You are on page 1of 22

Fuel and Petroleum Products

I. FUEL GAS AND


LPG
FUEL GASES
Fuel gases are a range
of products based on
hydrogen and
hydrocarbon molecules
that are burned normally
with an oxidant to
produce thermal energy.
FUEL GASES: Examples
Acetylene (C2H2) - lighter than air and gives the
highest flame temperature of all fuel gases. It
also uses the least amount of oxygen to give
complete combustion
Hydrogen (H2) - lighter than air and burns with
an invisible flame. It is also the only fuel gas
that does not contain any carbon atoms
Propane (C3H8) - heavier than air, having both a
high primary and secondary flame temperature
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum
Gas)
Liquefied petroleum
gas (LPG) is a group
of flammable
hydrocarbon gases
thatare liquefied
through
pressurisationand
commonly used as
fuel.
LPG (Liquefied
Petroleum Gas)

n-propane

Isobutane
(2-methylpropane)
n-butane
LPG (Liquefied
Petroleum Gas)
LPG is madeduring
natural gas
processing and oil
refining.
LPG is separated
from unprocessed
natural gas using
refrigeration.
LPG (Liquefied
Petroleum Gas)
LPG is extracted
from heated crude
oil using a
distillation tower.
It is stored
pressurised, as a
liquid, in cylinders
or tanks.
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum
Gas)

The level of fill in the


gas bottle comes into
play when the LPG is
being used, as it
affects the rate of
vaporization.
LPG FACTS

Caution should always be used to avoid


direct exposure, as liquid LPG is cold
enough to cause severe cold burns on
exposed skin.
When it is burning properly, theflame
is blue.A yellow or red flame is usually
indicative of incomplete combustion.
LPG Explosions are Really Rare
LPG is a Renewable Energy Source
II. GASOLINE
GASOLINE

Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid


obtained from the refinement of
petroleum, or crude oil. It was originally
discarded as a by-product of
keroseneproduction, but its ability to
vaporize at low temperatures made it a
useful fuel for many machines.
GASOLINE

Gasoline is one of the products


derived fromdistillingand refining
petroleum.. Other chemicals are
also added to gasoline to further
stabilize it and improve its color
and smell in a process called
"sweetening."
GASOLINE : Rating
Gasoline is primarily a mixture of two
volatile liquids,heptaneand isooctane.

n-heptane
Isooctane
(2,2,4-
Trimethylpentane)
III. SOLVENT, FUEL
OILS, AND OTHER
PRODUCTS
SOLVENTS
Liquids which have the ability to
dissolve, suspend or extract other
materials.
They are petroleum derivatives and
enable the processing, application,
cleaning or separation of materials.
SOLVENTS

Petroleum Spirit - a flammable


petroleum distillate that boils lower
than kerosine and is suitable for use
as a solvent and thinner especially
for paints and varnishes.
FUEL OILS

Fuel oils are comprised of mixtures


of petroleum distillate hydrocarbons.
The various kinds of fuel oils are
obtained by distilling crude oil, and
removing the different fractions.
FUEL OILS : Types

DISTILLATE OILS RESIDUAL OILS

Fuel oils #5 and #6


Fuel oils #1, #2, and
#5 - (bunker oil) is used
#3 in large stationary
#1 oil which has been engines, power plants,
filtered to clean it up. and very large
Ex. Kerosene commercial boilers.
#2 home heating oil #6 - is used to make
#3 - distillate fuel oil asphalt for paving and
that is not in wide is burned in some large
use. commercial boilers.
OTHER PRODUCTS:
Constituents
Crude petroleum is made up of
thousands of different chemical
substances. Most constituents are
hydrocarbons but there are
significant amounts of compounds
containing nitrogen ( 0-0.5%), sulfur
(0-6%), and oxygen(0-3.5%).
OTHER PRODUCTS:
Constituents
Paraffin Wax ointments, candles
Diesel for heavy motor vehicles
Bitumen for paints and road
surfacing
Lubricating oils for lubrication
REFERENCES

http://www.lindeus.com/en/products_
and_supply/fuel_gases/index.html
http://www.elgas.com.au/blog/453-the
-science-a-properties-of-lpg
http://www.4college.co.uk/as/df/octa
ne.php
http://www.arab-oil-naturalgas.com/wh
at-is-lpg/
http://www.elgas.com.au/blog/492-wha
t-is-lpg-lpg-gas-lp-gas
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/G