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a System Approach

Kurt Heinzmann

DEKA Research & Development Corp.

January 2007

General Topics

Example problems

Problem formulation and analysis

Manufacturers' torque curves and specification sheets

Temperature rise

Power loss in battery, wires and other components

Gear ratio

Review of motors from a previous Kit of Parts

Background

Energy

Power

Power loss

Analysis

Test

Energy

Work is energy.

Example: effort times displacement

Force is effort

Distance is displacement

Power

Power is how fast work gets done.

Example: effort times speed

Power

Power is a measure of how fast work gets done.

POWER = EFFORT x FLOW (speed)

EFFORT FLOW

force travel speed

torque rotating speed

pressure flow of fluid

voltage flow of electrons

thinking doing

Power Loss in the

Mechanism

Some power from the motor is lost due to

friction in the mechanism

Gears, belts, cables

Bearings, guides

Tires, balls, or other deformable items

Damage

Contamination

Power loss is heat

Power required at the motor

Power at the motor = power required at the

point of use + power lost in the mechanism

Power loss is heat

Power loss in the motor

Power is lost in the motor due to friction,

damping, and electrical resistance

Power loss is heat. Overloading will cause

excessive temperature rise. Use appropriate

gear ratio.

Analysis

Example problems

Important motor parameters

Motor model revised to include other losses

(wires, battery, switches, fuses, etc.)

Gear ratio

Basic Theory

Torque is rotating EFFORT, speed is

rotating FLOW

Torque = force x radius

FLOW of electrons

Power = EFFORT x FLOW

Mechanical power P(mech) = torque x speed

Electrical power P(elec) = voltage x current

Units, Conversions

International System (SI) of units

Symbol

used Abbrev- Alternate

Item here Comment SI unit iation unit Conversion

Force Mechanical effort newton N lb. 1 lb. = 4.45 N

Distance Mechanical displacement metre m In. 1 in. = 0.0254 m

Speed Travelling speed metre/second m/s mph 1 mph = 0.45 m/s

Torque Turning effort newton metre Nm lb-in

Angle Angular displacement radian rad degree 360 = 2 rad

Speed Rotating speed radian/second rad/s rpm 1 rpm = 0.105 rad/s

Time Dont have much second s min., h 1 h = 3600 s

Voltage V Electrical effort volt V

Current i Electrical flow ampere A

Power P Rate of work watt W hp 1 hp = 746 W

Resistance R Cause of power loss as heat ohm

Energy Work joule (Nm) J ft-lb

Pressure Fluid effort pascal (N/m2) Pa psi 1 psi = 6900 Pa

Flow Fluid flow (at stated pressure) cubic metre/s m3/s CFM 1 CFM = 0.00047 m3/s

Prefixes: m = milli- = one thousandth (mm, mNm)

k = kilo- = one thousand (km, kW)

Why use SI units?

Fewer mistakes than when using U.S.

Customary units

A motor converts electrical power to mechanical

power.

If we express electrical power and mechanical power

in the same units (watts), we know whats happening

at both ends of the motor, and inside it.

Many are named after famous scientists

Advice: Convert each parameter to SI units

before doing any other calculation.

Consolation: you can always convert back to

US customary units.

Problem 1

Accelerate to a speed

Problem 1

Mass: m = 150 lb. = 68 kg

Speed: v = 6 ft./s = 1.8 m/s

Acceleration: a = 1.8 m/s per second = 1.8 m/s2

Force = m x a = 68 kg x 1.8 m/s2 = 122 N

Force from each wheel: F = 122 N / 2 = 61 N

Power: P = F x v = 61 N x 1.8 m/s = 110 W

Problem 2

Lift a weight a distance within a time

Problem 2

Gravitational constant: g = 9.8 m/s2

Weight: W = 14 lb. = 61 N

Force: F = W = 61 N

Height: h = 6 ft. = 1.8 m

Time: t = 4 s

Speed: v = 1.8 m/ 4 s = 0.45 m/s

Power: P = F x v = 61 N x 0.45 m/s = 28 W

Basic Motor Theory

Electrical Components

Basic Motor Theory

Basic Motor Theory

Important motor parameters

Applied voltage ( V )

Stall current ( istall )

Free speed ( free )

Resistance ( R )

Fisher-Price Motor

Fisher-Price Motor (2005)

From data sheet:

Free speed free = 2513 rad/s

Reference voltage V = 12 V

Calculate:

Resistance R = 12 V /148 A = 0.081

Fisher-Price Motor Current

(For detailed analysis, see " Getting the Most

From Your Motors" by Kurt Heinzmann, 2006)

Fisher-Price motor

160

148 A

140

120

100

Current, A

80

60

40

20

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Fisher-Price Motor - Speed

Fisher-Price motor

2500

2000

Speed (rad/s)

1500

1000

500

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Fisher-Price Motor - Power output

Fisher-Price motor

2000

1500

Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Fisher-Price Motor - Input Power

Fisher-Price motor

2000

1800 W

Output power, W

Input power, W

1500

Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Fisher-Price Motor - Power loss

Fisher-Price motor

2000

Power loss, W

1500 Input power, W

Power (W)

1000

500

407 W

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Fisher-Price Motor - Efficiency

Fisher-Price motor

100

90

80 76%

70

Efficiency, %

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Motor performance based on data sheet

Fisher-Price motor

2500

Output power, W

2000

Speed (rad/s); Power (W)

Speed, rad/s

1500

1000

500

407 W

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 Stall 0.70

Torque (Nm)

Real World: Power loss

12 AWG wire: 1.9 m/ft.

10 AWG wire: 1.2 m/ft.

6 AWG wire: 0.5 m/ft. (Copper at 65 C)

Resistance of electrical

system components

Fisher-

Price

JIDECO Power

Component (Resistance is window lift Wheels CIM

expressed in ohms) motor motor motor

Motor (nominal) 0.570 0.081 0.105

Battery 0.030 0.030 0.030

Wires (10 ft. of 12 AWG) 0.019 0.019 0.019

Breakers, connectors, switch 0.020 0.020 0.020

Total 0.867 0.182 0.216

Ratio

R(system)/R(motor nominal) 1.5 2.3 2.1

Simplified electrical system

model

System model

proportionally.

diagram by the factor Rsystem/Rmotor(nominal)

Performance of the system compared with

motor performance based on data sheet

Fisher-Price motor

2500

Output power, W

2000

Speed (rad/s); Power (W)

Speed, rad/s

1500

1000

500

(Was 407 W)

(Was

0.65 Nm)

173 W Stall: 0.28 Nm

0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70

Torque, Nm

CIM motor

(also known as Chiaphua and Atwood)

CIM motor data and curves

Stall current istall = 114 A

Free speed free = 5342 rpm = 560 rad/s

Free current ifree = 2.4 A

Rsystem/Rmotor(nominal) = 2.1

Comparison of power available from

Fisher-Price Motor and CIM motor

Motor power after including system losses

450

400

Fisher-Price in system

350

CIM in system

300

Output power, W

250

200 173 W

155 W

150

100

50

Stall: 2.45 Nm/2.1 = 1.2 Nm

0

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

Torque, Nm

Mechanical Components

Gear ratio Ng = /

in out

out =

in / Ng;

out = g x Ng x

in

"Gear" ratio:

Mechanical power transmission

efficiency is important

Spur gears: 90% per pair

Worm and gear: 10%-60%

Nut on a screw: 10%-60%

Twist cables: 30%-90%

Chain: 85%-95%

Wire rope (cables): up to 98%

Rack and pinion 50%-80%

System with gearbox

Gear ratio example

Fisher-Price motor with gear reduction

Given:

Gear ratio Ng = 4.6:1

Calculate:

Is the little motor/gearbox combination the

same as the big motor?

Comparison of CIM (straight) with Fisher-Price geared down 4.6:1

(gear efficiency = 90%)

1000 200

CIM speed in system

900 Fisher-Price speed in system, 4.6:1 180

CIM power in system

157 W

800 Fisher-Price power in system, 4.6:1 160

700 140

Output speed, rad/s

Output power, W

600 120

500 100

400 80

300 60

200 40

100 20

0 0

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Torque, Nm

The big (CIM) motor will not heat

up as fast as the small motor,

because it contains more material.

Problem 1

( v = 1.8 m/s; F = 61 N)

Motor speed: motor = free /2 = 559 rad/s/2 = 280 rad/s

We wish to try 8" wheels: Rwheel = 4" = 0.1 m

Check torque and propulsion force:

Usual limit per stage is 5:1 - need two stages.

Gear efficiency: g = 0.9 x 0.9 = 0.81

Wheel torque:

Just right

CIM motor as wheel drive motor,

Geared 16:1 (81% gear efficiency)

100 200

CIM speed in system, 16:1

90 180

CIM power in system, 16:1

80 160

70 140

125 W

Output speed, rad/s

60 120

Output power, W

50 100

40 80

30 60

20 40

10 20

0 0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Torque, Nm

Problem 2 ( v = 0.45 m/s; F = 61 N)

We wish to try a screw with Fisher-Price motor.

1256 rad/s

Screw pitch:

p = v/screw = (0.45 m/s)/(200 rev./s) = 0.00225 m/rev. = 0.00036 m/rad

(11 threads per inch).

Check torque and force:

Assume screw efficiency = 20%

Force:

F = g x screw / p = (0.2 x 0.14 Nm)/(0.00036 m/rad) = 78 N (OK)

Summary of motors in the

2005 Kit of Parts

sorted by peak output power

Peak

power,

Reference Stall torque Stall Stall Free Free Free 10.5 V Resist-

Number on Voltage on Gear (as from torque current speed speed current supply ance

Supplier motor Motor name Description data sheet ratio data sheet) (Nm) (A) (rpm) (rad/s) (A) (W) (ohm)

Fisher- 74550-0642 Power Wheels Motor only

Price 12 647 mNm 0.647 148 24000 2513 1.5 312 0.08

CIM FR801-001 (Chiaphua, Keyed output

Atwood) shaft, ccw 12 346.9 oz-in 2.45 114 5342 559 2.3 261 0.11

Fisher- 74550-0642 Power Wheels Motor and

Price gearbox 12 180.8 77 148 133 13.9 2.5 203 0.08

Globe 409A586 2WD/4WD Motor only

transfer mtr. 12 35 oz in 0.247 21.5 9390 983 0.4 46 0.56

Taigene 16638628 Sliding (van) Worm 34 Nm cw,

door Gearmotor 10.5 30 Nm ccw 30 44 75 7.9 2.7 44 0.24

Globe 409A587 2WD/4WD Planetary

transfer mtr. Gearmotor 12 117 13 21.5 80 8.4 0.58 24 0.56

Nippon- E6DF- Window Lift Worm

Denso 14A365-BB Gearmotor 12.6 9.2 Nm 9.2 24.8 92 9.6 2.8 16 0.51

Jideco Window Lift Worm

Gearmotor 12 8.33 Nm 8.33 21 85 8.9 3 14 0.57

Mabuchi RS454SH W/spur gear Spur pinion

ccw on shaft 12 620 g-cm 0.061 5.2 4700 492 0.22 5.7 2.31

Comparison of motors in

the 2005 Kit of Parts

Speed and torque at peak power with 10.5 V supply

100000

10000

Speed, rad/s

1000

500 W

Globe motor alone

200 W

Mabuchi CIM

100 W

100

50 W

20 W

10 W

10 5W Nippon Fisher-Price

Taigene

Jideco with

Globe with its gearbox

its gearhead

1

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Torque, Nm

Keep batteries charged.

Battery voltage with pulse load:

Discharge current: 50 A for 10 s, 0 A for 10 s (shared between two 30 A breakers).

Battery nominal capacity when discharged at 0.9 A (20 hour discharge rate): 18 Ah

16

Discharged capacity, Ah; Voltage, V

14

12

10

8 Battery voltage

0

0 5 10 15

Time, minutes

Conclusion

Proper motor selection, good wiring, an

appropriate gear ratio, aligned mechanical

components, and a full battery will keep you

alive in the heat of the battle.

power used to do work. Include all losses in

analysis.

Have fun

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