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AMR

Adaptive Multi Rate Training

Bangkok July 14-15/1

1 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Course Objectives
After this course, participants are able to :

Know how AMR works

The purpose and planning aspects of the feature

Understanding of AMR parameters

Inter-working of AMR with other features

HW/SW requirements for AMR

Impact of AMR on network performance

2 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Table of Contents

AMR Introduction
AMR Benefits
AMR Codecs
Nokia AMR Link Adaptation and codec mode adaptation
Nokia AMR interaction with other Nokia features
AMR support in Nokia system
Nokia AMR parameter
Nokia AMR KPI
Nokia AMR planning aspects
AMR implementation

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Introduction :
Name :
Company :
How long :
Position :
Past experience :
Expectation from AMR
training:
List of questions

4 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Introduction

5 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Hard/Soft Blocking

Hard
Hardblocking
blocking
The
Thewhole
wholeradio
radioresource
resourceisisin
inuse
use--no
nomore
morecalls
callscan
canbe
beestablished
established
due to lack of free radio timeslots.
due to lack of free radio timeslots.

Dominates with large reuse factors = Wideband deployment

Soft
Softblocking
blocking
The
Thecapacity
capacityof
ofindividual
individualcells
cellsis
islimited
limitedby
bythe
thelevel
levelof
ofthe
theinterference
interference
rather
ratherthan
thanthe
thenumber
numberofofTRXs
TRXsavailable
available

Is dominating with tight reuse patterns = Narrowband


deployments

6 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Spectral Efficiency & Performance
Standard Measure: Erl/km/MHz
Nokia Measure: Effective Frequency Load ( Erl/MHz)
Spectral Efficiency is equivalent to performance
Assuming no lack of radio resources or HW blocking
Key Performance Two alternative solutions
Performance is
Indicator CDR, BQS
a trade-off
between
capacity AND Operating
quality Point Targeted quality level
Quality Enhancement
is measured in terms of
increased quality Dropped calls due
for the same load to coverage gaps
Traffic
Increased
Increasedperformance
performance Load
(spectral
(spectralefficiency)
efficiency) Capacity Increase is measured
delivers improved
delivers improved in terms of additional load
quality
qualityand/or
and/orhigher
higher at the same quality level
capacity
capacity for thesame
for the same
quality criteria
quality criteria
7 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Effective Frequency Load Defined
EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area
Represents how loaded each frequency can be across the
system
EFL is proportional to spectral efficiency
EFL is directly proportional to the carried traffic x % higher EFL
= x % more carried traffic
Busy hour area
level average
Erlangs/cell

Erl BH 1
EFL
Tot # freq Ave # ( TCH )
TRX

Total number of Average


frequencies number of
used to carry timeslots/TRX
the traffic
8 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Effective Frequency Load Explained
EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area Represents how
loaded each frequency can be across the system
Assume 1.2 Mhz (6 x 200 kHz carriers) of hopping frequencies in addition to the
BCCH carrier
Assume in each cell 5 simultaneous voice users on the average
In this case the Effective frequency load is ~ 5 Erlangs / 48 timeslots = 10.4%

i er m
e
rr Ti
ca
er
p
ots
l
es
m
ti
5

Frequency
200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz

6 frequencies @ 200 kHz each


9 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec (1/2)
Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) codec consists of a family of codecs
(source and channel codecs with different trade-off bit-rates)
operating in the GSM FR and HR channels modes
The AMR system exploits the channel performance and robustness
added by the coding rates by adapting the speech and channel
coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel
AMR adapts its error protection level (select its optimum channel
mode and codec mode) to the local radio channel and traffic load
conditions to deliver the best possible combination of speech
quality and system capacity
Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality
estimation in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most
appropriate speech and channel codec mode to apply at a given time
The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by
BSC via layer 3 signaling
MS shall support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to
4 speech codec modes is used during a call

10 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Adaptive Multi Rate Codec (2/2)
GSM FR/EFR channel gross bit-rate is 22.8 kbit/s in GSM FR/EFR:
13 kbit/s speech coding and 9.8 kbit/channel coding (HR channel
gross bit rate 11.4 kbit/s)
For AMR case, different codecs use different bit rate to encode
speech (source coding). The rest of the gross bit-rate is used for
channel protection
25
Channel coding
Channel bit-rate (kbit/s)

20 Speech coding
Robustness
15

10

5
Speech Qual
0
FR FR FR FR 7.4 FR 6.7 FR 5.9 FR FR HR HR 7.4 HR 6.7 HR 5.9 HR HR
12.2 10.2 7.95 5.15 4.75 7.95 5.15 4.75

AMR codec mode


11 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Algorithms Related to AMR
In order to select the codec, MS and infrastructure
vendors implement the Link Adaptation algorithm or
Codec Mode Adaptation

Additionally, there is another algorithm to change the


channel rate between FR and HR codecs, which is
called Channel Mode Adaptation

Set of Codecs Codec Mode Adapt.

Channel Mode Adaptation AMR

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AMR Benefits

13 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Capacity and Coverage Gain
Link level results show very high improvement in the terms of TCH
FER when robust AMR modes are used
As high as 6 dB improvement at 1% FER in C/I can be achieved
Therefore, high capacity gain can be expected when robust AMR
modes are utilized
In addition, increased robustness to channel errors can be utilized
in the cell coverage, i.e. lower C/I can be allowed at the cell edge
However, in the mixed traffic case the cell coverage has to be
planned according to EFR mobiles
With respect to signaling channels, the retransmissions schemes
used by SACCH and FACCH channels maintain the probability of
signalling success even for very degraded conditions

14 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Capacity Increase with AMR
Due to robust AMR codec modes, very low TCH FER compared to EFR
In 850 MHz case all mobiles are AMR capable, but this comparison
illustrates
the capacity gain AMR provides when it is introduced in a typical network
10
AMR MS penetration: 0%
9 AMR MS penetration: 25%
TCH FER > 5.4 % (%)
Relative Frequency

8 AMR MS penetration: 50%


7 AMR MS penetration: 75%
AMR MS penetration: 100%
6
~150%
5 gain
relative
4 to EFR

3
2
Capacity gain 1
based on the
2% outage of 0
the bad TCH 5 7.5 10 12.5 15
FER samples
Effective Frequency load (%)
ONE-LAYER
ONE-LAYER(RF-hopping
(RF-hopping2/2,
2/2,no
noBCCH
BCCH
included)
included)
15 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Improved BCCH Plan
Since the average C/I found in a cell area can be measurably less
than that used in a non-AMR network and still provide comparable
quality to EFR, the existing clean BCCH layer can be tightened,
potentially releasing frequencies to be used on the non-BCCH layer
This offers improved speech quality and extra capacity for TCH,
especially in the narrow band deployment (frequency band less
than 5 MHz)
However, if EFR roaming mobiles are to be taken care of, the BCCH
will have to be planned accordingly
How to plan networks to ensure the quality for the old EFR mobiles?
One method is to use more aggressive power adjustment for
AMR mobiles in order to decrease the average interference level
in the network
Therefore, the overall interference decreases in the network
(smaller average transmission power) and thus the quality of the
existing EFR connections increase

16 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Half-Rate Utilization in AMR Codec
Half-rate is an efficient way to increase capacity in the case of
limited number of TRXs per cell
AMR HR codec obtains remarkable better speech quality than
previous GSM EFR HR codec
AMR FR obtains better quality than AMR HR only when higher FR
modes than 7.4 are used (due to higher number of speech coding
bits)
AMR FR 7.4 kbit/s mode and AMR HR 7.4 kbit/s mode have the
same speech quality when the C/I is high (error free case)
AMR HR channels can be then used in high C/I conditions
without noticeably speech quality loss
In theory for ideal frequency hopping about 11-12 dB C/I is required
for AMR HR to obtain the evaluated good speech quality limit (in
real networks, depending on the BTS configuration and on FH mode
used, it might be necessary 1-4 dB higher)
Based on this, all connections having at least 12 dB C/I could be
handed over to HR channel remaining the good speech quality

17 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR FR+HR vs. AMR FR Usage
3.0%
4

AMRFR +HR 3.5 AMR FR


2.5% 22.98%

Bad TCH FER samples [%]


AMRFR AMR FR+HR
3
2.0%
2.5
TCH FER > 4%

??
HR Usage 36.23% 31.49%
1.5% 2
44.83%
54.48% 1.5

?
1.0%

1
0.5%
0.5

0.0%
0
17% 19% 21% 23% 25% 27% 29% 31% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Effective Frequency Load (%) Effective Frequency Load [%]

The performance degradation in The FER performance of AMR


FER between the usage of AMR FR+HR and AMR FR are about the
FR+HR and AMR FR is equivalent same
to the quality loss of 0.2 in the Capacity
Capacitygain
gainin
inFH
FH
MOS between AMR FR and HR carrier
carrierwhen
whenAMR
AMRFR+HR
FR+HR
codec is
is used continue tobe
used continue to be
~150%
~150%

18 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Benefits For End User
MOS vs.
4.5
CIR
4

3.5
3 AMR FR
EFR
MOS

2.5 FR 12.2 MOS


2 FR 7.4 MOS
FR 5.9 MOS
1.5 FR 4.75 MOS
1 HR 7.4 MOS
HR 5.9 MOS
0.5 HR 4.75 MOS
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
C/I (dB)

A user in good radio conditions perceives


the same quality as EFR.
However, a user in bad radio conditions still
receives acceptable speech quality while
with EFR it would not received satisfactory
speech quality.

19 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Benefits For Operator
100%
fs475iFH

Coverage Gains
fs515iFH
fs590iFH
Capacity / fs670iFH
fs740iFH 10%
fs795iFH

TCH FER
fs102iFH
fs122iFH

1%

0%
10 8 6 4 2 0
C/I [dB]
Approx. 5.5 dB link level gain in hopping layer
This turns into approx. 140% capacity gain for
AMR-FR
Coverage enhancement (>4dB)
Tighter BCCH reuse schemes.
Saving of resources by deploying AMR-HR

20 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Benefits of AMR
Summary
Speech quality enhancement: AMR maintains good speech quality
in the situation where the connection faces low C/I or low signal
level
Capacity and coverage gain: Link level simulation results
illustrated improvement in terms of TCH FER (up to 5.5dB at 1%
FER in C/I)
Signalling channel performance: due to retransmissions schemes
used by these channels the probability of signalling success
maintain very high even for very degraded conditions
Improved BCCH plan: tighter frequency reuse or better quality
with same frequency reuse, potentially releasing frequencies to be
used on the non-BCCH layer.
HR utilisation increases the hardware capacity of the cell since
two half-rate connections can be allocated to fill only one timeslot.
When compare AMR HR to previous GSM HR codec, it is noticed
that AMR HR obtains remarkable better speech quality

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AMR Codecs

22 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Codecs
AMR Full Rate performance compared to
Full Rate Half rate Full Rate EFR in Clean Speech
EFR 12.2 MOS (Mean Opinion Score)
5.0
10.2
7.95 7.95 4.0
IS-136 7.4 7.4 6 dB gain in
3.0 performance
6.7 6.7
5.9 5.9 EFR
2.0
5.15 5.15 AMR FR

4.75 4.75 1.0


No Errors 16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I 10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I
Speech bit rate
AMR Half Rate performance compared to
Full Rate in Clean Speech
MOS (Mean Opinion Score)Quality loss
5.0 of ~ 0.2
New AMR family of codecs between
tolerates 6 dB higher interference 4.0 AMR HR
and FR
than current GSM EFR codec
3.0
Can be directly utilized for higher
capacity with Frequency Hopping 2.0 AMR HR
Higher interference tolerance AMR FR
Reduced time slot occupancy
1.0
No Errors 19 dB C/I16 dB C/I 13 dB C/I10 dB C/I 7 dB C/I 4 dB C/I

23 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel and Speech Codecs for AMR
Channel Channel Source coding Net bit-rate, Channel Channel
mode codec bit-rate, speech in-band coding coding
Mode channel bit-rate, bit-rate, in-
speech band
CH0-FS 12.20kbit/s (GSMEFR) 0.10 kbit/s 10.20 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH1-FS 10.20 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 12.20 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH2-FS 7.95 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 14.45 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
TCH/FR CH3-FS 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 0.10 kbit/s 15.00 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH4-FS 6.70 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 15.70 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH5-FS 5.90 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 16.50 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH6-FS 5.15 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 17.25 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH7-FS 4.75 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 17.65 kbit/s 0.30 kbit/s
CH8-HS 7.95 kbit/s (*) 0.10 kbit/s 3.25 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
TCH/HR CH9-HS 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641) 0.10 kbit/s 3.80 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
CH10-HS 6.70 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 4.50 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
CH11-HS 5.90 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 5.30 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
CH12-HS 5.15 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 6.05 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
CH13-HS 4.75 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s 6.45 kbit/s 0.10 kbit/s
(*) Requires 16 kbit/s TRAU. Therefore it is not seen as a feasible codec mode and will not be
supported by Nokia BSS10.

In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain
error robust coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower
amount of bits is needed for sufficient error protection and more bits can
therefore be allocated for source coding
24 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Benefits of AMR 1/2
Scenario MOS
5.0
Highest MOS
Highest HR usage then
highest MOS but MOS 4.0

>= 3.8
Highest quality 3.0

What is quality? EFR


12.2
Anything else? 10.2
7.95
2.0
7.4
6.7
5.9
5.15
4.75 Conditions
1.0
No Errors C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB C/I= 1 dB

EFR 4.01 4.01 3.65 3.05 1.53

12.2 4.01 4.06 4.13 3.93 3.44 1.46

10.2 4.06 3.96 4.05 3.80 2.04

7.95 3.91 4.01 4.08 3.96 3.26 1.43

7.4 3.83 3.94 3.98 3.84 3.11 1.39


6.7 3.77 3.80 3.86 3.29 1.87
5.9 3.72 3.69 3.59 2.20

5.15 3.50 3.58 3.44 2.43

4.75 3.50 3.52 3.43 2.66

25 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Benefits of AMR 2/2
HR utilisation
doubles the M OS Experiment 1b - Test Results

capacity of the
5.0

cell
4.0

When compare
AMR HR to 3.0 EFR
7.95
previous GSM HR 7.4
6.7

codec, it is 2.0
5.9
5.15
4.75
noticed that AMR FR
HR

HR obtains 1.0
No Errors C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB
Condi ti ons
C/I= 4 dB
remarkable EFR 4.21 4.21 3.74 3.34 1.58

better speech 7.95


7.4
4.11
3.93
4.04
3.93
3.96
3.95
3.37
3.52
2.53
2.74
1.60
1.78
quality 6.7 3.94 3.90 3.53 3.10 2.22 1.21
5.9 3.68 3.82 3.72 3.19 2.57 1.33
5.15 3.70 3.60 3.60 3.38 2.85 1.84
4.75 3.59 3.46 3.42 3.30 3.10 2.00
FR 3.50 3.50 3.14 2.74 1.50
HR 3.35 3.24 2.80 1.92

26 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Demo
Speech samples

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Nokia AMR Link Adaptation

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Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (1/2)
Link Adaptation is the capability of AMR feature to vary the codec used
according to the link conditions
Both network, for uplink, and MS, for downlink, measure the radio
conditions in each link and take decisions on which codec should be
applied to each way AMR codec mode adaptation is done
independently in UL and DL
There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the ETSI specified fast LA and
the Nokia proprietary slow LA
slowAmrLaEnabled: if it is set to "N" (default) it is used ETSI fast LA;
if it is set to "Y" it used Nokia slow LA
With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes only on the
SACCH frame interval of 480 ms
Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: Codec Mode
Adaptation and Channel Mode Adaptation
AMR codec mode adaptation algorithm adapts the bit-rate partitioning
between the speech and channel coding for a given channel mode to track
changes in the radio link and to account for specific input conditions
(speech signal characteristics, acoustic environmental characteristics, etc.)
AMR channel mode adaptation algorithm allocates a half-rate or full-rate
channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell in
order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity

29 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Link Adaptation in AMR Codec (2/2)

C/I EFR operation AMR mode


C/I AMR
30 Mode AMR
FR HR
25 12.2 kbit/s
12.2

20 7.95 kbit/s
10.2
7.95
7.4 7.4
[dB]

15
6.70 kbit/s

6.7 6.7
10 5.90 kbit/s
5.9 5.9

5
5.15 5.15
4.75 4.75
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Time[s]

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Codec Mode Adaptation

31 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Codec Mode Adaptation
Codec Mode Adaptation or Link Adaptation (LA) is the algorithm that selects
which codec has to be used each moment by the MS (in UL) or by the network
(in DL direction).

The basic AMR codec mode sets for MS and BTS are provided by BSC via layer 3
signalling

Both the MS and the network implement their own C/I measurement algorithms

C/I measuremnt algorithms are vendor dependant / proprietary

Nokia has common UL/DL link adaptation thresholds

32 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Objective of Codec Mode Adaptation
Select the codec that provides the best speech
quality depending on radio conditions
4.5

3.5

2.5
FR 12.2 MOS
MOS

2 FR 7.4 MOS
FR 5.9 MOS
1.5 FR 4.75 MOS
HR 7.4 MOS
1
HR 5.9 MOS
0.5 HR 4.75 MOS

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

C/I (dB)

33 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Parameters for Link Adaptation
When deploying AMR the following parameters are
important for the Link Adaptation:
ACS (Active Codec Set) which defines the codecs
that can be used in a BTS during a call.
Thresholds used: Defines the CIR value to change
the codec from a less robust codec to the
immediate more robust one in the ACS
Hysteresis: the values in dB to add to the
thresholds in order to go from a robust codec to
the immediate less robust one in the ACS.
For instance: ACS= [AFS12.2, AFS7.9, AFS4.75],
Thresholds: 12dB, 8dB, Hysteresis: 1dB, 1dB
With these settings the change from codec AFS7.9
to AFS4.75 will happen when the CIR is below 8dB,
while from AFS4.75 up to AFS7.9 it will be with 9dB.

34 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Procedure in MS for AMR Link
Adaptation
CIR FadingProfile
Estimator

Meas i Measi+1 Meas i+2 Meas i+3 ...


t

Filter

Conversion to CIR and


Comparison with CIR norm compensation for
CMR Thresholds (LQE) Channel Profile

35 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Link adaptation
Codec mode adaptation, BTS Channel mode adaptation
level
FR <-> HR changed by handover
Codec mode changed (packing and unpacking)
according to channel
conditions (UL/DL C/I)
Based on BTS load (BSC level) and
channel condition (RxQual)
Only up to four codecs can be
used during a call
Goalthe highest MOS (Mean
Opinion Score)
Mode indications inform the
receiver about the currently
applied codec mode
Mode Command informs MS
about the codec mode to be
applied on the uplink

36 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


In band signalling

CMI,
C MR CMC
,
C MI

SF 2 SF 4CMR SF 6CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR CMR


UL SF 1 SF 3
CMI SF 5CMI SF 7 CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI
8
TDMA

frames
SF 2 CMI SF 4 CMI SF 6 CMISF 8 CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI CMI

DL SF 1 SF 3
CMCSF 5 CMCSF 7 CMC
SF 9
CMC CMC CMC CMC CMC CMC

SF= Speech Frame CMC = Codec Mode Command time


CMI = Codec Mode Indicator CMR= Codec ModeRequest
37 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Impact of wrong LA
Due to wrong LA threshold selection, or wrong estimation of radio
conditions, the codec used under certain conditions might not be
the best performing one, reducing Speech Quality.

non-ideal LA 1
(Lower MOS &
HIGH FER)

non-ideal LA 2
(Lower MOS &
low FER)
AFS475

AFS7.90

AFS12.2

Actual CIR for codec Actual CIR for codec


changes for LA 1 Ideal CIR for codec changes for LA 2
changes
38 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Channel Mode Adaptation

39 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel Mode Adaptation
Channel Mode Adaptation is an intra BTS HO
algorithm that aims at select the correct channel rate
(FR or HR).
The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main
factors: load and quality

load Good
Quality
FR packing HR
FR unpacking HR
Bad
Qualit
y
40 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Packing Procedure

41 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Packing
Handover between AMR FR and AMR HR is intra-cell (intra BTS) handover
Spontaneous packing of FR AMR calls to HR AMR calls is triggered when the cell
load is high enough, the number of free full rate resources reduces below the
value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL).
Packing continues until the cell load is low enough, the number of free full rate
resources increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU).

Free FR TCHs

Upper limit for free FR TCHs


btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRU)

Lower limit for free FR TCHs


btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL)

Time
No packing of Packing of No packing of
AMR FR calls AMR FR calls AMR FR calls

42 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (1/2)
Spontaneous Packing of AMR FR to AMR HR call is triggered when
free full rate resources reduces below the value of the parameter
btsLoadDepTCHRate(HRL) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRL)
HRL is a BSC level parameter
FRL is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite
HRL
AND FR calls which quality is better than amrHandoverFr(IHRF) for
both UL and DL
Px: The Px of Threshold quality DL Px (QDP) is used.
Nx: The Nx of Threshold quality DL Nx (QDN) is used.
Note:
Packing quality threshold is for both UL/DL threshold
Packing quality does not have its own Px/Nx
Packing quality does not have its own averaging windows and
weighting

43 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing from AMR FR to AMR HR (2/2)
Packing happens to permanent HR channels
Packing happens to DR channels which half has been
occupied
Packing happens when there are even number of FR calls to
DR channels.
Packing continues until the number of free full rate resources
increases above the value of the parameter btsLoadDepTCHRate
(HRU) or btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (FRU)
HRU is a BSC level parameter
FRU is a BTS level parameter, once defined, it can overwrite
HRU

Packing is triggered by new TCH allocation


Queueing is not allowed for packing procedure

44 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Un-Packing Procedure

45 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Unpacking from AMR HR to FR
Spontaneous unpacking of AMR HR calls to AMR FR
calls is triggered when the quality of a AMR HR call
degrades below the amrHandoverHr(IHRH) for
either UL or DL
Px: The Px of Threshold quality DL Px (QDP) is
used.
Nx: The Nx of Threshold quality DL Nx (QDN) is
used.
Queuing is allowed for unpacking procedure

46 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Nokia AMR Interaction
with Other Nokia Features

47 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Interaction with other features
DADL/B

New adjacent cell parameter to handover AMR calls from non-


AMR-capable cells to co-located AMR-capable cells during call
set-up phase

Handover

Prioritization of AMR capable cells during internal and external


handovers (AMR capable cells which load is low (BTS load
threshold (BLT) parameter), are on the top of the handover
target cell list)
New RxQual thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR
New RxQual thresholds for HOs between AMR channel rates
(relates to AMR FR call packing and AMR HR call unpacking)

48 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Interaction with other features
Power Control

New RxQual thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR

IFH and IUO

New good and bad C/I thresholds for AMR FR and AMR HR

49 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Radio Link Timeout
Background
3GPP 05.08 states that Radio Link Failure (RLF) in the MS is
determined by the success rate of decoding messages on the
downlink SACCH
The aim of determining RLF in the MS is to ensure that calls with
unacceptable voice/data quality, which cannot be improved either by
RF power control or handover, are either re-established or released in
a defined manner
The Radio Link Timeout (RLT) parameter controls that a forced release
(drop) will not normally occur until the call has degraded to a quality
below that at which the majority of subscribers would have manually
released it
The RLF procedure is implemented in the RRM at the BSC and is as
follows:
After the assignment of a dedicated channel a counter is initialized
to RLT
When a SACCH message is unsuccessfully decoded the counter is
decreased by 1
When a SACCH message is successfully decoded the counter is
increased by 2
If the counter reaches 0 a RLF is declared Call is released

50 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Radio Link Timeout
AMR FR vs. EFR - Test 1 EFR AMR

The RLT is based on SACCH Number of


Number of unaccepta Number of
Number of
unaccepta

erased frames, which are


una cceptable ble unacceptable RLT to ble
Time RLT FER Time RLT FER
samples sa mples samples select samples
(FER>50%) ( FER>25 (FER>50%) (FER>25

independent of speech frames 00:25:55:82 64 13


%)

00:26:01:79 64 29 0 0
%)
1
00:25:56:30 64 42
00:26:02:27 63 43 0 1 2

The tests were aimed to find RLT


00:25:56:78 63 54
00:26:02:76 62 75 1 2 3
00:25:57:26 62 25
00:25:57:74 64 50 00:26:03:24 61 50 1 3 4
00:26:03:72 60 29 1 4 5
value producing the same speech
00:25:58:23 63 42
00:25:58:71 62 54 00:26:04:20 59 50 1 5 6
00:25:59:20 64 38 00:26:04:68 58 29 1 6 7

degradation in AMR as EFR would 00:25:59:68


00:26:00:16
00:26:00:64
64
63
62
50
54
46
00:26:05:16
00:26:05:65
00:26:06:13
57
56
55
70
21
63
2
2
3
7
8
9
8
8
9
suffer with default RLT value for 00:26:01:12
00:26:01:60
64
64
58
58
00:26:06:61
00:26:07:09
54
53
63
82
4
5
10
11
10
11

this traffic (i.e. 20)


00:26:02:08 63 46 00:26:07:58 52 92 6 12 12
00:26:02:56 62 67
00:26:08:06 51 78 7 13 13
00:26:03:05 61 75
00:26:08:54 50 58 8 14 14
00:26:03:53 60 58

The indicator used was number of


00:26:09:02 49 71 9 15 15
00:26:04:01 59 67
00:26:04:49 61 58 00:26:09:50 48 92 10 16 16
00:26:04:97 60 75 00:26:09:99 47 91 11 17 17

BQS-FER (with FER>50%/25%) 00:26:05:45


00:26:05:93
59
61
54
58
00:26:10:47
00:26:10:95
00:26:11:43
46
45
44
67
88
88
12
13
14
18
19
20
18
19
20
between the time when the
00:26:06:41 60 79
00:26:06:89 59 58 00:26:11:91 43 83 15 21 21
00:26:07:37 58 88 00:26:12:40 42 100 16 22 22

counter starts decreasing from its


00:26:07:85 57 92 00:26:12:88 41 63 17 23 23
00:26:08:34 56 63 00:26:13:36 40 70 18 24 24
00:26:08:82 55 88 00:26:13:84 39 96 19 25 25
top value (64) to the point where 00:26:09:30
rivada:
00:26:09:78
RLT = 44 is equivalent to
00:26:10:26
0 when using FI XED RLT
54
53
52
83
88
88
00:26:14:32
00:26:14:80
38
37
88
80
20
21
26
27
26
27

the link would be released (i.e., equal to 20 (DEFAULT


00:26:10:74
NOKIA VALUE)
00:26:11:23
51
50
88
75
00:26:15:28
00:26:15:76
00:26:16:25
39
38
37
88
82
95
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
when the counter is decreased by
00:26:11:71 49 75
00:26:12:19 48 83 00:26:16:73 36 78 25 28 31
00:26:12:67 47 83 00:26:17:21 35 92 26 29 32

the RLT parameter) 00:26:13:15


00:26:13:63
00:26:14:11
46
45
44
96
92
83 26 27

RLT has very high impact on


DCR
51 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Radio Link Timeout
AMR-FR vs. EFR Test 2
Aim is to evaluate when AMR-FR is used which RLT value will result
in comparable performance (point at which call is released) to the
recommended RLT for EFR
The RLT is based on SACCH erased frames, which are independent
of speech frames. The principle of the tests is to find RLT value
producing the same speech degradation (FER > 15 % MOS <
1.5 no audible speech during 30 sec before dropping) in AMR as
EFR would suffer with default RLT value for this traffic (i.e. 20)

The driving route started at a good coverage location and ended


at a bad coverage area

52 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR vs EFR: FER Before Dropping

FER average every 5 seconds, during last 30 seconds before


dropping for: RLT = 20, 28, 32, 36

53 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Dropped Call Experience
Dropped call experience: how long terminal does not receive any
audible speech (MOS<1.5) before it drops
During 30 seconds before dropping, FER AMR is lower than FEREFR
FEREFR > 15 % during last 30 seconds before dropping, for RLT = 20
AMR, FER > 15 % EFR, FER > 15%

RLT = 20 10-15 seconds before dropping 25-30 s. before drop


RLT = 28 15-20 seconds before dropping
RLT = 32 18-22 seconds before dropping
RLT = 36 25-30 seconds before dropping
RLT = xx 35-40 s. before drop

Conclusion:
AMRRLT=36 has a similar dropped call experience to EFR RLT=20

54 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Support in Nokia System

55 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Elements Needed for AMR Feature
Following network elements and mobile phone are needed to get
AMR system feature to work:
BTS: Nokia Talk-Family DF6, Nokia Prime Site DF6, Nokia
MetroSite CXM3.0-2, Nokia Ultra Site CX3, Connect Site.
S10.5
TCSM: TCSM2 with an AMR capable pool (23)
MSC: M10
NMS: NetAct OSS3.1
MS: AMR capable phones

56 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Support in Nokia BTS's

Nokia 2nd Generation BTS (DE21 BTS:)


Nokia's 2nd generation BTS will not support AMR.
Nokia Talk-family BTS (DF34 BTS): TALK-family
BTS:
Nokia's Talk-family BTS will have AMR support for FR Full Rate Half
modes 4.75, 5.9, 7.4 and 12.2 as well as for HR modes rate
4.75, 5.9 and 7.4 (*). With this approach, the link 12.2
adaptation between full scale of FR modes and almost full 10.2
scale of HR can be achieved (note that only 4 codecs can 7.95 7.95
be selected to be used during a call). 7.4 7.4
Nokia PrimeSite BTS: 6.7 6.7
Nokia 5.9 5.9
PrimeSite will have same AMR support as Talk. The 5.15 5.15
frequency hopping functionality will be removed from 4.75 4.75
PrimeSite BTSs to enable this modification. Last PrimeSite
SW release supporting frequency hopping will be DF5.0.
Nokia InSite BTS:
Nokia InSite BTS will not support AMR
Nokia MetroSite and UltraSite BTS:
Nokia's MetroSite and UltraSite will have full AMR support.

57 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Nokia AMR Parameters

58 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Link Adaptation Related Parameters

59 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Steps to configure Link Adaptation

First, selection of the Active Codec Set (codecs to be used


during the calls for both FR and HR). FRC & HRC parameter
Then, selection of CIR thresholds to change codecs and
hysteresis
Selection of the initial codec to be used at the beginning of the
allocation (ICMI- FRI & FRS for FR and ICMI-HRI and HRS for
HR)
Selection of standard Link Adaptation (every 40 ms) or Slow
Link Adaptation (every 480ms) (SLA)

60 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Link Adaptation Related Parameters
BTS level parameters

61 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Definition of the Active Codec Set
amrConfigurationFr: codecModeSet (FRC)
& amrConfigurationHr: codecModeSet (HRC)

Maximum of 4 codecs can be included in ACS, although it can be less (or even disable)

Codecs supported in different BTS models

BTS AMR FR AMR-HR


2nd Generat - -
Talk Family AFS 475, AFS590, AFS740, AFS122 AHS475, AHS 590, AHS 740
Metro & Ultrasite All codecs All exepct AHS790

Values
Range: 0..240 (0 or 1-4 values Range: 0..30 (0 or 1-4 values from
from these: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 & 128) these: 1, 2, 4, 8 & 16)

0 (0000 0000) = disabled 0 (0000 0000) = disabled


1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s 1 (0000 0001) = 4.75 kbit/s
2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s 2 (0000 0010) = 5.15 kbit/s
4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s 4 (0000 0100) = 5.90 kbit/s
8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s 8 (0000 1000) = 6.70 kbit/s
16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s 16 (0001 0000) = 7.40 kbit/s
32 (0010 0000) = 7.95 kbit/s
64 (0100 0000) = 10.2 kbit/s
128 (1000 0000) = 12.2 kbit/s

Example (default) 1001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90, 7.40 & 12.2) 0001 0101 = (4.75, 5.90 & 7.40)

62 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and
hysteresis
Both Threshold and hysteresis has 0.5 dB step
One threshold to go from one codec to the closest higher
or lower one
FR Example:
AFS122, C/I < 11 dB, AFS122 AFS740
AFS740, C/I > 11+1 dB, AFS740 AFS122

Codec Mode Threshold (C/I) Hysteresis (C/I)


(kbit/s)
4 (12.2) TH3 (11 dB)
3 (7.4) TH2 (7 dB) H3 (1 dB)
2 (5.9) TH1 (4 dB) H2 (1 dB)
1 (4.75) H1 (1 dB)

63 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Codec mode adaptation: Threshold and
hysteresis
Codec
mode

FR12.2
(codec 4)
1dB
FRH3

FR7.4
(codec 3) 1dB
FRH2

FR5.9 (codec 2)

1dB
FRH1
C/I
FR4.75
(codec 1) estimati
4dB 5dB 7dB 8dB 11dB 12dB
on
FRT1 FRT2 FRT3

64 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Initial Codec Mode Indicator
Separate parameters for FR and HR:

FR:
amrConfigurationFr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (FRI)
Initial codec mode for call set-up and HO
0 = Initial codec mode is defined by the implicit rule
provided in GSM 05.09
1 = Initial codec mode is defined by amrConfigurationFr:
startMode (FRS)
00: Codec mode 1 (most robust within ACS)
01: Codec mode 2
10: Codec mode 3
HR: 11: Codec mode 4
amrConfigurationHr: initCodecMode (ICMI) (HRI)
amrConfHrStartMode (HRS)
HR 7.4 cannot be used as start mode

65 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Slow Link Adaptation
slowAmrLaEnabled (SAL): Y/N
enable slow link adaptation. This is a proprietary
algorithm where codec mode changes happen every
SACCH period (480ms) instead of as fast as 40ms.

66 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Report 245:
Distribution of call samples UL/DL by FER
classes
The reported codec
is the last used
ND 245 codec of reported
SACCH period.

DL codec and FER


distribution is
avaibable from
Drive Test tool.

67 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel allocation Parameters
(Call set-up and Packing/Unpacking)

68 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


IAC (Initial AMR Channel Rate)
initAmrChannelRate (IAC):
1 = Any rate. Channel type allocation depends
on further network parameters/settings
2 = AMR FR
AMR FR is preferred over AMR HR and
allocated despite of the values of the currently
used information for channel allocation
IAC=2 overrides tchRateInternalHo (HRI)
parameter

69 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing/Unpacking Parameters and Channel Rate
allocation
BSC level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

btsLoadDepTCHRate HRL 0 ... 100 % EE 100


btsLoadDepTCHRate HRU 0 ... 100 % EE 0

BTS level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (BTSlevel) FRL 0 ... 100 % EQ 100


btsSpLoadDepTCHRate (BTSlevel) FRU 0 ... 100 % EQ 0
amrHandoverFr IHRF 0 ... 7 EH 0
amrHandoverHr IHRH 0 ... 7 EH 4

70 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel allocation: Call set-up and
handovers
btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRL) and btsLoadDepTCHRate (HRU)
are considered in call set-up and handovers only when IAC=1
HR is to be assigned if free resources go below HRL
FR is to be assigned if free resources go above HRU

In channel allocation for Handovers, there is an additional


parameter that can be used to set further control
tchRateInternalHo (HRI) is used to control the speech
and channel type changes in handover when IAC=1
If set HRI=1, channel type and speech codec used in
source BTS are primarily allocated in the target BTS

71 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Packing

1. New channel allocation

2. BSC make Intra-cell HO


Case 1. (Packing TS4&5 calls into HR calls TS7)
Free FR resources increased by one

1. New channel allocation

2. Packing TS4 FR call into HR call TS7


Case 2. Free FR resources increased by one

TCHF FR call
MBCCHC TCHD HR call

72 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Packing

1. New channel allocation

2. No packing
Case 3. (due to lack of TCHD resources)

BSC performs packing for FR AMR calls only when Rxqual


is above the amrHandoverFr (IHRF)

73 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Unpacking

1. Unpacking due to Rx qual


Case 4.

2. Packing due to load

Unpacking of HR AMR calls to FR AMR calls is triggered when the


quality of a HR AMR call degrades below the amrHandoverHr
(IHRH).
IHRH = 3, RxQual 3 to 7 will be unpacked
Cell load does not have an effect

74 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing/Unpacking RXQUAL Threshold
Selection from Field Tests

75 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


RXQUAL vs. aveFER in 2sec PERIODs

Averaged RXQual distribution in ROUTE 1 (TEMS) Average FER in 2sec periods


50% AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB Thr & 3dB Hyst
45%
25
40%
35%
20
30%

Average FER
25%
%

15
20%

15% 10
10%

5% 5

0%
RXQUAL 0 RXQUAL 1 RXQUAL 2 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 5 RXQUAL 6 RXQUAL 7 0
RXQUAL 1 RXQUAL 2 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 4 RXQUAL 5 RXQUAL 6 RXQUAL 7
Averaged RXQual distribution in ROUTE 1
Average FER in 2sec

According to the average FER, RXQual 5 can be considered still as


providing enough quality to serve AMR-HR. Also note that in such
conditions, most robust HR codecs will be used but for high
capacity networks this would be enough

76 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Correlation RXQUAL vs FER in 2sec
PERIOD
With RXQual 5, still AMR-HR can provide enough quality to serve
traffic if high capacity numbers are required.
(TEMS) Distribution of FER in 2sec per RXQUAL class for AMR-HR AHS4.75-AHS7.4 16dB and 3dB Hyst

100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00% RXQual 1
RXQual 2
60.00%
RXQual 3
50.00% RXQual 4
40.00% RXQual 5
RXQual 6
30.00%
RXQual 7
20.00%
10.00%
.00%

10% of
samples
having worse
than 4% FER
WITH RXQual
5
77 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
TEMS Snapshot

In an
environment
around RXQual
5, less than 2
frames erased
per SACCH
period.
AMR-HR with
RXQual 5 could
be used when
trying to have
agressive HR
penetration

78 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Packing/Unpacking threshold selection
From the performance of AMR-HR it can be concluded that RXQual 4
might be a safe value for packing from FR to HR in order to ensure
proper quality of AMR-HR.
If more agressive deployment is required and more penetration of
AMR-HR is aimed at, then RXQual 5 threshold can be used still safely.

(NOTE: In the current implementation of BSS10.5 calls pack when


RXQual is < IHRF and unpack when RXQual is >= IHRH.)

79 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Channel mode adaptation: Additional
notes
HRL and HRU are set on BSC level but load evaluation is based on
working FR TSLs for CS in individual BTS.
Lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL) and upper limit for FR TCH
resources (FRU) are BTS specific parameters. They have priority
over (HRL) and (HRU)
The feature is disable when set HRU <= HRL or FRU <= FRL
Requirements for maximum usage of HR
HRU = 99
HRL = 98
IAC = 1
IHRF = 3, RX Qual 0, 1, 2, 3 are required for packing
IHRH = 4, Rx Qual 4, 5, 6, 7 triggers unpacking
TRIH = 0, no restriction, channel rate selection based on HRI

80 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Other parameters affecting channel
allocation in HOs

81 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


amrConf lnHandover
amrConf lnHandover
1 = the currently used multirate configuration is preferred
2 = the multirate configuration of target BTS is preferred

amrSetGradesEnabl Y/N
Y = downgrades and upgrades are applied
N = downgrades and upgrades are not applied

If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are the same,


these 2 parameters has no impact.

82 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


amrConflnHandover
If multirate configuration of source and target BTS are difference
(e.g. Talk family BTS supports less codecs than UltraSite and
MetroSite), the multirate configuration can be aligned before or
after HO.
Recommendation
amrConflnHandover = 2
amrSetGradesEnabl = Y

Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on source side before HO


if target BTS support less codec (downgraded, UltraSite Talk
family)
Mode modify is triggered for BTS and MS on target side after HO if
target BTS support more codec (upgrade, Talk family UltraSite)
In order to make it possible to connect unidirectional speech path
on target side, the multirate configuration on both sides should be
the same (reduce muting period during HO).

83 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Report 248: Codec set modification failure
ratio

ND 248

84 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH in handover (HRI)
With this parameter you define the traffic channel allocation
during BSS internal or external handovers. The parameter
controls the target cell selection and the TCH channel
rate and speech codec determination in traffic channel
allocation.

HRI = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are


preferred. The call serving type of speech codec inside the call
serving
type of TCH can change.
HRI = 2
Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are
preferred for speech
Channel rate change is possible for data if the radio
interface data rate allows it

85 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH rate intra-cell handover (HRI)
HRI = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied

RHI = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred


speech codec have to be primarily allocated
RHI = 5 ... TCH has to be primarily allocated from
the best BTS of thehandover candidate list.

Recommended value = 1 (default) OR 4

86 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH rate intra-cell handover (TRIH)
With this parameter you control the TCH channel
rate determination in TCH allocation and the TCH
speech codec to be allocated during internal intra-
cell handover.
TRIH = 0 No Constraints. Follows HRI settings
TRIH = 1 Call serving type TCH and speech codec are
preferred Preferred over different type TCH and speech codec

Only when same type TCH and speech codec is not avaialble

TRIH = 2
Call serving type of TCH and speech codec are
preferred for speech
Channel rate change is possible for data if the radio
interface data rate allows it

87 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


TCH rate intra-cell handover (TRIH)
TRIH = 3 Channel rate and speech codec changes are totally denied

Not allowed
x

Allowed

TRIH = 4 Preferred channel rate of TCH and preferred speech codec


have to be primarily allocated

Recommended value = 0 (default)

88 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR specific Hand-Over and Power Control
Parameters

89 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Power Control Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-HR


Different PC thresholds for AMR than for
EFR
AMR allows to use more aggressive PC
thresholds (1-2 classes lower)
Same voting used as for EFR (px/nx)

90 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Parameters
AMR PC Control Thresholds - BTS level parameters

Q3 NAME Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual* LDRF 0 ... 7 EU 4


amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold dl Rx Qual* LDRH 0 ... 7 EU 3
amrPowerControlFr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual* LURF 0 ... 7 EU 4
amrPowerControlHr *lower threshold ul Rx Qual* LURH 0 ... 7 EU 3
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual* UDRF 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold dl Rx Qual* UDRH 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlFr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual* UURF 0 ... 7 EU 0
amrPowerControlHr *upper threshold ul Rx Qual* UURH 0 ... 7 EU 0

91 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Impact at system level of Power Control
Parameters

EFR vs AMR
Performance vs. PC settings
4.5%

4.5%
100% EFR PC=2/3
4.0%

4.0%
100% AMR 3.5%
% Bad Quality Samples

3.5%
3.0%
3.0%

T CH fE R > 4%
2.5%
2.5%
2.0% 2.0%
140 %
1.5% 1.5%

1.0%
1.0%
0.5%
0.5%
100% AMR PC=3/5
0.0%
P C=5/3 PC=5/4 PC=4/3 PC= 3/2 0.0%
PC se ttings 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
EFL( %)

TCH FE R > 4% % ended call avg estimated MOS < 3.5 Codec MA EFR

92 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


RXQual Handover Parameters

Separate thresholds for AMR-FR than for AMR-


HR
Different HO thresholds for AMR than for EFR
Same px/nx values used for both AMR and
EFR
AMR allows to use more aggressive HO
thresholds (1-2 classes lower)
Q3 NAME BTS level parameters
Acronymn RANGE UNIT MML MML Default

Threshold dl Rx qual AMR HR QDRH 0 ... 7 EH 4


Threshold dl Rx qual AMR FR QDRF 0 ... 7 EH 5
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR FR QURF 0 ... 7 EH 5
Threshold ul Rx qual AMR HR QURH 0 ... 7 EH 4

93 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Thresholds Overview

7
6
5 Qual_reason_HO for FR UDRF, UURF

4 unpack HR -> FR
3 Qual_reason_HO for HR; LDRF, LURF
2 pack FR -> HR UDRH, UURH
1
0 LDRH, LURH

94 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Handover Prioritization
When there are cells
In order to facilitate the with AMR and
Call set-up
continuation of an AMR call In AMR environment, without AMR
DADL/B is used
HO target cell list is sorted so that to handover AMR calls from non-AMR-
lightly-loaded AMR-capable cells capable cell to co-located AMR capable
are more attractive. cells during call set-up phase.
AMR-capable cells can be defined Handover
by the AMR target cell of direct AMR cells which load below
access to desired layer (DADLA) BTSLoadThreshold and meet
Prioritized by BTS Load Threshold hoMarginPBGT are prioritised for AMR
call.
(BLT)
Prioritization only used for an on-
going AMR-mode call 1) DADL/B used to direct AMR 2) Prioritisation of AMR capable
mobiles to AMR capable cells cells in handovers

No-AMR SDCCH
2nd gen. BTS
capable
AMR capable
UltraSite TCH
(co-located)

95 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Relation with other HOs: Priority
1. Interference (UL or DL) 8. Downlink level
2. NonBCCHLayerExit 9. MS-BS Distance
3. Uplink quality 10. Turn-around-corner MS
4. Downlink quality 11. Rapid field drop
5. AMR unpacking due to UL 12. Fast/Slow moving MS
level HO threshold and UL
quality (unpacking is started 13. Better cell (Power budget HO or
instead of UL level based HO Umbrella HO)
if both, UL level and UL 14. Load based HO in Common
quality for unpacking triggers) BCCH from BCCH/non-BCCH
6. Uplink level layer to non-BCCH layer
7. AMR unpacking due to DL 15. AMR packing
level HO threshold and DL 16. AMR unpacking
quality (unpacking is started
instead of DL level based HO
if both, DL level and DL
quality for unpacking triggers)

* Priority applies when criteria are fulfilled at the same time


96 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Nokia AMR KPI

97 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Performance Monitoring
AMR brings new speech codecs and channel encoders into air interface
Speech Codecs impact would be reflected in the speech quality perceived
Channel encoding enhancement is translated into better error correction
capabilities (lower FER for same RawBER), which, in turn, enhances the
speech quality
Traditional performance monitoring indicators based on RXQUAL
distribution, or Drop Call Rate, etc. does not reflect clearly the perceived
speech quality by the end user.
New methods to monitor the performance of AMR closer to speech
quality perceived by the user. 2 Main indicators are proposed: FER and O-
MOS (Objective MOS).
O-MOS is not simple to measure
(BSS 10.5) FER is available in UL, but DL FER will be reported when R
99 MS come. In the meantime DL FER is just estimated from RXQUAL
values

RXQUAL FER O-MOS

98 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR KPIs

RXQUAL: Reported raw bit error rate


RXLEV: Reported received power
FER: Frame Erasure Rate (after decoding)
Codec distribution
MOS - speech quality
FER per codec
Call Drop Rate and other standard benchmarking measures

Micros oft Word


Network collected measurements: Document

99 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


MOS & FER
Example of relation MOS-FER:
4-5% FER seems to be acceptable for almost all codecs
Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER Perceived quality (MOS) degradation as a function of the FER
M OS M OS
0.50
(FR Tests in Clean Speech) (HR Tests in Clean Speech)
0.50

0.00
GSM 0.00
06.7
-0.50
5 -0.50

-1.00 -1.00
7.95 HR

-1.50 -1.50 7.4 HR


12.2
10.2 6.7 HR
7.95 FR
-2.00 -2.00 5.9 HR
7.4 FR
6.7 FR
5.9 FR 5.15 HR
-2.50 5.15 FR -2.50
4.75 FR 4.75 HR
FER FER
-3.00 -3.00
0.001% 0.010% 0.100% 1.000% 10.000% 100.000% 0.001% 0.010% 0.100% 1.000% 10.000% 100.000%

MOS degradation for FR MOS degradation for HR

100 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Effect on HO_QUALITY
RXLEV and Power Budget HO parameters identical for AMR
and EFR
AMR call would handover at the same point as an EFR call.

Separate RXQUAL threshold settings for AMR


Default set to worse values than EFR. (e.g. EFR =4, AMR
= 5)
With these default settings AMR calls would be expected
to have fewer HO due to quality
No difference in RXQUAL measurement method between EFR
and AMR
EFR call and AMR call in identical location should show
identical RXQUAL measurements
Packing/Unpacking
Unpacking from HR to FR is always based on RX quality
In congested cell with no available TS for unpacking, Inter-
cell HO required based on RXQUAL.

101 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Effect on HO_Failures
Improved robustness in AMR over EFR
AMR better able to handle poor radio conditions - low RXLEV,
poor RXQUAL, low C/I
Separate RXQUAL HO threshold for AMR
Effort to squeeze more performance from AMR could have
negative impact in case parameters are not properly set up
and/or traffic is low
Packing/Unpacking
Congestion could cause negative impact to HO_Fail
No available TS for unpacking within cell. Inter-cell HO
required

Conclusion
Optimization of separate AMR parameters is important to
ensure no negative impact to HO_Failures. Different
environments will need different parameter settings to
optimise the performance.
Unpacking algorithm under congested conditions may
negatively impact HO_Failures
102 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
AMR Effect on DCR

The AMR feature itself will not impact the individual


connections DCR, but it will affect the overall system
DCR since the interference generated in the network is
lower due to the AMR power control settings.

Radio Link Timeout can be adapted to AMR in order for


dropped calls to maintain the same correlation with voice
quality degradation as with EFR (RLT value could be
moved from 20 to 36, for instance)

103 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Effect on BH_Congestion
Use of AMR HR will decrease BH_Cong
Special dimmensioning techniques are required:
% of HR capable terminals -> system level
Load in busy hour (C/I distribution) determines % of HR
terminals which can use HR -> cluster level
HR Dimmensioning tables determine the traffic (Erlangs) to be
carried for a certain TSL configuration, a certain grade of
service and % of HR traffic -> cell level

104 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Network Doctor Reports related to AMR
REPORTS:
Report 246:
Percentage of call time using non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR
UL/DL RxQual classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR
UL/DL FER classes for non-AMR, AMR-FR and AMR-HR ND 246

Report 244:
Distribution of call samples UL/DL by codecs and RxQual
classes
In FLA the codec mode reported is the last used in 480ms
measurement interval (statistics will be fully accurate for SLA)ND 244
Report 245:
Distribution of call samples UL/DL by FER classes
ND 245

Report 247: Call Failure rate per codec type


ND 447

Report 248: Codec set modification failure ratio ND 248

105 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Nokia AMR Planning Aspects

106 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Link Level Performance of AMR

107 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


C/I vs. FER performance, AMR FR
Frame Error Rates (FER) for ARM, EFR and FR Codecs
on Different C/I conditions (FR -Channel)
C/I [dB]
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0.00%

2.00%

GSM EFR
4.00%
GSM FR
5- AMR 12.2 kbit/s
6dB 6.00% AMR 10.2 kbit/s

FER [%]
AMR 7.95 kbit/s
8.00% AMR 7.4 kbit/s
AMR 6.7 kbit/s
AMR 5.9 kbit/s
10.00% AMR 5.15 kbit/s
AMR 4.75 kbit/s
12.00% GSM HR
TU3-iFH
14.00%

108 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


C/I vs. FER performance, AMR HR
Frame Error Rates (FER) for ARM HR Codecs
on Different C/I conditions (HR -Channel)

C/I [dB] Better


16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Performance
0.00%
than GSM-HR
2.00%
and GSM-FR
(previous slide)
4.00%
GSM HR
6.00% AMR 7.95 kbit/s

FER [%]
AMR 7.4 kbit/s
8.00% AMR 6.7 kbit/s
AMR 5.9 kbit/s
10.00% AMR 5.15 kbit/s
AMR 4.75 kbit/s

TU3-iFH 12.00%

14.00%

109 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


UL lab results for fixed codecs and LA
TU50 non hopping, UL: Speech Quality TU3 RH5, UL: Speech Quality TU3 non hopping, UL: Speech Quality

4.0000 4.0 4.0

3.5000 3.5 3.5

3.0000 3.0 3.0

2.5
2.5000 2.5

PESQ
2.0
PESQ

PESQ
2.0000 2.0
Note that only for 1.5
the case of TU3-rfh5
Speech Quality
1.5000 1.5

1.0000
the real EFR codec 1.0
1.0

0.5000
has been used to
assess PESQ-MOS
0.5
(PESQ-MOS) 0.5
0.0
0.0000 and FER. For other 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0.0
0 2 4 6
cases,
8
CIR(dB)
10
it 12has14been
16 CIR(dB) 0 2 4 6 8
CIR(dB)
10 12 14 16

only AFS12.2 AFS475(1.C.1), PESQ


AFS590(1.C.7), PESQ
AFS122(1.C.2), PESQ
LAdef(1.C.4),PESQ
AFS740(1.C.3), PESQ
LAopt1(1.C.5),PESQ AFS475(1.B.1), PESQ AFS122(1.B.2), PESQ AFS740(1.B.3), PESQ
AFS475(1.A.1), PESQ AFS122(1.A.2), PESQ AFS740(1.A.3), PESQ
AFS590(1.A.7), PESQ LAdef(1.A.4),PESQ LAopt2(1.A.6) EFR(1.C.8) AFS590(1.B.7), PESQ LAdef(1.B.4),PESQ LAopt2(1.B.6),PESQ

TU50 non hopping, UL: FER(%) TU3 RH5, UL ( lab measurements) TU3 non hopping, UL: FER(%)

100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

10.00% 10.00% 10.00%

FER(%)
FER(%)
FER(%)

1.00% 1.00% 1.00%

0.10% 0.10% 0.10%

FER
0.01% 0.01% 0.01%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

CIR(dB) CIR(dB) CIR(dB)

AFS475(1.A.1) AFS122(1.A.2) AFS740(1.A.3) AFS475(1.C.1) AFS122(1.C.2) AFS740(1.C.3) AFS590(1.C.7) AFS475(1.B.1) AFS122(1.B.2) AFS740(1.B.3)
AFS590(1.A.7) LAopt1(1.A.5) LAopt2(1.C.6) Ldef(1.C.4) LAopt1(1.C.5) EFR AFS590(1.B.7) Ldef(1.B.4) LAopt2(1.B.6)

110 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Comparison UL lab results vs.
Simulations
TU50 non hopping, UL: FER(%) TU3 RH5, UL ( lab measurements) TU3 non hopping, UL: FER(%)

100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

10.00% 10.00% 10.00%

FER(%)
FER(%)
FER(%)

1.00% 1.00% 1.00%

0.10% 0.10% 0.10%

Lab
0.01%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.01%
0 2 Measurements
4 6 8
CIR(dB)
10 12 14 16
0.01%
0 2 4 6 8
CIR(dB)
10 12 14 16

CIR(dB)

AFS475(1.A.1) AFS122(1.A.2) AFS740(1.A.3) AFS475(1.C.1) AFS122(1.C.2) AFS740(1.C.3) AFS590(1.C.7) AFS475(1.B.1) AFS122(1.B.2) AFS740(1.B.3)
AFS590(1.A.7) LAopt1(1.A.5) LAopt2(1.C.6) Ldef(1.C.4) LAopt1(1.C.5) EFR AFS590(1.B.7) Ldef(1.B.4) LAopt2(1.B.6)

TU50 no-hop, DL ( Simulations) TU3 RH5, DL ( Simulations) TU3 no-hop, DL ( Simulations)


100.00% 100.00% 100.000%

10.00% 10.00% 10.000%


TCH FER
TCH FER

TCH FER
1.00% 1.00% 1.000%

0.10% 0.10% 0.100%

Simulations
0.01% 0.01% 0.010%

0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15
C/I [dB] C/I [dB] C/I [dB]

AFS4.75 AFS5.90 AFS7.40 AFS12.2


fs475_RH5 fs590_RH5 fs740_RH5 fs122_RH5 AFS4.75 AFS5.90 AFS7.40 AFS12.2

111 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Coverage Enhancement

112 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR Coverage Improvement (link
budget)
AMR 12.2 AMR 5.15
Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink

Transmitter

TX power1 30 dBm 45 dBm 30 dBm 45 dBm

Combiner losses 0 3.4 dB 0 3.4 dB

Cable and 0 2 dB 0 2 dB
connector losses

Body loss 3 dB 0 3 dB 0

TX antenna gain 0 dBi 15 dBi 0 dBi 15 dBi

Receiver:

Antenna gain 15 dBi 0 dBi 15 dBi 0 dBi

Body losses2 0 dB 3 dB 0 dB 3 dB

Link:

SNR requirement 9 dB4 9 dB4 4 dB 4 dB

Receiver sensitivity -107.4 -103.4 -112.4 -106.4

Max. allowed path 149.4 154 155.4 159


loss

Fading marging 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4

Range [km]

4)Estimatedperformancefor1%FERinTU3multipathchannelwithfrequency
hopping
113 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
AMR FR: DL TU50 non-hopping MOS & FER
MOS/FER vs C/I TU50 NO HOP DL

4 16

3.5 14

3 12

2.5
~6 dB 10
EFR MOS
AMR FR MOS
MOS

FER
2 8
12.2 FER
AMR FR FER
1.5 6

1 4

0.5 2

~6 dB
0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
C/I

114 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR FR & HR: DL TU3 FH5 MOS & FER
MOS/FER vs C/I TU3 FH5 DL

4 50

45
3.5

40
3
35
~4 dB EFR MOS
2.5
30
AMR FR MOS
AMR HR MOS
MOS

FER
2 25
12.2 FER
AMR FR FER
20
1.5 AMR HR FER

15
1 ~4 dB
10

0.5 ~1 dB
5

0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
C/I

115 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Field Tests:Sentivitiy Enhancement of
AMR
AMR
EFR

100 100

90 90

80 80

70 70 RXLEV -110 to -108

60 60 RXLEV -108 to -106

50 RXLEV -106 to -104


50
RXLEV -104 to -102
40 40
RXLEV -102 to -100
30 30
RXLEV -100 to -98
20 20
RXLEV -98 to -96
10 10
0 RXLEV -96 to -47
0

The higher robustness of AMR is clear, finding similar behaviour of


AMR in [104,-106] dBm as with EFR in the margin [100,102], so,
at least around 4dB coverage gain.

116 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Dimensioning with AMR-HR

117 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Dimensioning with AMR-HR
Erlang B table can not be used for dimensioning when AMR-HR
penetration is foreseen
That is, if all TSL are configured as DR, then the maximum traffic
that can be served with less than 2% GoS is not the one
provided by Erlang-B table when doubling the amount of
channels.
The reason is because now AMR-HR is not used in all TSL but
only in those that has good radio conditions.
New tables have been produced taking the percentage of traffic
that could be handled by HR.
These tables have been produced using a mathematical model
based on Markov processes (see reference at the end of the
material).

118 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Example of reduction of TSL required
with AMR-HR
Saving Factor = % of resources (TS) saved by using AMR-HR

2% GoS % of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR (for example C/I > 12dB)
# Time Slots 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
1 0.0% 0.2% 0.5% 1.2% 2.3% 3.7% 6.5% 7.5% 17.2% 34.0% 50.0%
2 0.0% 0.8% 2.5% 5.2% 9.2% 13.9% 19.7% 25.7% 32.5% 41.4% 50.0%
3
4
0.0%
0.0%
1.0%
1.3%
3.2%
4.1%
By using AMR-HR,
6.6%
8.1%
11.1%
12.9%
16.2%
18.3%
22.1%
24.1%
28.3%
30.0%
35.3%
36.5%
42.6%
43.2%
50.0%
50.0%
5 0.0% 1.6% 4.8% when 70% of the
9.2% 14.3% 19.6% 25.3% 31.0% 37.2% 43.6% 50.0%
resources
Saving in

6 0.0% 2.0% 5.4% 10.0% 15.2% 20.5% 26.1% 31.7% 37.6% 43.8% 50.0%
7 0.0% 2.2% 5.9% network has
10.6% 15.9% 21.1% 26.6% 32.1% 38.0% 44.0% 50.0%
8
9
0.0%
0.0%
2.5%
2.8%
6.4%
6.7%
conditions for AMR-
11.1%
11.5%
16.4%
16.7%
21.6%
21.9%
27.0%
27.3%
32.5%
32.7%
38.2%
38.4%
44.1%
44.2%
50.0%
50.0%
10 0.0% 3.0% 7.0% HR, we can save
11.8% 17.1% 22.2% 27.6% 33.0% 38.5% 44.3% 50.0%
11
12
0.0%
0.0%
3.1%
3.2%
7.3%
7.4%
34% if 24 AMR-HR
12.1%
12.3%
17.3%
17.5%
22.5%
22.7%
27.8%
28.0%
33.1%
33.3%
38.7%
38.8%
44.3%
44.4%
50.0%
50.0%
13 0.0% 3.3% 7.6% capable TS are
12.5% 17.7% 22.9% 28.1% 33.4% 38.9% 44.4% 50.0%
14 0.0% 3.4% 7.7% 12.6% 17.9% 23.0% 28.2% 33.5% 38.9% 44.5% 50.0%
15 0.0% 3.5% 7.9% available (we would
12.8% 18.0% 23.1% 28.4% 33.6% 39.0% 44.5% 50.0%
16 0.0% 3.6% 8.0% need 36 TS with only
12.9% 18.1% 23.2% 28.4% 33.7% 39.1% 44.5% 50.0%
24 0.0% 4.0% 8.6% 13.6% 18.7% 23.8% 28.9% 34.1% 39.4% 44.7% 50.0%
32 0.0% 4.2% 8.8% FR to serve the same
13.8% 18.9% 24.0% 29.1% 34.3% 39.5% 44.8% 50.0%
40
48
0.0%
0.0%
4.2%
4.2%
8.9%
9.0%
13.9%
14.0%
traffic)
19.1%
19.2%
24.2%
24.3%
29.3%
29.4%
34.4%
34.5%
39.6%
39.7%
44.9%
44.9%
50.0%
50.0%
56 0.0% 4.2% 8.9% 14.0% 19.3% 24.3% 29.5% 34.6% 39.8% 44.9% 50.0%

119 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


AMR-HR DIMENSIONING ISSUES
Erlang B table can not be used for dimensioning when AMR-HR
penetration is foreseen
this table displays the traffic that can be served for different number of
Time Slots (TS) available and different penetrations of AMR-HR
for example, 70% HR penetration the number of TS required to serve
16.7 Erlangs is just 16, while for pure AMR-FR it would require around 24
time slots to serve the same traffic (around 33% saving in resources)
2% GoS % of users with good conditions to use AMR-HR
# Time Slots 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
1 0.0204 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.22
2 0.2236 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.37 0.45 0.58 0.79 1.09
3 0.6024 0.62 0.65 0.70 0.77 0.87 1.01 1.19 1.44 1.80 2.28
4 1.0927 1.12 1.18 1.28 1.42 1.59 1.82 2.10 2.47 2.97 3.63
5 1.6578 1.71 1.81 1.96 2.17 2.42 2.73 3.11 3.60 4.25 5.08
6 2.2769 2.35 2.50 2.71 2.99 3.31 3.71 4.19 4.80 5.60 6.61
7 2.9367 3.04 3.24 3.51 3.85 4.25 4.74 5.32 6.06 7.00 8.20
8 3.6287 3.77 4.01 4.35 4.76 5.24 5.81 6.50 7.36 8.45 9.83
9 4.3468 4.53 4.82 5.21 5.70 6.25 6.92 7.71 8.69 9.93 11.49
10 5.0864 5.31 5.65 6.11 6.66 7.29 8.05 8.94 10.05 11.45 13.18
11 5.8443 6.11 6.51 7.02 7.64 8.35 9.20 10.20 11.44 12.98 14.90
12 6.6178 6.92 7.37 7.94 8.65 9.43 10.37 11.48 12.84 14.53 16.63
13 7.405 7.75 8.25 8.89 9.66 10.53 11.56 12.77 14.26 16.11 18.38
14 8.204 8.60 9.15 9.85 10.69 11.64 12.76 14.08 15.70 17.69 20.15
15 9.0137 9.45 10.06 10.82 11.74 12.77 13.98 15.41 17.15 19.29 21.93
16 9.8328 10.32 10.98 11.81 12.79 13.90 15.21 16.74 18.61 20.91 23.73
24 16.636 17.50 18.60 19.94 21.52 23.27 25.33 27.72 30.62 34.13 38.39
32 23.729 24.98 26.52 28.37 30.52 32.93 35.75 39.04 42.99 47.73 53.43
40 30.998 32.62 34.61 36.98 39.74 42.82 46.41 50.59 55.58 61.55 68.69
48 38.387 40.36 42.80 45.71 49.08 52.84 57.20 62.28 68.32 75.52 84.10
56 45.863 48.16 51.05 54.51 58.52 62.96 68.09 74.07 81.16 89.60 99.62

120 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Introducing AMR HR (e.g. 2 TRX Cell)
Phase 0: Existing EFR FR:
16 Ch/Cell, 13 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 7 Erl/Cell*
TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TRX1 S S F F F F F G
TRX2 F F F F F F F F

Phase 1: Adding 1 DR TSL per TRX:


18 Ch/Cell, 15 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 9 Erl/Cell*
TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TRX1 S S D F F F F G
TRX2 D F F F F F F F

Phase 2: All Voice TSL are DR:


29 Ch/Cell, 26 Voice Ch/Cell, Max. 18 Erl/Cell*
TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TRX1 S S D D D D D G
TRX2 D D D D D D D D

Phase 2 essentially DOUBLES the voice capacity compared to phase 0. Signaling load between BSC and MSC has to be considered as well

* at 2% Blocking rate, using Erlang B considering HR is used without Radio Link Constrains

121 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


System Level Performance of AMR-FR
Simulations

122 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Simulation Scenario
Regular
RegularHexagonal
Hexagonalgrid
gridwith
with3-
3-
sector sites
sector sites

Interference
Limited
Scenario

123 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Simulation parameters
Simulated network structure:
- Number of base stations 25 3-sector BTSs (75 cells)
- Antennas 65 sectorized
- Intersite distance 1.5 km
- Number of TRXs 4-6
- Frequency Reuse 1/1 (FH)
- BCCH TRX Reuse 12 - 9 (not
included in hop.)
- Frequency spectrum 5 MHz (12 hopping
freqs) Mobile velocity 3 km/h
Call mean hold time 120s (exp. distribution)
Type of frequency hopping Random hopping
DTX factor 0.5
Power Control On
AMR codec mode adaptation On
AMR full-rate modes in use: 12.2 kbit/s 7.4
kbit/s
1 Sample = 2 secs (96 Speech
5.9Frames);
kbit/s 4.75
kbit/s
1 Bad Quality Sample(BQS) = Sample with
FER>4.2%
X-axis for hopping plots = EFL = Effective Frequency
Load (how much each frequency is on the air) Traffic
124 NOKIA (E)/(8*#hop.freqs)
Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
CIR vs FER link level in simulator
TU3, no Hop TU3, RH12

100.00% TU 100.000%

3
10.00% 10.000%

FER(%)
FER(%)

1.00% 1.000%

0.10% 0.100%

0.01% 0.010%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
CIR(dB) CIR(dB)

AFS122, no Hop AFS475, no Hop LA, no Hop AFS122, no Hop AFS475, no Hop LA, no Hop

Link Level performance in simulator for non-hopping seems to be


quite similar to the one measured in Nokia lab for UL
Link Level Performance in simulator for hoppig over 12
frequencies seems to be aligned with Nokia lab results for UL
(between performance for TU3 rfh5 and TU50 non-hop)

125 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Performance of AMR-FR
(100% AMR penetration vs 100% EFR)
BCCH layer (no- Hopping layer (12
hop) freqs.) EFR vs AMR
PERFORMANCE OF TRAFFIC CHANNELS OF BCCH
FOR EFR AND AMR-FR
AND BOTH 9-BCCH AND 12-BCCH REUSES TU 4.5%

3 4.0%

16%
3.5%
% Bad Quality Samples

14%
3.0%
12%

Quality
fER > 4%
10% 2.5%

8%
2.0%
140

% BadTCH
Samples
6%
4% 1.5% %
2% 1.0%
0%
0.5%
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Erlangs per cell in BCCH 0.0%
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
AMR traffic; 12 BCCH EFR traffic; 12 BCCH
EFL(%)
AMR traffic; 9 BCCH EFR traffic; 9 BCCH
CodecMA EFR

AMR
AMRwith
withBCCH
BCCHreuse
reuse99performs
performs At
At2%
2%outage
outageof
ofBQS,
BQS,AMRAMR
similar
similar to EFR with BCCHreuse
to EFR with BCCH reuse allows
allows 140% more trafficthan
140% more traffic than
12
12 EFR.
EFR.
126 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
AMR Penetration
EFR vs AMR penetration

4.5% Most of the practical cases there


4.0% will be mixed AMR and EFR
3.5% mobiles in the network at the
3.0% same time
TCH FER > 4%
% Bad Quality

2.5%

2.0%
Therefore, very tight frequency
plan may not be feasible in order
Samples

1.5%

1.0% to maintain good speech quality


0.5% with existing EFR calls
0.0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
EFL(%)
AMR capacity gain (%)

0 % AMR / 100% EFR 25% AMR / 75% EFR 63% AMR / 37 % EFR
160%
100 % AMR / 0% EFR Poly. (100 % AMR / 0% EFR)
140%

(%)
TCH FER decreases considerably 120%

Gain (%)
when AMR penetration increases

CapacityGain
100%

80%
Increased TCH quality can be turned
Capacity
60%

into capacity by allowing more traffic 40%

to the network 20%

About 140% traffic increase is 0%


25% AMR 63%AMR 100%AMR

attained with 100% AMR penetration AMR penetration

127 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential


Effect of AMR LA at network level
From FER point of view, the usage However, the gain of AMR LA is
of the most robust codec that the Speech Quality (SQ) is
(AFS475) improves the improved as the codec providing
performance of the network vs LA best SQ should be always used
FR AMR Codecs FER performance FR AMR Codecs MOS performance

4.0% 2.5%

FER
3.5%

3.0%
Hopping 2.0% MOS Hoppin

% ended calls avg estimated MOS<3


layer g layer
2.5%
TCH fER > 4%

1.5%
% Bad Quality

2.0%

1.5% 1.0%
Samples

1.0%
0.5%
0.5%

0.0% 0.0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
EFL(%) EFL(%)

AFS122 AFS740 AFS590 AFS475 CodecMA AFS122 AFS740 AFS590 AFS475 CodecMA

POWER CONTROL OFF IN THESE


128 NOKIA SIMULATIONS
Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Impact of LA Thresholds
C_th1 C_th2 C_th3 C_th4 C_th5
th1 9 11 13 15 17
th2 5 7 9 11 13
FER CodecMA vs AFS475 th3 2 4 6 8 10 MOS PER FORMAN C E

3.86 8%
0.8%

3.85 7%
0.7%

0.6% 3.84 6%

BQC (MOS <3.5)


0.5% 3.83 5%

AVG. MOS
FER(%)

0.4% 3.82 4%

0.3% 3.81 3%

0.2% CODEC USAGE 3.80 2%

0.1% 100% 3.79 1%

0.0% 90% 3.78 0%


C_Th1 C_Th2 C_Th3 C_Th4 C_Th5 C_Th1 C_Th2 C_Th3 C_Th4 C_Th5
80%
THRESHOLD SET THRESHOLD SET
% SPEECH FRAME USAGE

70%
% FER (CodecMA) % FER samples > 4.2% Average MOS (1) % ended calls avg MOS < 3.5
60%

50%
The
The higher
higher the the 40%

thresholds
thresholds the lower
the lower 30%

the FER, but


the FER, but the the 20%

worse
worse the the Speech
Speech 10%

Quality as codecs
Quality as codecs
0%
C_Th1 C_Th2 C_Th3 C_Th4 C_Th5

more
more robust
robust (4.75,
(4.75, THRESHOLD SET

5.90)
5.90) are used more
are used more % AFS122 %AFS740 % AFS590 % AFS475

often.
129
often.
NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential
Codec Usage for different loads
Codec usage in 100% AMR case

100%

90%

80%

70%
% codec usage

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
21% 32%
EFL(%)

AFS475 AFS590 AFS740 AFS122

The higher the load the worse radio conditions and therefore
higher usage of more robust codec, impacting in Speech Quality

130 NOKIA Presentation_Name.PPT / DD-MM-YYYY / Initials Company Confidential