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Motors:

a System Approach

Kurt Heinzmann
DEKA Research & Development Corp.

January 2007
General Topics

Example problems
Problem formulation and analysis
Manufacturers' torque curves and specification sheets
Temperature rise
Power loss in battery, wires and other components
Gear ratio
Review of motors from a previous Kit of Parts
Background
Energy
Power
Power loss
Analysis
Test
Energy
Work is energy.
Example: effort times displacement
Force is effort
Distance is displacement

Power
Power is how fast work gets done.
Example: effort times speed
Power
Power is a measure of how fast work gets done.
POWER = EFFORT x FLOW (speed)

EFFORT FLOW
force travel speed
torque rotating speed
pressure flow of fluid
voltage flow of electrons
thinking doing
Power Loss in the
Mechanism
Some power from the motor is lost due to
friction in the mechanism
Gears, belts, cables
Bearings, guides
Tires, balls, or other deformable items
Damage
Contamination
Power loss is heat
Power required at the motor
Power at the motor = power required at the
point of use + power lost in the mechanism
Power loss is heat
Power loss in the motor
Power is lost in the motor due to friction,
damping, and electrical resistance
Power loss is heat. Overloading will cause
excessive temperature rise. Use appropriate
gear ratio.
Analysis
Example problems
Important motor parameters
Motor model revised to include other losses
(wires, battery, switches, fuses, etc.)
Gear ratio
Basic Theory
Torque is rotating EFFORT, speed is
rotating FLOW
Torque = force x radius

Voltage is electrical EFFORT, current is


FLOW of electrons
Power = EFFORT x FLOW
Mechanical power P(mech) = torque x speed
Electrical power P(elec) = voltage x current
Units, Conversions
International System (SI) of units
Symbol
used Abbrev- Alternate
Item here Comment SI unit iation unit Conversion
Force Mechanical effort newton N lb. 1 lb. = 4.45 N
Distance Mechanical displacement metre m In. 1 in. = 0.0254 m
Speed Travelling speed metre/second m/s mph 1 mph = 0.45 m/s
Torque Turning effort newton metre Nm lb-in
Angle Angular displacement radian rad degree 360 = 2 rad
Speed Rotating speed radian/second rad/s rpm 1 rpm = 0.105 rad/s
Time Dont have much second s min., h 1 h = 3600 s
Voltage V Electrical effort volt V
Current i Electrical flow ampere A
Power P Rate of work watt W hp 1 hp = 746 W
Resistance R Cause of power loss as heat ohm
Energy Work joule (Nm) J ft-lb
Pressure Fluid effort pascal (N/m2) Pa psi 1 psi = 6900 Pa
Flow Fluid flow (at stated pressure) cubic metre/s m3/s CFM 1 CFM = 0.00047 m3/s
Prefixes: m = milli- = one thousandth (mm, mNm)
k = kilo- = one thousand (km, kW)
Why use SI units?
Fewer mistakes than when using U.S.
Customary units
A motor converts electrical power to mechanical
power.
If we express electrical power and mechanical power
in the same units (watts), we know whats happening
at both ends of the motor, and inside it.
Many are named after famous scientists
Advice: Convert each parameter to SI units
before doing any other calculation.
Consolation: you can always convert back to
US customary units.
Problem 1
Accelerate to a speed
Problem 1
Mass: m = 150 lb. = 68 kg
Speed: v = 6 ft./s = 1.8 m/s
Acceleration: a = 1.8 m/s per second = 1.8 m/s2
Force = m x a = 68 kg x 1.8 m/s2 = 122 N
Force from each wheel: F = 122 N / 2 = 61 N
Power: P = F x v = 61 N x 1.8 m/s = 110 W
Problem 2
Lift a weight a distance within a time
Problem 2
Gravitational constant: g = 9.8 m/s2
Weight: W = 14 lb. = 61 N
Force: F = W = 61 N
Height: h = 6 ft. = 1.8 m
Time: t = 4 s
Speed: v = 1.8 m/ 4 s = 0.45 m/s
Power: P = F x v = 61 N x 0.45 m/s = 28 W
Basic Motor Theory
Electrical Components
Basic Motor Theory
Basic Motor Theory
Important motor parameters

Applied voltage ( V )

Stall torque ( stall )


Stall current ( istall )
Free speed ( free )

Resistance ( R )
Fisher-Price Motor
Fisher-Price Motor (2005)
From data sheet:

Stall torque stall = 0.65 Nm

Stall current istall = 148 A


Free speed free = 2513 rad/s
Reference voltage V = 12 V

Calculate:
Resistance R = 12 V /148 A = 0.081
Fisher-Price Motor Current
(For detailed analysis, see " Getting the Most
From Your Motors" by Kurt Heinzmann, 2006)

Fisher-Price motor

160

148 A
140

120

100
Current, A

80

60

40

20

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)
Fisher-Price Motor - Speed

Fisher-Price motor

2500

2000
Speed (rad/s)

1500

1000

500

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)
Fisher-Price Motor - Power output

Fisher-Price motor

2000

1500
Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
Torque (Nm)
Fisher-Price Motor - Input Power

Fisher-Price motor

2000
1800 W
Output power, W

Input power, W
1500
Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)
Fisher-Price Motor - Power loss

Fisher-Price motor

2000

Output power, W 1800 W

Power loss, W
1500 Input power, W
Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)
Fisher-Price Motor - Efficiency

Fisher-Price motor

100

90

80 76%

70
Efficiency, %

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)
Motor performance based on data sheet
Fisher-Price motor

2500

Output power, W
2000
Speed (rad/s); Power (W)

Speed, rad/s

1500

1000

500

407 W

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 Stall 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Peak power occurs when torque = stall / 2,

and when speed = free /2


Real World: Power loss

14 AWG wire: 3.0 m/ft.


12 AWG wire: 1.9 m/ft.
10 AWG wire: 1.2 m/ft.
6 AWG wire: 0.5 m/ft. (Copper at 65 C)
Resistance of electrical
system components
Fisher-
Price
JIDECO Power
Component (Resistance is window lift Wheels CIM
expressed in ohms) motor motor motor
Motor (nominal) 0.570 0.081 0.105

Hot motor (40% increase) 0.798 0.113 0.147


Battery 0.030 0.030 0.030
Wires (10 ft. of 12 AWG) 0.019 0.019 0.019
Breakers, connectors, switch 0.020 0.020 0.020
Total 0.867 0.182 0.216
Ratio
R(system)/R(motor nominal) 1.5 2.3 2.1
Simplified electrical system
model
System model

Additional resistance reduces stall torque


proportionally.

Divide the stall torque on the torque/speed


diagram by the factor Rsystem/Rmotor(nominal)

Fisher-Price: stall = 0.65 Nm/2.3 = 0.28 Nm


Performance of the system compared with
motor performance based on data sheet
Fisher-Price motor
2500

Output power, W
2000
Speed (rad/s); Power (W)

Speed, rad/s

1500

1000

SYSTEM DATA SHEET

500

(Was 407 W)
(Was
0.65 Nm)
173 W Stall: 0.28 Nm
0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70
Torque, Nm
CIM motor
(also known as Chiaphua and Atwood)
CIM motor data and curves

Stall torque stall = 347 oz-in = 2.45 Nm


Stall current istall = 114 A
Free speed free = 5342 rpm = 560 rad/s
Free current ifree = 2.4 A
Rsystem/Rmotor(nominal) = 2.1
Comparison of power available from
Fisher-Price Motor and CIM motor
Motor power after including system losses

450

400
Fisher-Price in system
350
CIM in system
300
Output power, W

250

200 173 W
155 W

150

100

50
Stall: 2.45 Nm/2.1 = 1.2 Nm
0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50
Torque, Nm
Mechanical Components

Gear ratio Ng = /
in out

Gear efficiency g = Pout/Pin

out =
in / Ng;
out = g x Ng x
in
"Gear" ratio:
Mechanical power transmission
efficiency is important
Spur gears: 90% per pair
Worm and gear: 10%-60%
Nut on a screw: 10%-60%
Twist cables: 30%-90%
Chain: 85%-95%
Wire rope (cables): up to 98%
Rack and pinion 50%-80%
System with gearbox
Gear ratio example
Fisher-Price motor with gear reduction
Given:
Gear ratio Ng = 4.6:1

Gear efficiency g = 90%

Calculate:

Output torque out = g x Ng x in = 4.14 x in

Output speed out = motor / Ng = 0.217 x motor


Is the little motor/gearbox combination the
same as the big motor?
Comparison of CIM (straight) with Fisher-Price geared down 4.6:1
(gear efficiency = 90%)
1000 200
CIM speed in system
900 Fisher-Price speed in system, 4.6:1 180
CIM power in system
157 W
800 Fisher-Price power in system, 4.6:1 160

700 140
Output speed, rad/s

Output power, W
600 120

500 100

400 80

300 60

200 40

100 20

0 0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Torque, Nm
The big (CIM) motor will not heat
up as fast as the small motor,
because it contains more material.
Problem 1
( v = 1.8 m/s; F = 61 N)
Motor speed: motor = free /2 = 559 rad/s/2 = 280 rad/s
We wish to try 8" wheels: Rwheel = 4" = 0.1 m

Wheel speed: motor = v / Rwheel = (1.8 m/s)/(0.1 m) = 18 rad/s

Gear ratio: Ng = motor / wheel = (280 rad/s)/(18 rad/s) = 16


Check torque and propulsion force:
Usual limit per stage is 5:1 - need two stages.
Gear efficiency: g = 0.9 x 0.9 = 0.81
Wheel torque:

wheel = g x Ng x stall /2 = 0.81 x 16 x 1.2 Nm/2 = 7.8 Nm

Force: F = wheel /Rwheel = (7.8 Nm)/(0.1 m) = 78 N (OK)


Just right
CIM motor as wheel drive motor,
Geared 16:1 (81% gear efficiency)
100 200
CIM speed in system, 16:1
90 180
CIM power in system, 16:1

80 160

70 140
125 W
Output speed, rad/s

60 120

Output power, W
50 100

40 80

30 60

20 40

10 20

0 0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0
Torque, Nm
Problem 2 ( v = 0.45 m/s; F = 61 N)
We wish to try a screw with Fisher-Price motor.

Screw speed = motor speed: screw = free / 2 = 2513 rad/s/2 =


1256 rad/s

screw =(1256 rad/s)/(2 rad/revolution) = 200 rev./s


Screw pitch:
p = v/screw = (0.45 m/s)/(200 rev./s) = 0.00225 m/rev. = 0.00036 m/rad
(11 threads per inch).
Check torque and force:
Assume screw efficiency = 20%

Torque: screw = motor = stall / 2 = 0.28 Nm/2 = 0.14 Nm


Force:
F = g x screw / p = (0.2 x 0.14 Nm)/(0.00036 m/rad) = 78 N (OK)
Summary of motors in the
2005 Kit of Parts
sorted by peak output power

Peak
power,
Reference Stall torque Stall Stall Free Free Free 10.5 V Resist-
Number on Voltage on Gear (as from torque current speed speed current supply ance
Supplier motor Motor name Description data sheet ratio data sheet) (Nm) (A) (rpm) (rad/s) (A) (W) (ohm)
Fisher- 74550-0642 Power Wheels Motor only
Price 12 647 mNm 0.647 148 24000 2513 1.5 312 0.08
CIM FR801-001 (Chiaphua, Keyed output
Atwood) shaft, ccw 12 346.9 oz-in 2.45 114 5342 559 2.3 261 0.11
Fisher- 74550-0642 Power Wheels Motor and
Price gearbox 12 180.8 77 148 133 13.9 2.5 203 0.08
Globe 409A586 2WD/4WD Motor only
transfer mtr. 12 35 oz in 0.247 21.5 9390 983 0.4 46 0.56
Taigene 16638628 Sliding (van) Worm 34 Nm cw,
door Gearmotor 10.5 30 Nm ccw 30 44 75 7.9 2.7 44 0.24
Globe 409A587 2WD/4WD Planetary
transfer mtr. Gearmotor 12 117 13 21.5 80 8.4 0.58 24 0.56
Nippon- E6DF- Window Lift Worm
Denso 14A365-BB Gearmotor 12.6 9.2 Nm 9.2 24.8 92 9.6 2.8 16 0.51
Jideco Window Lift Worm
Gearmotor 12 8.33 Nm 8.33 21 85 8.9 3 14 0.57
Mabuchi RS454SH W/spur gear Spur pinion
ccw on shaft 12 620 g-cm 0.061 5.2 4700 492 0.22 5.7 2.31
Comparison of motors in
the 2005 Kit of Parts
Speed and torque at peak power with 10.5 V supply

100000

10000

Fisher-Price motor alone


Speed, rad/s

1000
500 W
Globe motor alone
200 W
Mabuchi CIM
100 W
100
50 W

20 W

10 W
10 5W Nippon Fisher-Price
Taigene
Jideco with
Globe with its gearbox
its gearhead
1
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Torque, Nm
Keep batteries charged.
Battery voltage with pulse load:
Discharge current: 50 A for 10 s, 0 A for 10 s (shared between two 30 A breakers).
Battery nominal capacity when discharged at 0.9 A (20 hour discharge rate): 18 Ah
16
Discharged capacity, Ah; Voltage, V

14

12

10

8 Battery voltage

6 Discharged capacity 6.3 Ah

0
0 5 10 15
Time, minutes

Delivered capacity was only one third of rated capacity.


Conclusion
Proper motor selection, good wiring, an
appropriate gear ratio, aligned mechanical
components, and a full battery will keep you
alive in the heat of the battle.

Power loss is often a significant fraction of the


power used to do work. Include all losses in
analysis.

Analyze, but test, too!

Have fun