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and the

Ant Algorithm

1

REAL ANT BEHAVIOR

2

REAL ANT BEHAVIOR

operational methods to solve real-life complex problems

By observing ant behavior, scientists have begun to understand

their means of communication

Ant-based behavioral patterns to address combinatorial

problems - first proposed by Marco Dorigo

traveling from the nest to food,

and vice versa in order to

communicate with one another to

find the shortest path

3

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ANTS

The more ants follow a trail, the more attractive that trail

becomes for being followed

NEST FOOD

4

ANT Behavior

The more ants follow a trail, the more attractive that trail

becomes for being followed

5

ANT Behavior

Even when the tracks are equal the behavior will encourage one

over the other--convergence (Deneubourg et al)

6

ROUTE SELECTION

Ants are forced to decide whether they should go left or right, and

the choice that is made is a random decision

Pheromone accumulation is faster on the shorter path

The difference in pheromone content between the two paths over

time makes the ants choose the shorter path

Positive feedback mechanism to arrive at the shortest route while

foraging

Stygmergy or stigmergetic model of communication

Different optimization problems have been explored using a

simulation of this real ant behavior

7

TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

8

PROBLEM DEFINITION

OBJECTIVE

Salesman Problem requires a salesman

to find the shortest route between the

given cities and return to the starting

city, while keeping in mind that each city

can be visited only once

9

WHY IS TSP DIFFICULT TO SOLVE?

Finding the best solution may entail an exhaustive search for all

combinations of cities. This can be prohibitive as “n” gets very

large

Heuristics like a “greedy” route doesn’t guarantee optimal

solutions

a d a d

e e

b f g b f g

c c

h h

10

TSP Applications

• Routing such as in trucking, delivery, UAVs

• Manufacturing routing such as movement of parts along

manufacturing floor or the amount of solder on circuit board

• Network design such as determining the amount of cabling required

• Two main types

– Symmetric

– Asymmetric

11

General Formulation - Symmetric

∑ ∑ d x

ij

ij

åå

x j

,

i+ x

i j>i

i,

j ³ 2 "

i

å

i åå

ÎSj

Ïx

>S

j

i

,

j

<i j

+

j

i i

å

ÏSj

Î

>i

x

>S

ji

i,j³ 2 "

S'

S³3

xi,jÎB+

Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering

12

∑ ∑

General Formulation - Asymmetric

d x

ij

ij

å xj

,

i =

i j≠i

1 "i

å

j

xi

,

j =1 "i

å

iå

ÎÏx

SjS

i

i

,³

j1

xi,jÎB+

"S 'S

³2

Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering

13

TSP Heuristics

• The TSP is not only theoretically difficult it is also difficult in practical

application since the tour breaking contraints get quite numerous

• As a result there have been a variety of methods proposed for the TSP

• Nearest Neighbor is a typical greedy approach

14

Simple Examples

4 1 3

2 2

6 9 6

2 2

5 2 7 2 8 2 2

1 2 2 1

6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

6 1 Chicago 96 105 50 41 86 46 29 56 70

2 Dallas 78 49 94 21 64 63 41 37

3 Denver 60 84 61 54 86 76 51

4 KC 45 35 20 26 17 18

5 Minn 80 36 55 59 64

6 OK City 46 50 28 8

7 Omaha 45 37 30

8 St Louis 21 45

9 Sprngfld 25

10 Wichita

15

Nearest Neighbor Solution

Iteration Node Arc Cost Total

1 1

2 8 1,8 29

3 9 8,9 21 50

4 4 9,4 17 67

5 10 4,10 18 85

6 6 10,6 8 93

7 2 6,2 21 114

8 7 2,7 64 178

9 5 7,5 36 214

10 3 5,3 84 298

11 3,1 105 403

16

Larger TSP Example

500

450

400

350

Obj Fx:

min d

300

Way Point

250

Depot

200

150

100

50

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering

17

Initial Order Solution

500

450

400

d=3138

350

300

Way Point

250

Depot

200

150

100

50

0

0 Department

50 100 of Biomedical,

150 200 Industrial

250 and

300 Human

350 Factors

400 Engineering

450 500

18

Nearest Neighbor Solution

500

450

400

d=2108

350

300

Way Point

250

Depot

200

150

100

50

0

0 Department

50 100 of Biomedical,

150 200 Industrial

250 and

300 Human

350 Factors

400 Engineering

450 500

19

Tabu Search Solution

500

450

400

d=1830

350

300

Way Point

250

Depot

200

150

100

50

0

0 Department

50 100 of Biomedical,

150 200 Industrial

250 and

300 Human

350 Factors

400 Engineering

450 500

20

THE ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION

METAHEURISTIC

21

GOAL OF ACO HEURISTIC

functions as observed in the real ant system

Exploit stigmergistic communication

group of artificial ants to obtain a good solution to a

discrete optimization problem such as the TSP

The resulting shortest route mapping determined by the agents

can be applied to the optimization problem

22

ACO CHARACTERISTICS

Demonstrate a distributed computational architecture

Exploit a global data structure that changes dynamically as

each ant transverses the route

Has an element of distributed computation to it involving the

population of ants

Involves probabilistic transitions among states or rather

between nodes

23

REAL vs. ARTIFICIAL ANTS

• Memory Allocation

• Quality of Solution

• Time of Pheromone

deposition

• Distance Estimation

24

FLOWCHART OF ACO

START ACO

in cities across the NO maximum YES

grid and store the Iterations been

current city performed

in a tabu list

Determine probabilistically NO STOP

tour till now and

as to which city to visit next update pheromone ACO

Record the length of

place this city in the cities been

tour and clear tabu list

tabu list visited

25

KEY PARAMETERS

the pheromone on the trail segment, (ij)

Trail visibility is ηij = 1/dij

The importance of the intensity in the probabilistic transition is α

The importance of the visibility of the trail segment is β

The trail persistence or evaporation rate is given as ρ

Q is a constant and the amount of peromone laid on a trail

segment employed by an Ant; this amount may be modified in

various manners

26

PROBABILISTIC CITY SELECTION

Helps determine the city to visit next while the ant is in a tour

Determined by variables such as the pheromone content in an

edge (i,j) at time instant t, heuristic function of the desirability of

adding edge, and their control parameters

[ ][ ]

ì t ij (t ) a h ij b

ïï

p ij (t ) = í å [t il (t )] [h il ] if j Î J k (i )

k a b

ï lÎ J k (i )

ïî 0 f j Ï J k (i )

27

PHEROMONE UPDATING

Using the tour length for the k-th Ant, Lk, the quantity of

pheromone added to each edge belonging to the completed tour is

given by

ì Q where edge (i, j ) Î Tk (t )

ï

Dt ijk (t ) = í Lk

ïî 0 if edge (i, j ) Ï Tk (t )

τ ij (t + 1) = (1 − ρ )τ ij (t ) + ∆τ ij (t )

28

ACTUALLY 3 ALGORITHMS

Information is updated at the end of each tour as such function

of tour length

The ant-density is an approach wherein the pheromone quantity Q

is deposited once the segment is transversed

Pretty much a greedy approach (local information) and not

really providing relative information

The ant-quantity is an approach wherein the pheromone quantity

Q/dij is deposited once the segment is transversed

Also a greedy approach but providing some relative information

by scaling Q by the length of the segment

29

Consider the Case Studies in Papers

30

EXTENSIONS

Found that communication among the ants via the intensity factor

is important; makes sense since it provides some global insight

Found that a good number of ants is about equal to the number of

cities

Found that the initial distribution of the ants among the cities does

not really matter

Found that an elitist strategy in which the segments on the best

solution(s) is(are) continually reinforced work well so long as there

were not too few or too many elitist solutions

31

APPLICATIONS

32

APPLICATIONS

33

Population-Based Incremental Learning

Actually inspired by genetic algorithms

Generate members of a population randomly based on

probability of selection functions that are increased or

decreased based on the quality of past solutions involving the

member variables

Once a population is generated, evaluate and then increase or

lower the probability used by the generating vector to

encourage better solutions.

34

Population-Based Incremental Learning

Benefits

Will converge to solutions under correct circumstances

Efficient in terms of storage

Computationally pretty cheap

Involves learning

Disadvantages

Keeps primarily a local focus

Cannot handle interdependence among parameters very

well

Will need to involve penalty functions for constraints

35

Population-Based Incremental Learning

and Punch

Combine reinforcement with population generation

36

QUESTIONS??

37

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