu- Coral bleaching
Ganges Sedimentation problem
Sunderbans-Sea level raise
Northwest India-reduction In rice yield
Source: New Indian Express
Global Impacts
The largest glacier on Mount Kenya has lost
92% of its mass

Sea levels have risen by 10 - 25 cm

The thickness of sea ice in the arctic has


decreased by 40%.
The Common Murre has advanced breeding
by 24 days per decade over the past 50 years
in response to higher temperatures.
The Baltimore oriole is shifting northward and
may soon disappear entirely from the
Baltimore area.
Polar bear populations are coming
under threat as food becomes harder
to hunt.
WHO Global Burden
of Disease Report
(Lancet October, 2002)
Impact of urban outdoor air
pollution in Asia

519,000 Premature
Deaths Year
295,000 in China
(>1,000,000 Indoor Air)

>2 million years of


life lost
(disability adjusted)
Save us!
OCEAN EARTHQUAKE
AND
TSUNAMI
DECEMBER 2004 INDIAN OCEAN EARTHQUAKE AND
TSUNAMI
INDIAN PLATE MOVES NORTH
COLLIDING WITH EURASIA

Gordon & Stein, 1992


Stein &
Wysession
2003
INTERSEISMIC:

India subducts
beneath Burma
microplate
at about 50 mm/yr
(precise rate hard to
infer given complex
geometry)

Fault interface is
locked

EARTHQUAKE
(COSEISMIC):
Stein & Wysession,
HOW OFTEN: 2003
Fault interface slips,
overriding plate ~ 10 m = 10000 mm / 50 mm/yr
Fault slipped
rebounds, releasing
accumulated
10000 mm motion
/ 50 mm/yr = 200 yr
Longer if some slip is a seismic

Faults arent exactly periodic for reasons we dont


TSUNAMI GENERATED ALONG FAULT, WHERE
SEA FLOOR DISPLACED, AND SPREADS
OUTWARD

QuickTime and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Hyndeman and Wang, 1993 Red - up motion, blue down

http://staff.aist.go.jp/kenji.satake/animation.gif
COMPLEX PLATE
BOUNDARY ZONE
IN SOUTHEAST
ASIA

Northward motion
of India deforms
all of the region

Many small plates


(microplates) and
blocks

Molnar & Tapponier,


1977
India subducts beneath
Burma microplate
at about 50 mm/yr

Earthquakes occur at
plate interface along
the Sumatra arc (Sunda
trench)

These are spectacular


& destructive results of
many years of
accumulated motion
NOAA
IN DEEP OCEAN tsunami has long wavelength, travels
fast, small amplitude - doesnt affect ships

AS IT APPROACHES SHORE, it slows. Since energy is


conserved, amplitude builds up - very damaging
Per-capita Carbon dioxide emission (Metric Tons)

Country in metric tons

USA 20.01
Europe 9.40
Japan 9.87
China 3.60
Russia 11.71
India 1.02
World average 4.25
Energy Scenario in India
Rapid economic development & Increasing population =
High demand for Energy

A sustained 8% GDP growth of India requires an annual


increase of:
a) Commercial energy supply from 3.7% to 6.1%
b) Total primary energy supply from 2.2% to 5.1%

Limited supply of COAL, coupled with its poor quality, low


level of technologies advancements and high
environmental hazards.

Limited domestic reserves and uncertain foreign supply of


hydrocarbons.
Energy in India: An Overview
India consumes 3.7% of the worlds commercial
energy making it the 5th largest consumer of energy
globally.
Total installed capacity of 1,44,912 MW.
350 kgoe per capita primary commercial energy
consumption. 22% of world average.
Per capita electricity consumption: 600 kWhr per year.
About 80% of total rural energy consumption comes
from non-commercial energy.
84% villages electrified. 44% of rural households
electrified.
Energy Production
COAL India
India generates 150000 MW as on
date considering industrial growth
9% And GDP 6.7% additional 75000
MW is required to be added at the
end of 2012.
Scenarios for Total Installed Power
Capacity in India
(DAE-2004 and Planning Commission-2006 studies)
Energy utilisation
Based on IAEA Bulletin 42, 2000
A looming energy crisis
Photovolta
ic

Offshore
wind

Onshore
wind

Hypower

Oil

Natural
gas

Coal

Nuclear
Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April
Air pollution impacts (PM10) and other impact
ative environmental impact of differ
Technologies of electricity generation

High
Existing coal
Biomass technologies
Technologies no gas cleaning

New coal
Natural gastechnologies
Nuclear technologies
Low
Wind

Low High
Greenhouse gas impacts
Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006
Fast Breeder Reactor

500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor


Construction launched on
October 23, 2004
How Hydropower Works! (ctd)a

Water from the


reservoir flows due to
gravity to drive the
turbine.
Turbine is connected to
a generator.
Power generated is
transmitted over power
lines.
Nano Fuel Cells
FUEL CELL
Their maximum output is 86 kilowatts, or about 107
HP. Because hydrogen fuel cell stacks produce
power without combustion, they can be up to twice
as efficient as internal combustion engines. They
also produce zero carbon dioxide and other
pollutants.

Fuel Cells
Solar Energy Spectrum

Power reaching earth 1.37 KW/m2


Solar cells
TYPES OF SOLAR CELL
SILICON SOLAR CELL
1.AMORPHOUS
2.CRYSTALLINE
POLY CRYSTALLINE
MONO CRYSTALLINE
OTHER Thin film solar cells
DSSC
Appealing Characteristics

Consumes no fuel
No pollution
Wide power-handling capabilities
High power-to-weight ratio
WORKING OF SOLAR
CELL
Solar cell Working Principle
SOLAR THERMAL

Solar-Thermal-Power-Tower POINT CONCENTRATOR


SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS
LINE CONCENTRATOR
WIND POWER - What is it?
Pwr = * * * V3*d2
Pwr = * * V3*A
Used for
Pumping water Over 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians
used wind power to sail their ships on the Nile
Grinding grain River. Later, people built windmills to grind their
grain.
In 1891, the first electrical output wind machine
was developed incorporating the aerodynamic
design principles.

Mainly used for


Generating Electricity
TYPES OF WIND MILLS

HORIZONATAL AXIS VERTICAL


AXIS
VAWT

Drag is the main force

Nacelle is placed at the bottom

Yaw mechanism is not required

Lower starting torque

Difficulty in mounting the turbine

Unwanted fluctuations in the power output


HAWT
Lift is the main force
Much lower cyclic stresses

95% of the existing turbines are HAWTs


Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower
Yaw mechanism is required
Offshore turbines
More wind speeds

Less noise pollution

Less visual impact

Difficult to install and maintain

Energy losses due long distance transport


Wind Turbines: Number of Blades

Most common design is the three-bladed turbine. The most


important reason is the stability of the turbine. A rotor with an odd
number of rotor blades (and at least three blades) can be
considered to be similar to a disc when calculating the dynamic
properties of the machine.
A rotor with an even number of blades will give stability problems
for a machine with a stiff structure. The reason is that at the very
moment when the uppermost blade bends backwards, because it
gets the maximum power from the wind, the lowermost blade
passes into the wind shade in front of the tower.
Turbine design and
construction
Blades

Material used

Typical length
Tower height

Heights twice the blade length are

found economical
Wind power
generators convert
wind energy
(mechanical energy)
to electrical energy.
The generator is
attached at one end
to the wind turbine,
which provides the
mechanical energy.
At the other end,
the generator is
connected to the
electrical grid.
The generator
needs to have a
cooling system to
Furling
Rotational control
Maintenance

Noise reduction

Centripetal force reduction

Mechanisms
Stalling

Furling
Lift and drag forces
Solidity and Tip speed
ratio
Performance co-efficient and Betz criterion
Yaw Mechanism
To turn the turbine against the wind
Yaw error and fatigue loads
Uses electric motors and gear boxes

Wind turbine safety


Sensors controlling vibrations
Over speed protection

Aero dynamic braking


Mechanical braking
Power vs. Velocity
Improvements
Concentrators

HYBRIDE SYSTEM
GRID CONNECTED
SYSTEM
Why Renewable Energy for India?
Power shortage
Rising Prices of Oils & Gases
Ecological Hazards
Ample resources and sites
available
Abundant sunshine
Government incentive
Increased financing options
Benefits of Renewable Energy
Avoid the high costs involved in transmission .
Avoid distribution losses Technical &
otherwise
Avoid recurring fuel cost
Boost the rural economy
Encourage self help groups & self dependence
Enable village co-operatives to supply and / or
monitor distribution
Make available much needed energy for basic
needs at the doorstep at affordable prices.
Installed Capacity from Renewable
Energy

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy


Renewable Energy Deployment
Wind installation (global) 60,000 MW
(cumulative)
Indias share (and position) 6270 MW(fourth in the
world)
SPV cell production 1,700 MW (in 2005)
(global)
Indias share (and position) 37 MW (seventh in the
world)
Biogas plants (global) 16 million units
(cumulative)
Indias share (and position) 3.9 million family size
units (second in the
world)
Solar Thermal (global) 110 million sq.m
(cumulative)
Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Indias share (and position) 1.65 million sq. m (ninth
India Renewable Power Potential
Renewable Estimated Remarks
Resource Potential
Wind Power 45,000 MW Sites with wind densities of 300
W/m2 or higher with 9% of
assessed area available for wind
farms requiring 12 ha/MW.
Biomass Power 45,000 MW 20 mha of wastelands yielding 10
MT/ha/annum of woody biomass
giving 4000 kcal/ kg with system
efficiency of 30% and operating at
75% PLF.
Solar Power 50,000 MW Assuming solar energy:
4-6 kWhr/ m2/ day and depending
upon future developments making
solar technology cost-competitive
for grid power applications.
Small Hydro 15,000 MW
Power
Bio-Energy 24,000 MW
Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Commercial Energy Imports for
8% GDP
Fuel Range of Assumed Range Import
Requiremen Domestic of (Percent
t in Production Imports )
Scenarios
Oil (Mt) 350486 35 315451 9093
Natural Gas 100197 100 0-97 0-49
(Mtoe)
Coal (Mtoe) 632-1022 560 72-462 11-45
Total 1351-1702 ---- 387-1,010 29-59
Commercial
Primary
Energy

Source: Energy Policy Report, Planning Commission, India


India An Attractive Renewable
Energy Market
India has a large potential for energy
generation by utilization of renewable
energy source

MNRE has planed a target capacity addition


of 10,000 MW during the 11th five year plan
10% of annual power capacity additions to
be from Renewable between 2003-2012
.
High potential for development across
various renewable source
Indian Wind Energy Sector
Overview
CURRENT SCENARIO
4th largest producers of wind energy in
the world.

Indias current installed wind capacity is


8.7 GW (approx. 10% of the worlds total
installed capacity).

Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra & Karnataka are


the leaders in wind capacity.
Indian Wind Energy Sector
Overview
FUTURE POTENTIAL
Cumulative installed capacity is expected to
reach 12 GW by 2010.
Generation based subsidy of Rs 0.50per unit
recently announced for 10 years (limit of 5
MW per developer and 50 MW in aggregate).
Key Trend in India Wind Energy
Industry

All players in India undertaking a Dual Role


Manufacturing & Developer
Various Indian Companies are looking to
enter the sector
Infrastructure Developers

Electrical Equipment Manufacturers


Indian Solar Energy Market
Overview
MASSIVE POTENTIAL OF INDIA
Huge potential for Solar Energy development in
India
High sunshine days, abundance of sites make solar
energy an enticing prospect

MARKET IN GROWTH STAGE


Installed manufacturing capacity has grown from a
meager 10 MW in 2000 to a total of 335 MW by
2007.
India is now 7th worldwide in Solar PV Cell
production
Generation capacities expected to pick up with
generation linked subsidy announced by
government
Key Trends in Indian Solar
Industry
EXPANSION ACROSS THE BOARD
Various existing players planning expansion.
Huge new Greenfield facilities being planned.
KEY DRIVERS INCLUDE:
Low operating costs
Capital subsidy (20/25%) by government for
large semi-conductor based units (for large
investments above certain limits)
Possibility of Solar Energy development locally.
Public and private capital in abundant supply.
Indian Hydro Power Sector
Overview
POTENTIAL FOR HYDRO POWER GENERATION
India ranks 8th in terms of hydro-electricity
generated
Potential to provide energy in remote and hilly
areas where extension of an electrical
transmission grid system is uneconomical
Till now, 14 States have announced policies for
setting up commercial SHP projects.
KEY POSITIVE
Proven Technology
Low O&M Costs
High energy conversion efficiency (70%)
Indian Hydro Power Sector
Overview
KEY DRAWBACKS
High development period
High capital costs (per MW)
Social Costs

FUTURE POTENTIAL
Hydro capacity expected to reach 57 GW by
2012.
Small hydro potential is expected close to 15
GW.
MNRE has introduced subsidy schemes for SHPs
up to 25 MW.
Well-established manufacturing base for full
range and type of small hydro equipments.
Biomass Energy Overview
Indian Biomass Market Overview
CHALLENGES POTENTIAL DRIVERS
Small sized 20 GW of power Agro based
Dependence on may be economy
agricultural output generated from Large,
Insecure raw 300 MT of agro Unexploited
material linkage waste (currently domestic
produced) resource
Shortage of
equipment
50% currently Favorably
burnt in the aligned
Lack of cheap
open regulatory
financing, both
debt & equity
Less than 3% environment
potential Simple
Currently, few
realized technology
focused biomass
players
Can Power deficit
revolutionize across states
pace of rural
electrification.
Summary of Potential Returns in
RE base Generation Projects
Given the comparatively higher cost of
generating energy from renewable sources,
necessity for financial support for the industry.
Government has introduced subsidies to make
returns attractive for developers.
Indicative expected returns:

Type of Wind Hydro Hydro Biomas Sola


Project
Returns
(PPA) (Merchant s r
)
Costs (Rs. 5-6 5-6 5-6 4-5 18-
Cr/MW) 20
Equity IRR 20- 15-18 20-25 16-20 --
25
?
CAN WE GENERATE GREEN ENERGY

Human error?

War?

Natural disasters?
?
vikas_bodake2001@yahoo.com
www.intenergyengg.com