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3G Optimization Course

Cairo ,Egypt 2013


Course Content
WCDMA Introduction
Network Architecture
Antenna
Multiple Access Technologies
Spread Spectrum
WCDMA Codes
Air interface review
3G Idle Mode Behavior
Handover in 3G network
Power control Strategy
Capacity management
Channel switching
HSDPA Service and Mobility
3G Protocols and Procedures
Network Architecture
Network Architecture

Abis PCU

BTS BSC MSC / VLR GMSC

GSM Access Network Gb


IP
Network
SGSN GGSN
Iu-CS

Iu Iu-Ps
Iub
Node-b RNC MGW
WCDMA Systems RAN

Radio team is the responsible of handling the Air Interface network in terms
o Coverage
o Capacity
o Quality
Antenna Theory
Radiating Element (Antenna)

Antenna
oDevice responsible of converting the electric signal to a radiating waves.
oAntenna is a passive element not active element

Antenna is represented as Isotropic Source


oCompletely non-directional that radiates equally in all directions.
oThe isotropic antenna exists only as a mathematical concept
Isotropic Source (Contd)

Side Lops
Main Beam

Back lops

How could we reform the antenna pattern?


oCurrent amplitude.
ocurrent phase.
oGeographical shape
Antenna types

Omni-Directional Antennas
o Omni-directional antennas have a uniform radiation
pattern with respect to horizontal directions.
o Used in the indoor solutions

Uni-Directional Antennas
o A uni-directional antenna
o Used in sectored cells.
o The radiated power is concentrated in one direction.
Main Antenna Parameters
o Tilting

Mechanical tilt Electrical Tilt


Main Antenna Parameters (Contd)
o Horizontal Beam-width

3dB down 3dB down

Horizontal Pattern

o Vertical Beam-width

3dB down
Vertical Pattern

3dB down
Multiple Access Technologies
Is the Way at which You take Resources
Multiple Access Technologies

FDMA Time
Frequency

Frequency

FDMA/TDMA Time
Frequency
Time
Frequency

CDMA
Time
Code Code

Frequency
2G System use FDMA/TDMA

FDMA/TDMA Time
Frequency
Time
Frequency
2G Sites (Contd)

Freq 1
Frequency 0.577 ms
Time Slot
0 77 13 Kbps

0 77

Time Slot HR
6.5 Kbps 6.5 Kbps
2G Sites
UE Different between 2G Sites by Frequencies

Freq 1 Freq 2 Freq 3 Freq 4 Freq 5

Freq 6 Freq 7 Freq 8 Freq 9 Freq 10


Reuse Concept
In 2G we have to make frequency plan to ensure that the customer has good voice quality

2G (reuse > 1)

F3 F7
F5 F1 F2
F6 F4
F4 F5 F3
F3 F6
F7 F7 F7
F2 F1
F3

The Frequency reuse should ensure minimum interference in the field


Reuse Concept (Contd)
Interference

Internal Interference External interference

Co-channel Adjacent Channel


Interference interference

Co-channel Interference
oVery bad Voice quality
oMost Probably cause dropped calls Bad Quality
Area
Reuse Concept (Contd)
Adjacent Channel interference
oVery bad Voice quality

Bad Quality
Area

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 Frequency
Reuse Concept (Contd)
External interference
oJammer Source
oVIP Visits
oMosques
Reuse Concept (Contd)
oTelecom Egypt
Reuse Concept (Contd)

The interference increase when there is ducting phenomena


3G System use WCDMA
CDMA
Time
Code Code

Frequency
3G Sites
UE Different between 3G Sites by Scrambling Code

SC 1 SC 2 Sc 3 SC 4 SC 5
Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1

SC 6 SC 7 SC 8 SC 9 SC 10
Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1 Freq 1
Reuse Concept
In WCDMA, all cells use the same carrier frequency but different scrambling codes. This means
no frequency planning, but scrambling code instead!

3G (Frequency reuse = 1)

SC3
F1 F1
SC 7
SC5
F1 F1
SC1 F1SC 2
F1
SC6 F1
F1 F1 SC 4 F1
SC4 SC5 SC 3
F1 F1
F1 SC3 F1 SC 6 F1
SC7 F1 SC7 F1 SC 7
SC2 F1 SC 6
SC 3
CDMA Party
The CDMA Party
The CDMA Party

What do YOU hear...


If you only speak Japanese?
If you only speak English?
If you only speak Italian?
If you only speak Japanese, but the Japanese-
speaking person is very near to you?
If you only speak Japanese, but the Japanese-
speaking person is very far from you?
If you only speak Japanese, but the Spanish-
speaking person is talking very loudly?
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access

Two Transmitters at the same frequency


Amplitude

Signal 1

Frequency SC Code 1 Frequency

Both signals combined


in the air interface
Amplitude

Signal 2

Frequency Frequency
SC Code 2

AT THE RECEIVER... Spread Spectrum


Processing Gain
Both signals are
received together

SC Code 1 Signal 1 is reconstructed


Frequency
Signal 2 looks like noise
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (Contd)
Power

Eb
Eb
No

No
Ec
Freq
Digital SNR: Eb/No

S
Eb Energy per bit (Eb)
equals the average signal power (S) divided by the data bit rate (Rb)
Rb

N
N0 Noise power density (N0)
The total noise power in the signal bandwidth, divided by the signal bandwidth
B
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access
Energy per bit (Eb) - to - Noise Ratio
The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) times the SSMA Processing Gain
Eb S 1 S B

R N
N R SNR G p
N0 b 0 b

If you need to decode the service you should have Certain Eb/No
To achieve the required Eb/No for each service their must be certain Probability of error
Example WCDMA is based on QPSK modulation technique
100

1 Eb
Pe erfc

Pe (Probability of bit error)

10-2 2 N0

10-4 Voice Service

10-6

10-8

10-10

10-12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Eb/No (dB)
If the BLER requires an Eb/No of 5dB for a certain service and the processing
gain(Gp) is 25dB for the service, it means a C/I down to 20 dB is still acceptable
Gp
C Eb 10 log( Rc/Ri)
I No
Rc : Chiprate 3.84 Mc
Ri : Service bitrate

+5 dB
Power
+
Gp Signal (Eb)

Interference
& Noise (No)
20 dB

1 Carrier (5MHz)
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access

Power

Signal (Eb/No) Eb/No = Eb/No Required

OK I can Decode
Interference (No)
1 Carrier (5MHz)

Power

Signal (Eb/No) Eb/No <Eb/No Required

Interference (No) Cant decode

1 Carrier (5MHz)
WCDMA Codes
WCDMA Codes
Scrambling Code Codes DL
oSC Code used to distinguish each Base Station
oSC 1 * SC 2 0

Cell Site 1 transmits using SC code 1 Cell Site 2 transmits using SC code 2 Cell Site 3 transmits using PN code 3

SC 1 SC1 SC2 SC2 SC3 SC3

Channelization Codes DL
oOrthogonal Codes used to distinguish data channels coming from each Base Station
oOC 1 * OC2 =0

SC 1 SC 2
Voice + internet
Voice
OC2
OC3, OC4
OC1 OC1, OC2
Voice
OC3 OC5, OC6, OC7

Voice
Voice + internet

Voice + Email +YouTube


WCDMA Codes (Contd)
Scrambling Code Codes UL
Cell Site 1 transmits using SC code 1
Cell Site 2 transmits using SC code 2

SC SC1 SC2
1 SC2

SC 5 SC 6
SC 3 SC 4

Channelization Codes UL SC 1

OC 4 ,OC 5, OC 6
OC1

OC2 OC1
OC 3
OC2
OC1
OC3
OC1
Voice OC2 Voice + Streaming +
email

Voice + email
WCDMA Codes Summary DL
SC 1

(voice, data)
SC 1 + OC 3 + OC 4
(voice)
SC 1 + OC 5
(voice, data)
SC 1 + OC 1 + OC 2
WCDMA Codes Summary UL
SC 1

(voice, data)
SC 3 + OC 1 + OC 2

(voice)
SC 4 + OC 1
(voice, data)
SC 2 + OC 1 + OC 2

SC 3
SC 2
SC 4
WCDMA Codes Summary

Cellular WCDMA = PN Coding + Orthogonal Coding


(IS-95, cdma2000, WCDMA)

Scrambling Codes (PN Codes):


Distinguish each Base Station

Orthogonal Coding:
Distinguish data channels coming from each Base Station
WCDMA Transmitter

Orthogonal
Code 1

Error
Protection

Orthogonal SC for Each


Code 2 Transmitter
RF Out
User Data Error Linear
Channel 1 Protection Modulator
Summation

Orthogonal
Code 3 User 1
User 2
User Data Error User 3
Channel N Protection ...

Frequency
Orthogonal Codes generation
Orthogonal codes are generated by code tree

SF 1
1
3.840 Mbps

SF 2
11
11 1.92 Mb/s 10

SF 4 1111
1111 960 Kb/s 1100 1010 1001

SF 8 11111111 11110000 11001100 11000011 10101010


10101010 10100101
10101010 10011001
10101010 10010110
10101010

480 kb/s 480 kb/s 480 kb/s 480 kb/s

SF 16 1----0 1-- 0 1--0 1- 0 1-0 1- 0 1-0 1- 0


Chip Rate and Bit Rate

Code Rate

User 1
Rb 1

User 2
Rb 2

User 3
Rb 3

Low rates needed high number of bits to be represented as the Chip rate
kbps* SF
3840 1
1920 2
960 4 Codes
480 8
(Orthogonal)
240 16
120 32

15 256
SC1 SC 2

OC3, OC 4
OC1, OC2
OC2
OC1

kbps* SF
3840 1
1920 2
960 4 Codes
480 8
(Orthogonal)
240 16
120 32

15 256
Orthogonal Codes Chip Rate = 3.840 Mcps

1.92 Mb/s

960 Kb/s

480 kb/s

240 kb/s

Max Power

Power
User 3

User 2
User 1
WCDMA planning complexity
Coverage/capacity/quality Trade-off

Coverage Capacity

WCDMA

Quality
Service Coverage

WCDMA high bit rate


WCDMA medium bit rates
WCDMA voice and low bit rate
GSM voice

64 kbps 128 kbps 384 kbps

The power requirement determines the service coverage in WCDMA


Example For Orthogonally
Input data +1 Input data +1
X X
Orthogonal code Orthogonal code
-1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1 -1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1
in Transmitter in Transmitter

Transmitted Transmitted
Sequence -1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1 Sequence -1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1

Different Code
Same Code
Air Air

Received Received
-1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1 -1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1
Sequence Sequence
X X
Orthogonal code -1 +1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 -1 Different Orthogonal +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1
code

O/P +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 O/P -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1
integrate Integrate integrate Integrate

8 0
Divide by code length Divide by code length

+1 0
3G Air Interface
Introduction
3G LAYERS
LAYERS
oSignaling message travels down in the protocol stack of the sending node.
oThe layers on the way add their specific information to the original message.
oMessage arrives at a receiving node.
oHandled upwards in the protocol stack, each layer in the receiving node analyzing information added by the peer
protocol.

Tx Rx

User Data 010 010

Correction 10010 Peer layers 10010

addressing 110010 110010


3G Layers
The 3G interface is layered into three protocol layers:
oThe physical layer (L1)
oThe data link layer (L2)
o Network layer (L3) Layer 3
Network layer (L3)

Data link layer (L2)

Layer 2

Physical layer (L1)

Layer 1

Air Interface
3G Channels
LOGICAL CHANNELS

Transport Channel

Physical Channel

Air Interface
3G Channels

Logical Channels
What Type of data I will sent
It may carry control data or carry user traffic

Transport Channels
How do I sent the information (the manner in which the data will be Transferred)
Weather the data is protected from errors
Size of the data packets

Physical channels
Define the way I sent the data
What is modulation
Transport Channel Physical Channel
Logical Channel

Common Control
Channel (CCCH) Primary Common Control Physical
Broadcast Channel (BCH) Channel (PCCPCH)

RBS
Secondary Common Control
DCCH /DTCH
Physical Channel (SCCPCH)
Forward Access Channel
(FACH)

Physical Random Access Channel


(PRACH)
Paging Control Channel Paging Channel (PCH)
(PCCH)

Dedicated Physical Data Channel


RACH (DPDCH)
Broadcast Control
Channel (BCCH) UE
DCH Dedicated Physical Control
Channel (DPCCH)

DSCH
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(PDSCH)

Physical Common Packet Channel


(PCPCH)
LOGICAL CHANNELS
1-LOGICAL CHANNELS
Logical channel types are classified into two groups:
Traffic channels (user data)
Control channels (Signaling )

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)


Downlink channel for broadcasting system information.

Paging Control Channel (PCCH)


Downlink channel transfers paging information when the UE is in idle mode.

Common Control Channel (CCCH)


UE needs to access the network.

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) (Call signaling, handovers commands)


Call Signaling between UE and the network.

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)


User Data
Transport CHANNELS
LOGICAL CHANNELS

Transport Channel
2-Transport CHANNELS
Dedicated Transport Channel (DCH)
o User Data
o Call Signaling between UE and the network (handover commands)

Common Transport Channels


oBroadcast Channel (BCH)
oContinuous transmission of system and cell information
oForward Access Channel (FACH)
o Packet data transmission in low rates
oPaging Channel (PCH)
oWhen the network wants to initiate communication with the terminal.
oRACH
oUplink transport channel used to make requests to set up a connection
oHS-DSCH
o Packet data transmission in high rates
Physical CHANNELS
Common Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Channels

LOGICAL CHANNELS

Transport Channel

Physical Channel
Physical Channels
P-CCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (DL)
-Broadcasts cell information

SCH Synchronization Channel (DL)


- Fast Synch.

S-CCPCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (DL)


-Carries both the Paging Channel (PCH) and the Forward Access Channel (FACH).

P-CPICH Primary Common Pilot Channel (DL).


Aids channel estimation (handover and cell selection).

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) UL


This channel is used to carry access requests
Physical Channels (Contd)
DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel)
o User data and Call Signaling

DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel )


-Control to UEs
oTransmit Power Control (TPC) bits used in Power Control
oPilot bits which are used by the receiver to test decoding
oTransport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)

AICH Acquisition Indication Channel


-Acknowledges that node-B has acquired a UE Random Access attempt

PICH Page Indication Channel


o Informs a UE if it should monitor the Paging Channel
User 5

User 4
60 Watt
User 3

User 2

User 1

CPICH Power

CPICH Power is Constant and can be configured increase or Decrease (Coverage Control)
Always Transmitted as even in connected mode
CPICH Ec/No for most of us is quality measurement metric.
It gives us how good or bad the link quality is.
Definitions
CPICH RSCP
Received signal code power for the CPICH channel for one Cell (dBm/mW)
Using RSCP we can compare different cells
RSSI
Signal power over the complete 5MHZ carrier which include all components received
Signal from the current cell and neighboring cells on the same frequency
RSSI will change if the carrier use the DCH or the common channels
CPICH Ec/No
Pilot channel quality
CPICH Ec/No= CPICH RSCP / RSSI
The Better this value the better the signal can be distinguished from the over all nosie
Always negative
Using CPICH Ec/No we can compare different cells
Using CPICH Ec/No handover and cell reselection decisions can be taken
No
Noise power spectral density
Interfering power
Non interfering power
Thermal noise
Logical Channel Transport Channel Physical Channel

Common Control
Channel (CCCH) Primary Common Control Physical
Broadcast Channel (BCH) Channel (PCCPCH)

RBS
Secondary Common Control
DCCH /DTCH
Physical Channel (SCCPCH)
Forward Access Channel
(FACH)

Physical Random Access Channel


(PRACH)
Paging Control Channel Paging Channel (PCH)
(PCCH)

Dedicated Physical Data Channel


RACH (DPDCH)
Broadcast Control
Channel (BCCH) UE
DCH Dedicated Physical Control
Channel (DPCCH)

DSCH
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(PDSCH)

Physical Common Packet Channel


(PCPCH)
Logical Channel Transport Channels Physical Channels
CPICH
Common Pilot Channel (Aids
BCCH channel estimation )
BCH
Broadcast Control Ch. Broadcast Ch. P-CCPCH(*)
Primary Common Control Physical
PCCH
Ch. Multiplexed with the SCH
Paging Control Ch. PCH
Paging Ch.
S-CCPCH
Secondary Common Control S/P
FACH Physical Ch.
Forward Access Ch.

DCCH DCH DPDCH (one or more per UE)


Dedicated Control Ch. Dedicated Ch. M Dedicated Physical Data Ch.
M code
U
U I/Q
X DPCCH (one or more per UE)
DCH X Modulator
DTCH Pilot/TPC/TFCI
Dedicated Ch.
Dedicated Traffic Ch.

AICH Acknowledges that RBS has


acquired a UE Random Access attempt Gain
(Acquisition Indicator Channel)

PICH
(Paging Indicator Channel )
HSDPA
HS- PDSCH (one or more per UE)
HS-DSCH High Speed Physical Downlink
High Speed DL shared Ch
Shared Ch.
Mapping of Transport Channels onto the Physical Channels
The different transport channels are mapped to different physical channels.

Logical Channel Transport Physical Channels


Channels

Channels not directly visible to higher layers


oSynchronization Channel (SCH)
oCommon Pilot Channel (CPICH) Aids channel estimation
oAcquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
Radio Frame Radio Frame Radio Frame
Radio Frame
0 14 0 14 0 14 0 14

10 ms

The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

SCH Primary Common Control Physical

0 14

10 ms
Radio Frame
Error Correction
Air interface will add noise to the signal This will produce a distortion in the received signal.

Digital Cellular

However in digital systems we do not have this case, This noise will result in bit errors,
ologic 1 could be interpreted as a logic 0
ologic 0 could be interpreted as a logic 1.

All digital systems must have some method of overcoming these errors.
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) coding is used in error detection.

CRC is used to calculate Block Error Ratio (BLER).

Transmitter

Receiver

IF mismatching in check sum


The is an error
Thank You