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Mathematics I

(Algebra, Trigonometry,
Geometry and Calculus)
Manalo, Michelle S.
Villamin, Princess S.
Algebra
Number System Complex
Numbers

Imaginary
Real Numbers
Numbers

Irrational Rational
Numbers Numbers

pi,e,square
root…. Integers Non-integers
Negative
Numbers
Terminating &
infinitely repeating
Zero decimals

Positive
Numbers

Prime Composite
Mathematics
1. Simplify loga((x2+1)4 √x)
2. (2+3i)/(4-5i)

Multiply top and bottom by the conjugate 4-5i:

And i^2= -1

Therefore:
Common Factor
▪ The common factor of two or more counting numbers is a
counting number which is a factor of each of the given number.
The set of common factors of the two numbers is the
intersection of these two sets.

Find the common factors of 12 and 20.


Factors of 12, 𝐹12 = 1,2,3,4,6,12
Factors of 20, 𝐹20 = 1,2,4,5,10,20
𝐹12 ∩ 𝐹20 = 1,2,4
Greatest Common Factor
▪ The greatest common factor or GCF of two or more counting
numbers is the largest counting number which is a factor each
of the given number.

Find the greatest common factor of


108 and 60.
Prime factors of the numbers in canonical form.
108 = 22 𝑥33
60 = 22 𝑥3𝑥5
The GCF is the product of the smallest factor common to both:
GCF= 22 𝑥3 = 12
Multiple of a Number
▪ The multiple of a number is the product that the number gives
when multiplied by a counting or natural number.

Find the multiples of 2 and 3 which are less than 20.


Multiples of 2, 𝑀2 = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18
Multiples of 3, 𝑀3 = 3,6,9,12,15,18
𝑀2 ∩ 𝑀3 = 6,12,18
Least Common Multiple
▪ The least common multiple or LCM of two or more counting
numbers is the smallest counting number which is a multiple of
each of the given numbers.
Find the LCM of 4 and 10.
Prime factors of the numbers in canonical form:
4 = 22
10 = 2𝑥5
The LCM is the product of the prime factors with the highest
power in the factorization.
𝐿𝐶𝑀 = 22 𝑥5 = 20
Binomial Expansion

Pascal’s Triangle

▪ Term involving 𝑦 𝑟 :
𝑦 𝑟 term = n𝐶𝑟 𝑥 𝑛−𝑟 𝑦 𝑟
𝑛!
▪ Where n𝐶𝑟 =
(𝑛−𝑟)!𝑟!

6 2 1 12
Involves problems like: Find the term involving 𝑥 in (𝑥 + )
𝑥
▪ Finding the 𝑟 𝑡ℎ 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚:
𝑟 𝑡ℎ term = n𝐶𝑟−1 𝑥 (𝑛−𝑟+1) 𝑦 (𝑟−1)
𝑛!
▪ Where n𝐶𝑟 =
(𝑛−𝑟)!𝑟!
1
3. Find the 6th term of the expansion of ( − 3)16 .
2𝑎
Solution:
Formula: rth term= nCr-1 𝑥 (𝑛−𝑟+1) 𝑦 𝑟−1
where n=16, r=6
6th term= 16C5 16 5
− 5
(−3)
1

16! 2𝑎 1
= ( )(−243)
16−5 !5! 2048𝑎11
66339
6th term=−
128𝑎11
Progression
4. If there are 50 terms in an arithmetic progression, and if the
common difference is 1.5. Determine the 2nd term if the last term
is 3510.
Solution:
An=A1+(n-1)d
3510=A1+(50-1)(1.5)
A1=3436.5

An=A1+(n-1)d
A2=3436.5+(2-1)(1.5)
A2=3438
Operations on Sets
– Intersection
Let A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7} and B = {3, 4, 5, 8}, then A ∩ B = {3, 5}.
– Union
Let A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7}, B = {3, 4, 5, 8}, then A ∪ B = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
– Universal set and complement
Quadratic Equation
▪ General Quadratic Equation: 𝐴𝑥 2 + 𝐵𝑥 + 𝐶 = 0
−𝐵± 𝐵2 −4𝐴𝐶
▪ Quadratic Formula (solving for the roots): 𝑥 =
2𝐴
– Nature of roots:
▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 = 0, roots are real and equal
▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 > 0, roots are real and unequal
▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 < 0, roots are imaginary or complex
5. A ball is thrown straight up, from 3 m above the ground,
with a velocity of 14 m/s. When does it hit the ground?
Solution:
Ignoring air resistance, we can work out its height by
adding up these three things:
(Note: t is time in seconds)

▪ Add them up and the height h at any time t is:


h = 3 + 14t − 5t2
h = 3 + 14t − 5t2
▪ And the ball will hit the ground when the height is
zero:
3 + 14t − 5t2 = 0
(5t + 1)(t − 3) = 0
t = −0.2 or t = 3
The ball hits the ground after 3 seconds.
Remainder Theorem
▪ If f(x) is divided by (x-r), the remainder is f(r).

6.The polynomial 𝑥 3 + 4𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 8 is divided by 𝑥 − 1, then the


remainder is
Solution:
x-1=0 so x=1
Substitute to equation:𝑥 3 + 4𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 8
13 + 4(1)2 − 3(1) + 8
=10
Inequalities
▪ Inequality tells us about the relative size of two values.
Theorems on Inequalities
a>b If a-b > 0
a<b If a-b < 0
If a>b Then a+c >b+c
If a>b Then a-c > b-c
If a>b Then ac > bc for c > 0
If a>b Then ac < bc for c < 0
If a>b Then a/c > b/c for c > 0
If a>b Then a/c < b/c for c < 0
Quadratic Inequalities
7. A stuntman will jump off a 20m building. A high-speed
camera is ready to film him between 15m and 10m above
the ground. When should the camera film him?
Solution:

Formula for distance and time:


d = d0 + v0t + ½a0t2 , where d0=20, v0=0,
and a0=−9.81
Therefore: d = 20 − 5t2
▪ d = distance above ground (m), and
▪ t = time from jump (seconds)
▪ The distance we want is from 10 m to 15 m:
10 < d < 15
10 < 20 − 5t2 < 15 (subtract 20 from both sides)
−10 < −5t2 <−5
2 > t2 > 1(when we multiply or divide by a
negative number we must reverse the inequality)
√1 < t < √2
“Film from 1.0 to 1.4 seconds after jumping”
Proportional to...
8. A stone is dropped from the top of a high tower. The
distance it falls is proportional to the square of the time of
fall. The stone falls 19.6m after 2 seconds, how far does it
fall after 3 seconds?
Solution:
▪ Formula: d=kt^2
▪ Where: d=distance fallen and t=time of fall

When d=19.6, t=2


19.6 = k x 2^2
k=4.9
▪ k=4.9
Therefore, d = 4.9t^2
And when t=3,
d = 4.9 x 3^2
d = 44.1

So it has fallen 44.1m after 3 seconds


Problem Applications to Algebraic Equations
▪ Age Problems
– Modifiers of time for classification of ages:
▪ Past Age – was, were, ago, last….and verbs in the past tense
▪ Present Age – is, are, am, now, being….and verbs in the present tens
▪ Future Age – will, shall, be, further, hence…. And verbs in the future
tense

No. of years passed by = Present Age – Past Age


No. of years to come = Future Age – Present Age
Other modifiers of time:
10 years = decade 50 years = golden
20 years = score 75 years = diamond
25 years = silver 100 years = century or centennial
9. A girl is one-third as old as her brother and 8 years younger than her
sister. The sum of their ages is 38 years. How old is the girl?
Solution:
Let x=age of the girl
y=age of her brother
z=age of her sister

y=3x (eq. 1)
z=x+8 (eq. 2)
x+y+z=38 (eq. 3)
Substitute equations 1 and 2 in equation 3
X+3x+(x+8)=38
X=6
▪ Work Problems
– Case 1: Total man-hr to complete work = Sum of unit man-hr
– Case 2: Sum of unit work = total unit of work
1 1 1 1 1
▪ + + +⋯ =
𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡𝑛 𝑇
where: 𝑡1 , 𝑡2 , 𝑡3 , 𝑡𝑛 = the time that worker 1, 2, 3…each can do
the job alone
T= the total time that worker can finish the job if all
of them work together
– Case 3: Work (unit work) Time of work done:
1 1 1 1 1 1
▪ + + + ⋯ 𝑡𝐴 + + + + ⋯ 𝑡𝐵 = 1
𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡𝑥 𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑧
Where: 𝑡𝐴 is the time where 1, 2 & 3 work together
𝑡𝐵 is the time where x, y & z work together
▪ Mixture Problems

▪ by: Quantity Analysis: A+B=C


▪ by: Composition Analysis: Ax+By=Cz
where: A, B & C are numbers of quantities by volume or weight
x, y & z are the unit cost or fractional parts
▪ Clock Problems
x = no. of minute spaces the minute hand will rotate
around the clock

For every x travel of the minute hand:


hour hand = x/12 minute spaces
second hand = 60x

Other modifiers of the position of hands of the clock:


hands at 90 degrees = 15 minute spaces
hands opposite each other = 30 minute spaces
▪ Rate Problems (Uniform Motion)
Uniform Motion: (No acceleration)
Distance (s) = velocity (v) x time (t)
▪ Cost and Investments
Capital + Profit = Selling Price – Discount
where: Profit = % of Capital
Discount = % of Selling Price

▪ Digit Problems
10. Find the product of two numbers such that twice the first
added to the second equals 19 and three times the first is 21 more
than the second.
Solution:
Let x= the first number
y=the second number
2x+y=19
y=19-2x (eq. 1)
3x=y+21 (eq. 2)
Substitute equation 1 in equation 2
3x=(19-2x)+21
5x=40 y=19-2(8)
x=8 y=3
Products of the numbers: (8)(3)=24
Trigonometry
11. If sinA=2.511x, cosA=3.06x and sin2A=3.939x, find the
value of x?
Solution:
For double angle formula: sin2A=2sinAcosA
Substitute the values of sinA and cosA to 2sinAcosA=3.939x

2(2.511x)(3.06x)=3.939x
x=0.2563
12. A man finds the angle of elevation of the top of a tower to be 30°. He walks
85m nearer the tower and finds its angle of elevation to be 60°. What is the height
of the tower?
Solution:
By Pythagorean Theorem: tan𝜃=opposite/adjacent

𝑡𝑎𝑛30 = 85+𝑥

h=(85+x)tan30 (eq. 1)

𝑡𝑎𝑛60 =
𝑥
h=xtan60 (eq. 2)
Equate Eq. 1 and Eq. 2: (85+x)tan30=xtan60
𝑡𝑎𝑛60
85+x=x 𝑡𝑎𝑛30

x=42.5m
Substitute x in Eq. 2
h=42.5(tan60)
h=73.61m
13. The sides of a triangle are 195,157 and 210 respectively. What is
the area of the triangle?
Solution:
𝑎+𝑏+𝑐
Using Heron’s Formula: 𝑆 =
2
195+157+210
𝑆=
2
S=281

𝐴= 𝑠(𝑠 − 𝑎)(𝑠 − 𝑏)(𝑠 − 𝑐)


𝐴= 281 281 − 195 281 − 157 281 − 210
A=14,586.2 sq. units
14. cos(A+B)cosA+sin(A+B)sinA is equals to
Solution:
cos(A+B) cosA + sin(A+B) sinA

= (cosA cosB - sinA sinB) cosA + (sinA cosB + cosA sinB) sinA

= cos²A cosB - sinA cosA sinB + sin²A cosB + sinA cosA sinB

= cos²A cosB + sin²A cosB

= cosB (cos²A + sin²A)

= cosB
15. Solve for x, if tan3x=5tanx.
Solution:
𝑡𝑎𝑛3𝑥 = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝑥 + 𝑥) = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
= 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥(1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥)
2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 2 𝑥)
4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = (1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛
1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
4 − 4𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥 = 2 + 10𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
2 = 14𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 0.377964473
x=20.7048°
16. Find the values of side a and b given the following
triangle:

Given:
Angle A =35°
Angle C =62°
And side c =7
Solution:
Angle B is: B = 180° − 35° − 62° = 83°

Using The Law of Sines:


a/sin A = c/sin C
a/sin(35°) = 7/sin(62°)
a = (7 × sin(35°))/sin(62°)
a = 4.55 to 2 decimal places
b/sin B = c/sin C
b/sin(83°) = 7/sin(62°)
b = (7 × sin(83°))/sin(62°)
b = 7.87 to 2 decimal places
17. The angle of elevation of a hot air balloon, climbing
vertically, changes from 25 degrees at 10:00 am to 60
degrees at 10:02 am. The point of observation of the angle of
elevation is situated 300 meters away from the take off point.
What is the upward speed, assumed constant, of the balloon?
Give the answer in meters per second.
Solution:
tan(25°) = h1/300
tan(60 °) = (h1+h2)/300
h1=139.89m
h1+h2= 519.62m
h2= 379.73m
If it takes the balloon 2 mins. (10:00 to 10:02) to climb h2
Therefore, s = h2/[2minutes (60)] = 3.16 m/s
18. When the top T of a mountain is viewed from point A,
2000 m from ground, the angle of depression a is equal to
15o and when it is viewed from point B on the ground the
angle of elevation b is equal to 10o. If points A and B are on
the same vertical line, find the height h of the mountain.
Solution:
Let h be the height of the mountain
tan (10°) = h/d
tan(15 °) = (2000-h)/d
Solve for d from 2 equations:
d=h/ tan(10°) and d=(2000-h)/ tan(15 °)
h/ tan(10°) = (2000-h)/ tan(15 °)
h = 793.8m
19. A ladder 5m long, leaning against a vertical wall makes an angle
of 65 with the ground. How high on the wall does the ladder reach?
How far is the foot of the ladder from the wall? What angle does the
ladder make with the wall?
Solution:
The height that the ladder reach is PQ
sin 65° = PQ/5
PQ = sin 65 ° x 5 =4.53m

The distance of the foot of the ladder from the


wall is RQ
cos65° = RQ/5
RQ = sin 65 ° x 5 =2.11m
The angle that the ladder makes with the wall is angle
P

cos angle P = PQ / 5
cos angle P = 4.53/5 = 0.91
Angle P = cos-1 (0.91)
Angle P = 25°
20. The sun’s angle of inclination is 20 degrees, and a pole casts a 40 foot
shadow. How tall is the pole?

Solution:
Given X = 20 degrees, and y = 40 ft

tan X = x/y
tan 20 = x/40
x = 14.56 ft
Therefore the height of the pole is 14.56ft.
Geometry
Plane Geometry
Plane Geometry
Point, Line, Plane and Solid
– A Point has no dimensions, only position
– A Line is one-dimensional
– A Plane is two dimensional (2D)
– A Solid is three-dimensional (3D)

Plane Geometry is all about shapes on a flat surface


Quadrilaterals
Area of Plane Shapes
21. The parallelogram shown in the figure below has a perimeter of 44
cm and an area of 64 cm2. Find angle T in degrees.

Perimeter = 44 = 2(3x + 2) + 2(5x + 4) ,


Solve for x
x=2
Height = Area / Base
= 64 / 14 = 32/7 cm
sin(T) = opposite/hypotenuse
=(32/7) / 8 = 32/56 = 4/7,
T = arcsin(4/7) = 34.8o
22. Two sides of a triangle are 50m and 60m long. The angle included
between these sides is 30°. What is the interior angle opposite the
longest side?
Solution:

By cosine law: 𝑐 = 𝑎2 + 𝑏2 − 2𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑜𝑠𝐶

𝑐= 502 + 602 − 2 50 60 𝑐𝑜𝑠30


c=30.06m
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛30
By sine law: =
60 30.06

B=86.38°
Polygons
Pythagoras' Theorem
Solid Geometry
Solid Geometry
Triangle Centers
Triangle Centers
Triangle Centers
Triangle Centers
23. ABC is a right triangle. AM is perpendicular to BC. The size of angle ABC is equal to 55
degrees. Find the size of angle MAC.

The sum of all angles in triangle ABC is equal to 180°. Hence


angle ABC + angle ACM + 90° = 180°

Substitute angle ABC by 55 and solve for angle ACM


angle ACM = 180 - 90 - 55 = 35°

The sum of all angles in triangle AMC is equal to 180°. Hence


angle MAC + angle ACM + 90° = 180°

Substitute angle ACM by 35 and Solve for angle MAC


angle MAC = 180 - 90 - angle ACM = 180 - 90 - 35 = 55°
24. ABC is a triangle where AN is perpendicular to CB and BM
perpendicular to AC. The length of BC is 10, that of AC is 12 and that
of AN is 8. Find the length of BM.

The area A of the given triangle may be calculated using the two
altitudes as follows
A = (1/2)(AN)(BC) or A = (1/2)(BM)(AC)
Hence
(1/2)(AN)(BC) = (1/2)(BM)(AC)
Multiply both sides by 2 and substitute known lengths
8 * 10 = MB * 12
Multiply both sides by 2 and substitute known lengths
BM = 80 / 12 = 6.7
25. Find the angles of the triangle whose vertices are A(-1, 1), B(2, -
1), and C(6,3).

First, find the slope of each side,


m AB = -2/3, mBC = 1, mAC = 2/7

If the angles of the triangle are considered in a counterclockwise


sense,
tan A = (mAC–m AB) /(1+mACmAB) = (2/7 + 2/3) / (1- 4/21) = 20/17

tan B = (mAB–m BC) /(1+mABmBC) = (-2/3 - 1) / (1- 2/3) = -5

tan C = (mBC–m AC) /(1+mBCmAC) = (1 - 2/7) / (1+ 2/7) = 5/9

Therefore, A = 49.6 °, B= 101.3 °, C = 29.1 °


26. A conical vessel has a height of 24cm and a base diameter of 12cm. it holds
water to a depth of 18cm above its vertex. Find the volume (in cm2) of its
content.

Solution:
By ratio and proportion:
6 𝑟
=
24 18
r=4.5

1 2
𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 ℎ2
3
1
𝑉 = 𝜋 4.5 2 (18)
3
V=381.7 cm2
Analytical Geometry
27. How far is the intersection of the lines 4x-5y=26 and
3x+7y+2=0 from the origin?
Solution:
4𝑥 − 5𝑦 = 26(𝑒𝑞. 1)
3𝑥 + 7𝑦 + 2 = 0(𝑒𝑞. 2)
𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑒𝑞. 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑒𝑞. 2 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑒𝑡 𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠
4𝑥 − 26
3𝑥 + 7 +2=0
5
𝑥=4
𝑆𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑥 𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑞. 1
4(4) − 5𝑦 = 26
𝑦 = −2
𝐷2 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
𝐷2 = 42 + −2 2
D=4.4721 units
Conic Sections
Circle
28. Find the equation of the circle with center on x+y=4 and on 5x+2y =-1
and radius 3.

▪ Equation of a circle: (x-h)2+ (y-k) 2 = r 2


Since the center (h,k) is on x+y=4 and on 5x+2y=-1, its coordinates satisfy
those equations. Thus we have,
h+k=4 and 5h + 2k = -1
Solving the first of these eqtns for k in terms of h and substituting in the
second,
5h + 2(4-h) = -1
5h + 8 – 2h = -1
3h = -9
h = -3
Consequently,
-3 + k = 4
k=7

Therefore, the center is at (-3, 7)


And the equation of the circle is at (x+3)2+ (y-7) 2 = 3 2
29. What is the center of the curve𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑦 − 31 = 0.
Solution:
𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑦 − 31 = 0
Completing the square: 𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 1 + 𝑦 2 − 4𝑦 + 4 = 31 + 4 + 1
(𝑥 − 1)2 +(𝑦 − 2)2 = 36
𝑥 = 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 2
Therefore C (1, 2)
Parabola
Ellipse
Hyperbola
Conic Sections
Conic Sections
Eccentricity
Eccentricity
Locus
𝑥2 𝑦2
30. The length of the latus rectum for the ellipse + = 1 is equal to
64 16

Solution:
𝑥2 𝑦2
+ =1
64 16

(𝑥−ℎ)2 (𝑦−𝑘)2
Standard Equation: + =1
𝑎2 𝑏2

From the equation: a2=64, a=8


b2=16, b=4
2𝑏2
Length of Latus Rectum: 𝐿𝑅 =
𝑎
2(4)2
𝐿𝑅 =
8

LR=4
Calculus
Differential Calculus
LIMITS
Integral Calculus
31. If y = tan3 2x, find dy/dx.
Solution:
Thinking of the given equation as a series of relations in
the form y=u3 , u= tan v, v = 2x,

dy/dx = 3 tan2 2x d/dx(tan 2x)


= 3 tan2 2x • sec22x d/dx(2x)
= 6tan2 2x sec2 2x
32. A particle moves on a line with a constant acceleration
of 4 feet per second per second. Find its equation of
motion if s = 2 feet and v = -3 feet per second, when t=2
seconds.
Solution:
From acceleration = dv/dt = 4, by integration,
v = 4t + C1
Since v=-3 when t=2, by substitution,
-3 = 4(2) + C1 , and C1 = -11
Hence, the velocity at any time t is
v = 4t - 11
From velocity= ds/dt = 4t-11, by integration,
s = 2t2 – 11t + C2
Since s=2 when t=2, by substitution,
s = 2(2)2 – 11(2) + C2
Hence, C2 = 16.

Therefore the equation of motion is


s = 2t2 – 11t + 16
From velocity= ds/dt = 4t-11, by integration,
s = 2t2 – 11t + C2
Since s=2 when t=2, by substitution,
s = 2(2)2 – 11(2) + C2
Hence, C2 = 16.

Therefore the equation of motion is


s = 2t2 – 11t + 16
33. Evaluate dx

=
34. A kite , at a height of 60 feet, is moving horizontally at a rate
of 5 feet per second away from the boy who flies it. How fast is
the cord being released when 100 feet are out?
Denoting the horizontal displacement of
the kite by x and the length of the cord y,
y2 = x2 + 60
Differentiating with respect to the time and dividing by 2,
y (dy/dt) = x (dx/dt)  equation (1)
Since x = = 80 and dx/dt = 5 when y=100, by
substitution in eqtn 1,
100(dy/dt)= 80 (5)
dy/dt = 4,
Therefore, the speed at which the cord is being released is 4ft/s.
𝑥 2 −1
35. Evaluate: lim 2
𝑥→1 𝑥 +3𝑥−4
Solution:
𝑥2 − 1
lim
𝑥→1 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 − 4

Substitute x=1:
(1)2 −1 0
𝑙𝑖𝑚 = = , indeterminate
(1)2 +3 1 −4 0

If the result is indeterminate, use L’Hospital’s rule, differentiate


separately the numerator and denominator and substitute the value of
limit to the variable
2𝑥
𝑙𝑖𝑚 =
2𝑥 + 3
2(1)
𝑙𝑖𝑚 =
2(1)+3
𝟐
𝒍𝒊𝒎 =
𝟓
36. A particle moves around a curve y=x2+2x. At what point on the curve are the x and y coordinates of
the particles changing at the same rate?

Solution:
𝑦 = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥
𝑑𝑦
= 2𝑥 + 2
𝑑𝑥
𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
=
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡
=
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑦
=1
𝑑𝑥
2𝑥 + 2 = 1
2𝑥 = −1
1
𝑥=−
2
1 2 1
𝑦 = (− ) +2(− )
2 2
1
= −1
4
3
=−
4
𝟏 𝟑
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 (− , − )
𝟐 𝟒
37. A farmer has enough money to build only 100 meters of fence.
What are the dimensions of the field he can enclose the maximum
area?
Solution:
2x+2y=100
y=50-x (eq. 1)
A=xy (eq. 2)
Substitute Eq. 1 in Eq. 2
A=x(50-x)
A=50x-x2
Differentiate:
𝑑𝐴
= 50 − 2𝑥
𝑑𝑥
0=50-2x
x=25
Substitute x=25 in Eq. 1
y=50-25
y=25
Thus, the size of the field is 25m x 25m
6
38. Evaluate ‫׬‬5 𝑥(𝑥 − 5)12 𝑑𝑥

Solution:
Note: ‫ 𝑣𝑢 = 𝑣𝑑𝑢 ׬‬− ‫𝑢𝑑𝑣 ׬‬

Let: u=x; du=dx

12 𝑑𝑥; 𝑥−5 13
Dv= 𝑥 − 5 v=
13

6
න 𝑥(𝑥 − 5)12 𝑑𝑥
5 13
𝑥(𝑥 −5) 1
= − න(𝑥 − 5)13 𝑑𝑥
13 13
𝑥 1 𝑥 − 5 14 6
= 13
(𝑥 − 5) − ቤ
13 13 14 5
6 5 1
= (6 − 5)13 − 5 − 5 13 − 6 − 5 14 − 5 − 5 14
13 13 182
= 𝟎. 𝟒𝟓𝟔
39. What is the integral of 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥
Solution:
න 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Let: u=sin2x; du=cos2x (2)


Note: ‫ 𝑢 𝑒 = 𝑢𝑑 𝑢 𝑒 ׬‬+ 𝑐
1
‫׬‬ 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ‫׬‬ 𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 2𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 𝑑𝑥
2
𝟏 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐𝒙
= 𝒆 +𝒄
𝟐