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Anatomy of the Ear

Outer Ear
Includes:
1. PINNA
- Diffracts and focuses sound waves
2. EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL
-Lateral Portion: Outer 1/3 (8mm)
- Cartilaginous
- with thick, loose skin containing
ceruminous and sebaceous glands
- Middle Portion: Inner 2/3 (16mm)
- Osseous
- With thin skin directly over bone
Middle Ear
Functions:
Closes middle ear space from external
ear canal
Transmit and amplify sound waves from
tympanic membrane to the stapes
Collects and transmits sound selectively
to the oval window of the inner ear
Blood supply
Internal Carotid Artery
Labyrinthine Artery (basilar AICA)
Also end artery of inner ear
Muscles of the Middle ear
1. Tensor tympani (CN V3)
2. Stapedius muscle (CN VII)

Serve a protective function


ACOUSTIC REFLEX: they contract
in response to loud noise,
inhibiting the vibrations of the
malleus, incus and stapes, and
reducing the transmission of
sound to the inner ear.
Ossicles

Assist in transmission of sound


They are connected in a chain-
like manner, linking the
tympanic membrane to the oval
window of the internal ear.
Tympanic Membrane
1cm diameter, ovoid, pearly gray,
translucent structure that forms
the boundary between the outer
and middle ear
3 Layers
Epidermal strat. Squamous. 10 cells
thick
Fibrous- radial, circular and parabolic
Mucosa- single layer flat cells
Pars Flaccida- lacks middle layer
Pars Tensa- has all layers
Middle Ear Spaces
1. Epitympanum
Superior to the tympanic membrane
Contains the body of the incus and
the head of malleus
Communicates with the mastoid via
the aditus ad antrum
2. Mesotympanum
Level with the ear drum
Contains the oval and round windows
The facial nerve crosses above the
stapes and then between the middle
ear and mastoid aircells
Middle Ear Spaces
3. Protympanum
Where the eustachian tube exits
to communicate with the
nasopharynx
- More goblet cells near th orifice of
E. tube
4. Hypotympanum
- Lies below the level of Pars tensa
Where the jugular bulb curves
Oval and Round Windows
Two small fenestrae located
posterosuperiorly on the medial wall of the
middle ear
Separate middle ear from inner ear

Oval window
Footplate of the stapes sits in
Secured by a fibrous annulus (ring-shaped
structure)
Footplate transmits sound to the inner ear
Round window
Covered by a thin membrane
Provides an exit for sound vibrations
Eustachian Tube
It connects the middle ear with
nasopharynx.
It aerates and drains the middle
ear.
Continuous with air-filled cells in
adjacent mastoid portion of
temporal bone
Medial portion 2/3 cartilaginous
Lateral portion 1/3 osseus
Eustachian tube
Muscles of the Eustachian Tube
1. Tensor veli palatini (V3)
Eustachian tube is usually CLOSED action opens eustachian tube
during valsalva maneuver, yawning, swallowing

2. Levator veli palatini (X)


it Contracts during swallowing to elevate soft palate, preventing food
from entering the nasopharynx
Function compromised in cleft palate
Eustachian tube
1. Air Pressure equalization
between middle ear and atmosphere
2. Drainage
3. Lymphoid or immune
Tonsils of Garlac
Inner Ear
Consists of a fluid-filled
labyrinth
Located deep within the
petrous portion of the
temporal bone.
Convert mechanical
energy into neural
impulses
Inner Ear

OSSEOUS LABYRINTH MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH


Houses cochlea and semicircular Pars superior (vestibular)
canals Utricle linear movement
Surrounds and protects Three Semicircular Canals
membranous labyrinth posterior, superior and lateral all
90 to each other
Communicate with
subarachnoid space thru Pars inferior (cochlear)
cochlear aqueduct Saccule linear movement
Cochlear aqueduct
Vestibule
ORGAN OF EQUILIBRIUM
Located just medial to the oval window
An antechamber, leading to both the cochlea and the semicircular
canals
Contains the two organs of balance
Utricle
Sacule
Cochlea
ORGAN OF HEARING
Spiral or coiled like a marine snail
2 turns, 35mm long
Basal end (largest in diameter)
Basal : high frequency
Apical : low frequency

Cochlear deafness from loud noises loss of higher frequency threshold.


HIGHEST pitch is NEAREST middle ear.
Helicotrema (apex): where scala vestibule and tympani communicate
Cochlea
Compartments of the Cochlea
1. Scala vestibuli oval window (perilymph)
2. Scala tympani round window (perilymph)
3. Scala media or cochlear duct (endolymph)
SPIRAL ORGAN OF CORTI
Neurosensory end organ of hearing
Transforms mechanical energy into neural activity
Separates sounds into different frequencies
Contained within scala media
Rest in basilar membrane stretching from base to apex
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS CRANIAL NERVE VIII

Project posteriorly from the Nerve fibers from the labyrinth


vestibule Consists of an auditory nerve
Consists of a superior, posterior and a superior and inferior
and horizontal canal vestibular nerve with fibers from
Contain sensory receptor their respective sensory end
organs, arranged to detect organs
angular acceleration which is This nerve enters the cranial
stimulated by change in rate or cavity via the internal auditory
direction canal