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AtKins Chapter 1

CHM155
Ideal Gas Equation (IGE)

PV=nRT
Atkins 1.4a
Van Der Waals equation

𝑅𝑇 𝑎
𝑃= −
𝑉𝑚 − 𝑏 𝑉𝑚2
aTkINS 1.1a
Problem 1.7
Quiz 1
Benzene is a rotten ideal gas. Its van der Waals parameters are a=18.24
atm.L2/mol2 and b=0.1154 L/mol. Find its molar volume at 100 degrees C at
1 atm. Express in 3 decimal places. (2 min)
Boyle’s Law

PV = K
Atkins 1.2a
Atkins 1.5a
Pressure-temperature Law

𝑃
=K
𝑇
Atkins 1.3a
manometer
Atkins 1.6a
Atkins Problem 1.1
Atkins 1.7a
Density of a gas, ρ

𝑃𝑀
ρ=
𝑅𝑇
Atkins 1.11a
Atkins 1.8a
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

𝑃𝑡 = 𝑃𝑎 + 𝑃𝑏 + 𝑃𝑐 …
Mole fraction, x
𝑛𝑎
X𝑎=
𝑛𝑡
Mole fraction and partial pressure

𝑃𝑎
Xa =
𝑃𝑡
Atkins 1.18a
Average molar mass, Mave

Mave = MaXa + MbXb


Average Molar Mass of gases

• Air is approximately 21 mole % oxygen and 79 mole


percent nitrogen. What is average molar mass of air?
Atkins 1.10a
Atkins 1.12a
Compression factor, Z

𝑃𝑉𝑚
𝑍=
𝑅𝑇
If Z= 1 → ideal gas
If Z>1 → Vm > Vmideal → repulsive forces
dominate
Atkins 1.15a
EUREKA!
(Balloon Load Calculation)
𝑊𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 =𝑊𝑎𝑖𝑟 - 𝑊𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑛

V of sphere =4/3 П𝑟3


Seat work

Calculate the minimum radius of a spherical


hydrogen toy balloon that would lift a
“hotwheels” car weighing 100 g.
10 miles 0.2 atm

4 miles 0.5 atm

Sea level 1 atm

36
“Barometric formula derived from Boltzmann
Distribution”
𝑀𝑔𝑍

𝑃= 𝑃𝑜 𝑒 𝑅𝑇
Problem 1.27 Atkins 9th ed.
Seat work 2

• Estimate the atmospheric pressure in Baguio city where


the elevation is 1400 meters above sea level. Assume that
the atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.0 atm and the
temperature is constant at 25⁰C.
Problem 1.31
Isotherms
Critical point and Condensation
Critical temperature/ saddle point
Problem 1.17
PROBLEM 1.21
Atkins 1.19a
Atkins 1.22a
The Corresponding State
Theory

𝑃
𝑃𝑟 =
𝑃𝑐
𝑇
𝑇𝑟 =
𝑇𝑐
𝑉𝑚
𝑉𝑟 =
𝑉𝑐
Atkins 1.21a
Virial Equation of State
Maclaurin series
Problem 1.15
Boyle Temperature, TB
• Definition: Temperature when B = 0.
• where B is the second virial coefficient of the virial equation of state.
• Z is approximately equal to 1, Thus a real gas behave like an ideal gas.
• Practical Significance: There is a wider range of pressure near Boyle temperature
that gases behave like an ideal gas.
• For a van der Waal’s gas
𝑎 𝑎
• B = 0 = b - 𝑅𝑇 ; TB = 𝑏𝑅
𝐵
Exercise 1.20a
Graham’s Law of Diffusion

At constant temperature and pressure the rate of diffusion


of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its
molecular/atomic mass.
Kinetic Molecular Theory

3𝑅𝑇
𝑣=
𝑀
Old board

• At what temperature will the velocity of CO2 molecules


equal the velocity of oxygen molecules at 0⁰C.
• A. 102⁰C
• B. 632⁰C
• C. 132⁰C
• D. 125⁰C