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Patterns and symbols used in geological figures

Dip – strike symbols used for strata

Block diagram above; map below. (A) Inclined strata, (B) Horizontal
strata, (C) Vertical strata
Resolution of forces in
three dimensions
The mutual action & reaction along a surface constitutes a stress

 The normal component is a tensile stress if it tends to pull apart the material
on opposite sides of the plane (A)
 The normal component is a compressive stress, if it tends to push together
the material on opposite sides of a plane (B)
 The tangential component is generally called a shearing stress or shear

Torsion. A rod (A) or a plate (B) is


subjected to torsion when the ends
are twisted in opposite directions
Strain is the deformation caused by stress, and could be
dilation (change in volume), distortion (change in form) or
both

 At first deformation is elastic

 If the stress exceeds the elastic limit, the deformation is plastic

 With continued increase in stress, one or more fracture develop, &


the material fails by rupture

Brittle substances rupture before significant plastic deformation;


Ductile substances undergo a large plastic deformation before rupture

Mechanical behaviour of rock is controlled by:


(a) mineralogy, grain size, porosity, fractures, etc.
(b) confining pressure, temperature, time, solutions, etc.
Ideal Creep curve. (A) Instantaneous deformation.
(B, C & D) Primary, Secondary & Tertiary creep. S Effect of solutions on deformation of alabaster
is the total strain; t is time
Schematics showing how fracture volume may be dependant on litho-tectonic
position and how the nature of internal deformation influences fracture
potential in a fold (Mitra, 1988)
Folds
Cross section of the Masjid-I-Sulaiman Oil-field, Iran. This is
asymmetrical anticline of Asmari limestone in the foothill area
of Iran. Height of the oil column ~ 2200'. Porosity in the non
productive section <5% & permeability 1mD. Porosity in the
pay zone 9 – 14% & permeability 10 –20 mD. ‘Pay’ ranges
between 25 – 75% of the Asmari thickness. Cap-rock – very
compact nodular anhydrite.
Parts of a fold
• Hinge of a fold is the line
of maximum curvature of
a folded bed
• Axial plane is the surface
connecting all the hinges
• Axis is a line parallel to
the hinges
• Sides of a fold are called
the limbs or flanks
• An antiform is a fold that
is convex upward
• A synform is a fold that is
concave upward
Parts of a fold

AP – axial plane; a′b – limb of a fold; c – crest on


one bed; c′ – crest on another bed; cc′ – crestal
plane; t – trough on one bed; t′ – trough on
another bed; tt′ – trough plane
Folds with different attitudes

• Hinges horizontal ( A,D,E);


vertical (C); inclined (B,F)
• Attitude of the axial plane is
defined by its strike & dip
• Figs. A,B,C: Axial plane strikes
N & has a vertical dip
• Fig. D: Strike – north, dip – 45°
towards west
• Fig. F: Strike – north, dip – 45°
towards west
• Fig. E: Axial plane horizontal
Nomenclature of folds
Some varieties of anticlines. AP: axial plane
Anticline: A fold that is convex upward having older rocks in the core
Some varieties of synclines. AP: axial plane
Syncline: A fold that is concave upward having younger rocks in the core
(A) Symmetrical (upright) (B) Asymmetrical (C) Overturned (D) Recumbent folds
Dip-strike symbol for overturned strata (A) Block diagram (B) Map

Recumbent anticline with names of various parts


Isoclinal folds. AP, Axial planes. (A) Vertical isoclinal (B) Inclined isoclinal (C)
Recumbent isoclinal folds

Chevron fold Box fold


Fan fold Kink bands

Monoclinal Structural terrace


Open folds Closed folds

Drag folds resulting from shearing of beds past each other


Style of a Fold
(Style of a Folded layer, Ramsay’s Classification)
• The style of a folded layer is determined by comparing fold styles of two
surfaces of the layer using three parameters:
– 1) Dip isogon,
– 2) Orthogonal thickness, and
– 3) Axial trace thickness
Dip Isogons
• Lines joining points of equal dip (normal to tangents)
• Drawn at different  angles (at 10o intervals)
• Isogons can be parallel, converging, or diverging
– The sense is from the outer arc to the inner arc

• Parallel isogons:
– The average inner and outer curvatures are equal
• Converging isogons:
– Inner arc curvature exceeds that of outer arc
• Divergent isogons:
– Outer arc curvature exceeds that of the inner arc.

Fold Classes
Class Isogon Subclass Isogon
1 Convergent 1A Strongly convergent
1B - Parallel fold Normal to layers
1C Weakly convergent
2 Parallel Similar fold
3 Divergent
Dip isogons Twiss and Moores, 1992
Orthogonal Thickness
• Class 1A folds – Orthogonal thickness increases from hinge to limb
• Class 1B folds – Orthogonal thickness is constant from hinge to limb
• Class 1C folds – Orthogonal thickness decreases from hinge to limb
• Class 2 & Class 3 – Orthogonal thickness also decreases from hinge to
limb

Axial Trace Thickness


• From hinge to limb, that is with increasing , the axial trace thickness:
– increases in class 1 folds,
– constant in class 2 folds, and
– decreases in class 3 folds.
Similar folding Parallel folding

Folds in the Ferden Rothorn and Balmhorn, switzerland. Jp, Pliensbachian limestone;
Jd, Domerian quartzite; Jt, Toarcian formation; Ja, Aalenian shale; Jdo, Dogger shale;
Jc, Callovian shale; Jm, Malm limestone
Disharmonic folding in the Jura Mountains.
The lowest formation (Paleozoic crystalline rocks), with nearly vertical structure.
Directly above it is a thin bed of flat-lying quartzite. The lower formation is
incompetent & consists of anhydrite, shale, and salt. The higher beds are
Triassic, Jurassic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks.

Minor folds. Interbeded impure marbles and


Geological map of an nonplunging
quartzofeldspathic schists of Lower Paleozoic Age.
fold (syncline) Godostraumen, Saltfjord, Northern Norway.
Plunging folds. Plunge is ~10° to the
west. One bed is shown by open circles;
the part of this bed that has been
removed by erosion is shown by lining

Geological map of an anticline Geological map of an syncline


plunging east plunging east
Maps of plunging folds. (A) Doubly plunging anticline. (B) Doubly plunging
syncline. (C) Dome. (D) Basin
Refolded fold. Axial surface (plane) of the 1st generation
fold has been folded. Loch Hourn, Scotland

Antiform and synform.


(a) antiform; (b) synform
Joints
• Most rocks are broken by relatively smooth fractures known as joints. The
length and the distance between the joint planes may measure from mm to
m scale.
• While most joints are planes, some are curved.
• Most joints, at least initially, are tight fractures.
• Most joints are smooth.
• Knowledge of joint is important in many kinds of geological studies.
• The orientation and concentration of joints is very significant in
engineering projects.
• Wells drilled in rocks for fluid will be more productive in highly jointed
rocks.
• Joints may have any attitude – vertical/horizontal/inclined.
• The strike and dip of joints are measured in the same way as for bedding.
• Joints may be classified either geometrically or genetically.
• In geometric classification, the joints are classified on the basis of their
attitude relative to the bedding
• Strike joint: strike parallel or essentially parallel to the strike of the
bedding/schistosity/gneissosity of the rock
• Dip joints: strike parallel or essentially parallel to the dip direction of the
bedding/schistosity/gneissosity of the rock
• A: Dip joint (D), Strike joint (S),
Diagonal joint (Di), Bedding joint (B)

• B: Columnar joints, the arrowheads


show the three sets of forces
responsible for the development of
the hexagonal columns

Diagonal joints: strike in between the strike and dip direction of the
bedding/schistosity/gneissosity of the rock

Bedding joints: joints parallel to the bedding of the associated


sedimentary rocks.

Characteristically a large number of joints are parallel.


A joint set consists of a group of more or less parallel joints.
A joint system consists of two or more joint sets.
Faults
• In wide contrast with joints, faults are well defined cracks
along which the rock-masses on either side suffer relative
displacements.

• This displacement may occur in any direction due either to


translatory or rotational movement of the fractured blocks
and its magnitude may vary between wide limits.

• The attitude of the fault planes can be defined in terms of


their dip & strike
Joints and Faults

A: A joint (J) & a fault (F), both of them are vertical


B: An inclined fault (F), dipping 60° towards east. The head of
the fault (h) is 30°
Sketches of two types of fault seals (Watts, 1987);
(a) Sealing fault, (b) juxtaposition fault seal
Different kinds of relative displacements due to faulting.
A: Dip fault, B: Oblique fault, C: Hinge fault, D: Strike fault
Vertical Faults. A: The plane (F) along which faulting has occurred; B: The
eastern block has been downthrown; C: The western block has been downthrown

Inclined Faults. A: The plane FFF, along which faulting occurred HW – hanging
wall; FW – Foot wall; B: Hanging wall side (HW) is downthrown; C: Foot wall side
(FW) is downthrown
A: Normal fault; B: Reverse fault

Apparent displacement of the beds due to faulting; A: Net slip (PQ) is


equal to the apparent displacement of the beds (RS); B: Net slip is PQ,
however, no apparent displacement of the beds is observed
A: Net slip PQ = Apparent displacement of the beds (RS). RO –
Heave; OS – Throw. B: Net slip PQ ≠ Apparent displacement of the
beds (RS) along a vertical plane running parallel to the direction of
dip of the fault.

A: Reverse fault; B: Normal fault; S – Stratigraphic throw. The beds


have been repeated due to faulting in either of the blocks
Dip Faults. A: Inclined dip fault; B: Vertical dip fault

Bedding fault: Fault oriented essentially parallel to


the bedding planes of the rocks forming the country
(a special case of strike fault)
A: Parallel fault – A series of faults having same dip
and strike. B: Step fault

Horsts and Grabens. H – Horsts; G – Grabens. Numbers 1 to 5


are five beds affected due to faulting
A: Radial faults, radiating outwards from the point R; B: Arcuate/
peripheral faults – curved faults of more or less circular or arc-
like outcrop, on a level surface

A & B are two cases of thrusts. TTT – The planes along


which the thrusts have occurred
Faults

A: Rift fault – strike of the fault is parallel to


that of the country rock, with displacement
only along the strike of the fault plane
B: Tear fault – strikes transverse to the strike
of the country rocks. Displacement only
along the strike of the fault plane.
Conformity of Beds

Conformable beds, which have been


folded. A to E are the five beds involved
Unconformity
Unconformable relationships
between two series of rock beds.

• A: Disconformity occurs along the


rough surface (uu)

• B & C: Angular unconformity


Nonconformity: Older igneous formation has been separated
from the younger sedimentary formation along the rough
surface uu
Overlap: The bed A has overlapped with bed B
Recognition of structures

A, B, and C are three horizontal beds. They occur at the


same altitude in all the hillocks shown in the block
• A: Beds A, B, &C with their
dips

• B: Section of the map


along XY. Folds have duly
been reconstructed from
the data available from the
map
• A: Beds with their dips in
the map

• B: Section of the map


along the line XY. The fault
has duly been
reconstructed from the
data available from the
map
• A: beds with their dips in
the map

• B: Section of the map


along XY. Faults have duly
been reconstructed from
the available data
A normal fault with the fault scrap (S).
Thanks !