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Lec: 10

GIS & GPS

31 July 2017

Department of Soils and Environment, AC & RI, Madurai 1


Department of Soils and Environment, AC & RI, Madurai 2
Department of Soils and Environment, AC & RI, Madurai 3
Geographic Information System
Computer based information system which is used for
presenting and analyzing the geographic features
present on the Earth' surface
Computer-assisted information system for the
acquisition, storage, analysis and display of geographic
data in a desired manner
Widely exploited
education, research, forestry, engineering,
planning and other domestic uses
Able to handle both spatial and non-spatial data
Produces better visual impacts

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Advantage of GIS

1. It facilitates planning of project

2. It makes better decision making

3. Visual analysis is easier

4. It improves the organizational integration

5. It helps the choice of input selection

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Components of GIS

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Components of GIS
1. Hardware
Physical component on which the GIS software run
CPU
Input devices
Digitizer
GPS
Scanner
Output devices
Monitor
Plotter

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Components of GIS
2. Software
Provides functions and tools that are needed to store,
analyze, and display geographic information
Eg., MapInfo, ArcGIS, ERDAS, Cartalynx, IDRISSI
Entering and manipulating geographic information
Database management system (DBMS) designed to
stores, retrieve and update geographic data
Development of digital maps
Analysis, query and presentation of geographic
information

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Components of GIS
3. Data
Integrate spatial and non-spatial data
Spatial data (defined by coordinates)
Point data
Line data
Polygon data

Non-spatial data
Descriptive information about the geographic object such
as depth, elevation, temperature, rainfall, sales figures,
agriculture production

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Components of GIS
4. Liveware
GIS experts and technical specialists who works with GIS

5. Methodology
Techniques used for map creation and further usage
Explains
How the outputs are created
How input data is processed (retrieval,
transformation and analysis)

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Application of GIS
1) Cadastral, topographic and thematic mapping
2) Surveying and cartography
3) Remote sensing, image processing and photogrametry
4) Selection of alternatives resources
5) Modeling for various applications
6) Pollution and natural hazard management
7) Planning in various fields such as transportation,
conservation and landscaping
8) Management and environmental impact analysis
9) Locating hazardous or toxic factories, wildlife habitat and
migrational study
10) Earth science and geographical applications

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Types of spatial data
1. Vector data
Represents the line and polygon
features
Created by series of points
Points encoded with X and Y
co-ordinates (latitude/longitude)

2. Raster data

Represents the image


Composed of number of
pixels
Each pixel can vary in their
color
Features of vector data
Point data
Location of particular objects
Where the feature is
Posses information on latitude and longitude
Example: map showing individual cities

Lines
Line is a connection of series of points
Suitable to represent real linear features (river,
road, etc.)
Posses information on latitude, longitude and length

Polygons
Represents the enclosed space of irregular shape
Represents particular area
Posses information on latitude, longitude, perimeter & area

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Difference between vector & raster data
Characteristics / Vector data structure Raster data structure
Functions
Location Referenced by number of points Referenced by a grid cell in
(x, y coordinates) that can be a rectangular array (matrix)
linked to form lines and polygons
Representation of Precise Less precise
points, boundaries
Spatial analysis Relatively difficult Easier and quick
Overlaying Easier Not possible
Simulations and Very difficult Easy and fast
modeling
Applications Political boundaries, roads, Soil type, land use, air
rivers, sewage lines etc. temperature

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Global Positioning System
Satellite based navigation system that provides
continuous, real-time, 3-dimensional positioning,
navigation and timing worldwide

USA: provides this facility across world

Initial application : Military use


Now : Civilian use

Gives information about


Geographical co-ordinates
Elevation

NAVSTAR and GLONASS satellite system

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Advantages of GPS
High accurate positioning (up to millimeter level)

Three dimensional nature

Determination of velocity and time

Available to users anywhere on the globe (at air or ground or


sea)

Relatively low cost (no user charges)

Provides information in all weather conditions (24 hours)

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Segments of GPS

1.Space Segment (GPS Constellation)

2.Control Segment

3.User Segment

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Segments of GPS
1. Space Segment (GPS Constellation)

Consists of 24 satellites
Orbiting earth at 36000 km
ensures orbits are stable, precise and predictable
Satellites' motion not affected by atmospheric drag
Satellites have four atomic clocks
Six orbital planes
Each orbit : four satellites
Satellites complete its orbit in 12 hours

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Segments of GPS - Control Segment
a. Monitoring stations
Five : Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego
Garcia and Colorado Springs
Track all the satellites in view
Send information to MCS

b. Master control station


Schniever AFB in Colorado
Receives data from monitoring station
Processed this information and update each
satellites position

c. Ground antennas stations


Four: Ascension Island, Diego, Garcia and Kwajalein
Corrected information at MCS is transmitted to each
satellite via ground antennas

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Segments of GPS User segment
GPS receivers (GPS Handset)

Receivers receives satellite signal

Convert satellite signals into


position, velocity and time

Four satellites are required to


compute the four dimensions of X, Y,
Z (position) and Time

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Working principle of GPS

Satellites continuously broadcast radio signals


Signal is received by GPS receiver
GPS first compute the distance of the satellite
(travelling time x speed of signal)
Finding location of the GPS (trigonometric
principles)

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Sources of GPS signal errors
1. Ionosphere and troposphere
Delays satellite signal

2. Signal multipath in atmosphere


Increases traveling time

3. Receiver clock errors

4. Number of satellites visible


Higher number of satellites means better accuracy

5. Orbital errors

6. Intentional degradation
Selective availability
Providing false signal information
Adopted during war time
Implemented only by the service provider

7. Satellite geometry error

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Application of GPS
1. Agricultural applications
Site-specific farming
Variable rate application of fertilizer or pesticides
Guide aerial spraying operations
Locate weed, insect or diseases infestations

2. Land, sea and air navigation


Route navigation, aircraft landing, air-collision
avoidance systems
Vehicle tracking
Search and rescue

3. Mapping and surveying

4. Spacecraft operations

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Application of GPS
5. Military applications
Monitoring soldiers movement
Launch missile systems

6. Recreational uses

7. Other applications
Time transfer
Altitude determination
Real estate valuation and taxation assessment
Air quality studies

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Differential GPS (DGPS)
Minimizes the error
Ensures better positional accuracy
Through differential correction
Reduces the effects of atmosphere error and other errors
Requires one roving GPS and one base GPS receiver
Base GPS receiver: Fixed on ground
Act as a static reference point
GPS base station knows where it is
Helps in computing the errors in its position
calculations
Both base and rover receivers should able to see
the same set of satellites

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Differential GPS (DGPS)
1. Real time differential correction or real time GPS (DGPS)
Base station transmits (via radio link) error correction
messages to other GPS receivers
Positions given by the GPS receiver is corrected positions

2. Post processed differential correction


Error correction performed on computer
After the roving receiver data downloaded
Positions given by the GPS receiver in is not corrected
Using specific software

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Summary
1) GIS
a. Advantages
b. Components
a. Hardware / software / data / liveware / methods
c. Applications
d. Types of data
a. Spatial data
a. Raster data
b. Vector data (Point / line /polygon)
b. Non-spatial data
2) GPS
a. Advantages
b. Segments (space, control & user segments)
c. Working principle
d. Sources of error
e. Applications
f. Differential GPS

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By
K. Manikandan
Assistant Professor

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